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Farhad Jahanfar, Akbar Hasani, Dariush Shanebandi, Mohammad Rahmati, Hamed Hamishehkar
Purpose: In this study the effectiveness of encapsulating of 5-azacytidine into the lipid nanoparticles was investigated and in vitro effect of encapsulated 5-azacytidine studied on MCF-7 cell lines Methods: 5-azacytidine -loaded solid lipid nanoparticles were produced by double emulsification (w/o/w) method by using stearic acid as lipid matrix, soy lecithin and poloxamer 407 as surfactant and co-surfactant respectively. Particle size, zeta potential, surface morphology, entrapment efficiency and kinetic of drug release were studied...
September 2016: Advanced Pharmaceutical Bulletin
Sheldon Greer, Tieran Han, Cristina Dieguez, Nicola McLean, Rafael Saer, Isildinha Reis, Joe Levi, Victor E Marquez
Enzymatic activity from tumor and adjacent normal tissue of 200 patients involving deoxycytidine kinase (dCK), uridine/cytidine kinase (U/CK), cytidine deaminase (CD) and deoxycytidylate deaminase (dCMPD) was quantified. . Patients with brain (17), colon (24), and breast (30) tumors, 53, 67, and 73%, respectively, had an elevated T/N value (Specific Activity of tumor/ Specific Activity of normal tissue) involving dCK and dCMPD suggesting chemo therapy with 5-fluorodeoxycytidine (5-FdC) alone or in combination with thymidine plus deoxytetrahydrouridine, or with the radiosensitizer, 5-chlorodeoxycytidine (5-CldC) plus tetrahydrouridine (H4U)...
October 13, 2016: Anti-cancer Agents in Medicinal Chemistry
M T Nuo, J L Yuan, W L Yang, X Y Gao, N He, H Liang, M Cang, D J Liu
Transgene silencing, which is common in transgenic plants and animals, limits the generation and application of genetically modified organisms, and is associated with the exogenous gene copy number, the methylation status of its promoters, and histone modification abnormalities. Here, we analyzed the expression of the exogenous gene DsRed and the methylation status of its cytomegalovirus (CMV) promoter in six healthy transgenic cashmere goats and transgenic nuclear donor cells. The CMV promoter exhibited high methylation levels (74...
August 29, 2016: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
Mingming Ren, Tao Wang, Lei Huang, Xiaoqiang Ye, Zhifeng Xv, Chun Ouyang, Zhen Han
AIM: Accumulating evidence showed that transient receptor potential channels play an important role in the regulation of cardiomyocyte differentiation. The vanilloid receptor 1 (VR1) is a member of the transient receptor channel super family and is expressed in cardiomyocytes. However, its function in cardiomyocytes remains unclear. METHODS: Herein, the aim of this study was to investigate the functional role of VR1 in the cardiomyocyte differentiation of bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs), and to elucidate the potential molecular mechanisms...
September 23, 2016: Cardiovascular Therapeutics
Abhishek Maiti, Jorge E Cortes, Yolanda D Brown, Hagop M Kantarjian
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 23, 2016: Leukemia & Lymphoma
Maciej Tarnowski, Michał Czerewaty, Anna Deskur, Krzysztof Safranow, Wojciech Marlicz, Elżbieta Urasińska, Mariusz Z Ratajczak, Teresa Starzyńska
Background. While cancer/testis antigens (CTAs) are restricted in postnatal tissues to testes and germ line-derived cells, their role in cancer development and the clinical significance of their expression still remain to be better defined. Objective. The aim of this study was to investigate the level of CTA expression in colon samples from patients with colorectal cancer (CRC) in relation to patient clinical status. Methods. Forty-five patients with newly diagnosed colorectal cancer were included in the study...
2016: Disease Markers
Alejandra Pilar Rendina González, Jindřich Chrtek, Petre I Dobrev, Veronika Dumalasová, Judith Fehrer, Patrik Mráz, Vít Latzel
PREMISE OF THE STUDY: The phenotype of an individual can be modified by the environment experienced by its predecessors, a phenomenon called transgenerational or maternal effects. These effects are studied mostly across sexual generations and are thought to be mediated also by epigenetic variation. However, we do not know how important transgenerational effects are across asexual generations of clonal plants. METHODS: We investigated the role of different drought intensities and durations experienced by parental plants of Trifolium repens on the growth of offspring ramets after transplantation of clonal cuttings to control conditions...
