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M M Chen, Y Tan, Z Z Tang, M Lin, K J Zhou, W T He, Y P Yang, J Wang
Objective: To understand the epidemiological characteristics and viral sources of dengue fever outbreak in Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region (Guangxi) in 2014. Methods: A combined analysis of epidemiological characteristics and genetic characteristics were performed in this study. The time, population and area distributions of the cases were analyzed. Serum samples were collected from dengue fever cases to detect NS1 antigen by using commercial ELISA kits according to the guideline of the manufacture. RT-PCR assay was conducted to detect dengue virus in NS1 positive samples...
October 10, 2016: Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Liuxingbingxue Zazhi
Florian Rouaud, Jean-Luc Boucher, Anny Slama-Schwok, Stéphane Rocchi
Melanoma is one of the most lethal cancers when it reaches a metastatic stage. Despite the spectacular achievements of targeted therapies (BRAF inhibitors) or immuno-therapies (anti-CTLA4 or anti-PD1), most patients with melanoma will need additional treatments. Here we used a photoactive NADPH analogue called NS1 to induce cell death by inhibition of NADPH oxidases NOX in melanoma cells, including melanoma cells isolated from patients. In contrast, healthy melanocytes growth was unaffected by NS1 treatment...
October 14, 2016: Oncotarget
Aitor Nogales, Kai Huang, Caroline Chauché, Marta L DeDiego, Pablo R Murcia, Colin R Parrish, Luis Martínez-Sobrido
Canine Influenza Virus (CIV) H3N8 is the causative agent of canine influenza, a common and contagious respiratory disease of dogs. Currently, only inactivated influenza vaccines (IIVs) are available for the prevention of CIV H3N8. However, live-attenuated influenza vaccines (LAIVs) are known to provide better immunogenicity and protection efficacy than IIVs. Influenza NS1 is a virulence factor that offers an attractive target for the preparation of attenuated viruses as LAIVs. Here we generated recombinant H3N8 CIVs containing truncated or a deleted NS1 protein to test their potential as LAIVs...
October 14, 2016: Virology
Bor-Show Tzang, Szu-Yi Chiang, Hsu-Chin Chan, Chung-Hsien Liu, Tsai-Ching Hsu
Human parvovirus B19 (B19) is harmful during pregnancy since it can be vertically transmitted to the developing fetus. In addition, the anti‑B19 antibodies induced by B19 infection are believed to have a cytopathic role in B19 transmission; however, knowledge regarding the effects of anti‑B19 antibodies during pregnancy is limited. To investigate the possible roles of anti‑B19 antibodies during pregnancy, the present study examined the effects of anti‑B19‑VP1 unique region (VP1u), anti‑B19‑VP2 and anti‑B19‑nonstructural protein 1 (NS1) immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies on BeWo trophoblasts...
September 26, 2016: Molecular Medicine Reports
Sean Ekins, John Liebler, Bruno J Neves, Warren G Lewis, Megan Coffee, Rachelle Bienstock, Christopher Southan, Carolina H Andrade
The Zika virus (ZIKV) is a flavivirus of the family Flaviviridae, which is similar to dengue virus, yellow fever and West Nile virus. Recent outbreaks in South America, Latin America, the Caribbean and in particular Brazil have led to concern for the spread of the disease and potential to cause Guillain-Barré syndrome and microcephaly. Although ZIKV has been known of for over 60 years there is very little in the way of knowledge of the virus with few publications and no crystal structures. No antivirals have been tested against it either in vitro or in vivo...
2016: F1000Research
Rapeephan R Maude, Aniruddha Ghose, Rasheda Samad, Hanna K de Jong, Masako Fukushima, Lalith Wijedoru, Mahtab Uddin Hassan, Md Amir Hossain, Md Rezaul Karim, Abdullah Abu Sayeed, Stannie van den Ende, Sujat Pal, A S M Zahed, Wahid Rahman, Rifat Karnain, Rezina Islam, Dung Thi Ngoc Tran, Tuyen Thanh Ha, Anh Hong Pham, James I Campbell, H Rogier van Doorn, Richard J Maude, Tom van der Poll, W Joost Wiersinga, Nicholas P J Day, Stephen Baker, Arjen M Dondorp, Christopher M Parry, Md Abul Faiz
BACKGROUND: Fever is a common cause of hospital admission in Bangladesh but causative agents, other than malaria, are not routinely investigated. Enteric fever is thought to be common. METHODS: Adults and children admitted to Chittagong Medical College Hospital with a temperature of ≥38.0 °C were investigated using a blood smear for malaria, a blood culture, real-time PCR to detect Salmonella Typhi, S. Paratyphi A and other pathogens in blood and CSF and an NS1 antigen dengue ELISA...
October 13, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
Aaron M Fleming, Yun Ding, Anton Alenko, Cynthia J Burrows
Zika virus has emerged as a global concern because neither a vaccine nor antiviral compounds targeting it exist. A structure for the positive-sense RNA genome has not been established, leading us to look for potential G-quadruplex sequences (PQS) in the genome. The analysis identified >60 PQSs in the Zika genome. To minimize the PQS population, conserved sequences in the Flaviviridae family were found by sequence alignment, identifying seven PQSs in the prM, E, NS1, NS3, and NS5 genes. Next, alignment of 78 Zika strain genomes identified a unique PQS near the end of the 3'-UTR...
October 14, 2016: ACS Infectious Diseases
Xuefeng Deng, Peng Xu, Wei Zou, Weiran Shen, Jianxin Peng, Kaiyu Liu, John F Engelhardt, Ziying Yan, Jianming Qiu
: Human bocavirus 1 (HBoV1), an emerging human pathogenic respiratory virus, is a member of the genus Bocaparvovirus of the Parvoviridae family. In human airway epithelia air-liquid interface (HAE-ALI) cultures, HBoV1 infection initiates a DNA damage response (DDR), activating all three phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase-related kinases (PI3KKs): ATM, ATR and DNA-PKcs. In this context, activation of PI3KKs is a requirement for amplification of the HBoV1 genome (PLoS Pathog., 2016; 12:e1005399), and HBoV1 replicates only in terminally differentiated, non-dividing cells...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Virology
Huey-Pin Tsai, You-Yuan Tsai, I-Ting Lin, Pin-Hwa Kuo, Kung-Chao Chang, Jung-Chin Chen, Wen-Chien Ko, Jen-Ren Wang
BACKGROUND: Accurate, rapid, and early diagnosis of dengue virus (DENV) infections is essential for optimal clinical care. Here, we evaluated the efficacy of the quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR)-LightMix dengue virus EC kit for DENV detection using samples from a dengue outbreak in Taiwan in 2015. METHODS: Sera from patients with suspected DENV infection were analyzed and compared using the LightMix kit, a Dengue NS1 Ag + Ab Combo kit for detection of NS1 antigen and DENV-specific IgM and IgG antibodies, and an "in-house" qualitative DENV-specific RT-PCR assay...
October 2016: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Anjaneya Ayanur, Karam Pal Singh, Susan Cherian, Vidya Singh, Sukdeb Nandi, Mani Saminathan, Khorajiya Jaynudin, Jeet SinghYadav, Rajendra Singh, Ashok Kumar Tiwari
Bluetongue (BT) is a non‑contagious arthropod‑borne viral disease of domestic and wild ruminants. It is endemic to India and clinical outbreaks of disease have been reported mainly in sheep, although BT is often asymptomatic in other ruminant species. In the present serological survey, a total of 576 serum samples, comprising of 416 cattle and 160 sheep, covering different agro‑climatic zones of Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh, and Karnataka states, were screened for the presence of Bluetongue virus (BTV) specific antibodies using competitive enzyme‑linked immunosorbent assay (c‑ELISA)...