September 2016: American Journal of Botany
Oriella Andresini, Agnese Ciotti, Marianna N Rossi, Cecilia Battistelli, Mariarosaria Carbone, Rossella Maione
The cdk inhibitor p57(kip2), encoded by the Cdkn1c gene, plays a critical role in mammalian development and in the differentiation of several tissues. Cdkn1c protein levels are carefully regulated via imprinting and other epigenetic mechanisms affecting both the promoter and distant regulatory elements, which restrict its expression to particular developmental phases or specific cell types. Inappropriate activation of these regulatory mechanisms leads to Cdkn1c silencing, causing growth disorders and cancer...
September 9, 2016: Epigenetics: Official Journal of the DNA Methylation Society
Hongbin Liu, Phillip Pattie, Sahan Chandrasekara, Andrew Spencer, Anthony E Dear
Epigenetic regulation of microRNA (miRNA) expression has recently been implicated in the pathogenesis of myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS). Particular interest has focused on miRNA-124 expression, which is inhibited in MDS and has recently been demonstrated to be upregulated in response to epigenetic treatment (EGT). Previous studies have determined the in vitro and in vivo expression of miRNA-124 and several molecular targets, including cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) 4, CDK6 and enhancer of zeste homolog 2 (EZH2), in order to elucidate the molecular mechanisms associated with the miRNA-124-mediated therapeutic response to EGT in MDS and identify additional potential biomarkers of early EGT treatment response in myeloid malignancies...
September 2016: Oncology Letters
Shivakumar Subbanna, Nagaraja N Nagre, Madhu Shivakumar, Balapal S Basavarajappa
The present study was undertaken to evaluate the immediate and long-term effects of a single-day exposure to 5-Azacytidine (5-AzaC), a DNA methyltransferase inhibitor, on neurobehavioral abnormalities in mice. Our findings suggest that the 5-AzaC treatment significantly inhibited DNA methylation, impaired extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2) activation and reduced expression of the activity-regulated cytoskeleton-associated protein (Arc). These events lead to the activation of caspase-3 (a marker for neurodegeneration) in several brain regions, including the hippocampus and cortex, two brain areas that are essential for memory formation and memory storage, respectively...
September 1, 2016: Physiology & Behavior
O A Romero, S Verdura, M Torres-Diz, A Gomez, S Moran, E Condom, M Esteller, A Villanueva, M Sanchez-Cespedes
Components of the SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex, including BRG1 (also SMARCA4), are inactivated in cancer. Among other functions, SWI/SNF orchestrates the response to retinoid acid (RA) and glucocorticoids (GC) involving downregulation of MYC. The epigenetic drugs SAHA and azacytidine, as well as RA and GC, are currently being used to treat some malignancies but their therapeutic potential in lung cancer is not well established. Here we aimed to determine the possible therapeutic effects of azacytidine and SAHA (A/S) alone or in combination with GC plus RA (GC/RA) in lung cancers with either BRG1 inactivation or MYC amplification...
September 5, 2016: Oncogene
David C Volz, Jessica K Leet, Albert Chen, Heather M Stapleton, Neerja Katiyar, Rakesh Kaundal, Yang Yu, Yinsheng Wang
Tris(1,3-dichloro-2-propyl)phosphate (TDCIPP) is a high-production volume organophosphate-based plasticizer and flame retardant widely used within the United States. Using zebrafish as a model, the objectives of this study were to determine whether (1) TDCIPP inhibits DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) within embryonic nuclear extracts; (2) uptake of TDCIPP from 0.75 h postfertilization (hpf, 2-cell) to 2 hpf (64-cell) or 6 hpf (shield stage) leads to impacts on the early embryonic DNA methylome; and (3) TDCIPP-induced impacts on cytosine methylation are localized to CpG islands within intergenic regions...
September 20, 2016: Environmental Science & Technology
Seon-Mi Yu, Song Ja Kim
Abnormal methylation of promoter CpG islands is one of the hallmarks of cancer cells, and is catalyzed by DNA methyltransferases. 5-azacytidine (5-aza C), a methyltransferase inhibitor, can cause demethylation of promoter regions of diverse genes. Epigenetic processes contribute to the regulation of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) expression. However, little is known about the mechanisms and effects of 5-aza C on the invasive and migratory capacities of human fibrosarcoma HT1080 cells. In the present study, we found that 5-aza C induces MMP-9 activity, as determined by zymography...