September 30, 2016: Veterinaria Italiana
Chengliang Zhu, Guiqing Peng, Wei Yi, Hui Song, Fang Liu, Xinghui Liu
Influenza A virus (IAV) infection induces a strong immune response and regulates the expression of many host proteins. The collagen triple helix repeat containing 1 (CTHRC1) protein is a secreted protein that exhibits increased expression during the viral infection process. However, the regulatory function of IAV on CTHRC1 expression is obscure. In this study, we investigated the effect of IAV on CTHRC1 expression and its regulatory mechanism. A total of 106 serum specimens from healthy people and 80 serum specimens from patients infected with IAV were collected...
October 8, 2016: Scandinavian Journal of Immunology
Megan C Schwarz, Marion Sourisseau, Michael M Espino, Essanna S Gray, Matthew T Chambers, Domenico Tortorella, Matthew J Evans
The recent Zika virus (ZIKV) outbreak has been linked to severe pathogenesis. Here, we report the construction of a plasmid carrying a cytomegalovirus (CMV) promoter-expressed prototype 1947 Uganda MR766 ZIKV cDNA that can initiate infection following direct plasmid DNA transfection of mammalian cells. Incorporation of a synthetic intron in the nonstructural protein 1 (NS1) region of the ZIKV polyprotein reduced viral cDNA-associated toxicity in bacteria. High levels of infectious virus were produced following transfection of the plasmid bearing the wild-type MR766 ZIKV genome, but not one with a disruption to the viral nonstructural protein 5 (NS5) polymerase active site...
September 2016: MSphere
Davide Carta, Nicola Salvarese, Nicolò Morellato, Feng Gao, Wiebke Sihver, Hans Jurgen Pietzsch, Barbara Biondi, Paolo Ruzza, Fiorenzo Refosco, Debora Carpanese, Antonio Rosato, Cristina Bolzati
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of cyclization on the biological profile of a [(99m)Tc(N)(PNP3)]-labeled α-melanocyte stimulating hormone peptide analog. A lactam bridge-cyclized H-Cys-Ahx-βAla(3)-c[Lys(4)-Glu-His-D-Phe-Arg-Trp-Glu(10)]-Arg(11)-Pro-Val-NH2 (NAP-NS2) and the corresponding linear H-Cys-Ahx-βAla-Nle-Asp-His-D-Phe-Arg-Trp-Gly-NH2 (NAP-NS1) peptide were synthetized, characterized by ESI-MS spectroscopy and their melanocortin-1 receptor (MC1R) binding affinity was determined in B16/F10 melanoma cells...
August 31, 2016: Nuclear Medicine and Biology
Rak-Kyun Seong, Young-Ki Choi, Ok Sarah Shin
Melanoma differentiation associated gene-7 (mda-7)/interleukin- 24 (IL-24) is a secreted cytokine, which plays an essential role in tumor suppression. Although its role as a multifunctional protein affecting broad types of cancers is well described, functions of IL-24 in host defense against virus infection are yet to be determined. In this study, we explored the anti-viral effect of recombinant IL-24 treatment during influenza infection. Infection of human lung adenocarcinoma cells (A549) with the influenza A virus up-regulated IL-24 mRNA and protein expression in a time-dependent manner...
October 2016: Journal of Microbiology / the Microbiological Society of Korea
Yujiao Zhao, Lihua Li, Dehong Ma, Jia Luo, Zhiqiang Ma, Xiaodan Wang, Yue Pan, Junying Chen, Juemin Xi, Jiajia Yang, Lijuan Qiu, Chunhai Bai, Liming Jiang, Xiyun Shan, Qiangming Sun
A total of 1067 serum samples were collected from febrile patients in Xishuangbanna, Yunnan, 2015. Of these, 852 cases were confirmed to be dengue NS1-positive. 76 structural protein genes were sequenced through RT-PCR based on the viral RNAs extracted from serum samples. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that all strains were classified as cosmopolitan genotype of DENV-2. After comparing with the DENV-2SS, 173 base substitutions were found in 76 sequences, resulting in 43 nonsynonymous mutations, of which 22 mutations existed among all samples...