September 2016: International Journal of Oncology
A P Tyunin, N V Ageenko, K V Kiselev
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the role of cytosine methylation in regulation of polyketide compounds biosynthesis in larvae of Strongylocentrotus intermedius. RESULTS: Treatment of S. intermedius larvae with 100 and 200 µM 5-azacytidine (5A) as a DNA demethylating agent significantly increased the amounts of spinochrome D and spinochrome E, as the number of pigmented cells per studied larva, in a dose-depended manner. The data on SiPks gene expression showed enhancement in 16- and 67-fold in S...
August 26, 2016: Biotechnology Letters
Ying Chen, Chunxia Wang, Qiang Huang, Dan Wu, Jianing Cao, Xin Xu, Chengjian Yang, Xun Li
OBJECTIVES: Accumulating evidence has demonstrated that bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) may transdifferentiate into cardiomyocytes, making BMSCs a promising source of cardiomyocytes for transplantation. However, little is known about the molecular mechanisms underlying myogenic conversion of BMSCs. METHODS: This study was designed to investigate the functional role of caveolin-1 in the cardiomyocyte differentiation of BMSCs and to explore the potential underlying molecular mechanisms...
August 24, 2016: Cardiology
N E Scholpa, R T Kolli, M Moore, R D Arnold, T C Glenn, B S Cummings
This study determined the anti-neoplastic activity and nephrotoxicity of epigenetic inhibitors in vitro. The therapeutic efficacy of epigenetic inhibitors was determined in human prostate cancer cells (PC-3 and LNCaP) using the DNA methyltransferase inhibitor 5-aza-2'-deoxycytidine (5-Aza) and the histone deacetylase inhibitor trichostatin A (TSA). Cells were also treated with carbamazepine (CBZ), an anti-convulsant with histone deacetylase inhibitor-like properties. 5-Aza, TSA or CBZ alone did not decrease MTT staining in PC-3 or LNCaP cells after 48 h...
October 25, 2016: Chemico-biological Interactions
Yang Zhou, Zhengqing Hu
The DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) inhibitor 5-azacytidine (5-aza) causes genomic demethylation to regulate gene expression. However, it remains unclear whether 5-aza affects gene expression and cell fate determination of stem cells. In this study, 5-aza was applied to mouse utricle sensory epithelia-derived progenitor cells (MUCs) to investigate whether 5-aza stimulated MUCs to become sensory hair cells. After treatment, MUCs increased expression of hair cell genes and proteins. The DNA methylation level (indicated by percentage of 5-methylcytosine) showed a 28...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
Wenli Li, Dan Wu, Ziyu Niu, Dalei Jiang, Huan Ma, Heming He, Xiuli Zuo, Xiangjun Xie, Yuanlong He
5-Azacytidine is a well-known anticancer drug that is clinically used in the treatment of breast cancer, melanoma and colon cancer. It has been reported that 5-azacytidine suppresses the biological behavior of esophageal cancer cells. However, corresponding mechanisms remain unclear. In this study, using Transwell invasion and cell proliferation assays, we demonstrated that 5-azacytidine significantly inhibited the metastasis and proliferation of EC9706 cells, and upregulated the expression of cadherin 1 (CDH1) and SRY-box containing gene 17 (SOX17)...
October 2016: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
Stephanie M Matt, Marcus A Lawson, Rodney W Johnson
In aged mice, peripheral stimulation of the innate immune system with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) causes exaggerated neuroinflammation and prolonged sickness behavior due in part to microglial dysfunction. Epigenetic changes to DNA may play a role in microglial dysfunction; therefore, we sought to determine whether aged microglia displayed DNA hypomethylation of the interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) promoter and altered expression of epigenetic regulators. We further examined whether the demethylating agent 5-azacytidine induced IL-1β expression in BV2 and primary microglia similar to microglia from aged mice...
July 15, 2016: Neurobiology of Aging
Masashi Kuroda, Ayako Tominaga, Kasumi Nakagawa, Misa Nishiguchi, Mayu Sebe, Yumiko Miyatake, Tadahiro Kitamura, Rie Tsutsumi, Nagakatsu Harada, Yutaka Nakaya, Hiroshi Sakaue
Leptin is a key regulator of energy intake and expenditure. This peptide hormone is expressed in mouse white adipose tissue, but hardly expressed in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Using bisulfite sequencing, we found that CpG islands in the leptin promoter are highly methylated in 3T3-L1cells. 5-azacytidine, an inhibitor of DNA methyltransferase, markedly increased leptin expression as pre-adipocytes matured into adipocytes. Remarkably, leptin expression was stimulated by insulin in adipocytes derived from precursor cells exposed to 5-azacytidine, but suppressed by thiazolidinedione and dexamethasone...
2016: PloS One
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