September 29, 2016: Scientific Reports
Rajesh Deshwal, Md Ishaque Qureshi, Raj Singh
OBJECTIVE: Dengue fever is one of the most common arboviral mediated outbreaks reported with increased prevalence year after year with considerable morbidity and mortality. This study was designed to assess the clinical and biochemical parameters of dengue fever patients. METHODS: Prospective observational study was undertaken among adult patients in a military hospital. Five hundred fiteen patients were studied and analysed. All patients who were NS1 antigen/IgM dengue positive were included in the study...
December 2015: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
Juliana Cecchetto, Flávio C B Fernandes, Rute Lopes, Paulo R Bueno
NS1 is a biomarker for different Flavivirus diseases such as dengue (DENV), zika (ZIKV) and chikungunya (CHIKV) and was herein selectively quantified by electrochemical capacitive sensing (an impedance-derived capacitance methodology wherein the redox probe is contained in the receptive layer) mainly aiming dengue diagnosis in phosphate buffer saline and blood serum environments (up to the neat level). The capacitive sensing was compared to traditional concurrent impedimetric approach (in which the redox probe is added in the biological solution) and other transient methods stated in the literature regarding figures of merit such as limit of detection, linear range, relative standard deviation and affinity constant...
August 30, 2016: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
Hao Zheng, Xuchen Zheng, Wu Tong, Fei Liu, Chao Liang, Tao Wang, Fei Gao, Liwei Li, Tongling Shan, Guoxin Li, Guangzhi Tong
Flavivirus cDNA clones frequently demonstrate genetic instability in transformed bacteria, which hampers the construction and manipulation of cDNAs for infectious flaviviruses. In this study, we developed a stable, full-length cDNA clone, pJEHEN, of a GI JEV strain HEN0701 using a medium-copy-number pBR322 vector and propagating cDNA clones at room temperature. The virus vJEHEN recovered from the infectious clone was indistinguishable from the parent virus HEN0701 with respect to plaque morphology, growth kinetics, and virulence characteristics...
September 24, 2016: Virus Genes
Maria Anastasina, Nicolas Le May, Andrii Bugai, Yu Fu, Sandra Söderholm, Lana Gaelings, Tiina Ohman, Janne Tynell, Suvi Kyttänen, Matjaz Barboric, Tuula A Nyman, Sampsa Matikainen, Ilkka Julkunen, Sarah J Butcher, Jean-Marc Egly, Denis E Kainov
Influenza NS1 protein is an important virulence factor that is capable of binding double-stranded (ds) RNA and inhibiting dsRNA-mediated host innate immune responses. Here we show that NS1 can also bind cellular dsDNA. This interaction prevents loading of transcriptional machinery to the DNA, thereby attenuating IAV-mediated expression of antiviral genes. Thus, we identified a previously undescribed strategy, by which RNA virus inhibits cellular transcription to escape antiviral response and secure its replication...
September 21, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Challika Kaewborisuth, Bryan Kaplan, Mark Zanin, David Finkelstein, Richard J Webby, Porntippa Lekcharoensuk
Nonstructural protein 1 (NS1) is a multifunctional protein that is a viral replication enhancer and virulence factor. In this study, we investigated the effect of the amino acid substitution G45R on the NS1 of A/Puerto Rico/8/1934 (H1N1) (G45R/NS1) on viral virulence and host gene expression in a mouse model and the human lung cell line A549. The G45R/NS1 virus had increased virulence by inducing an earlier and robust proinflammatory cytokine response in mice. Mice infected with the G45R/NS1 virus lost more body weight and had lower survival rates than mice infected with the wild type (WT/NS1) virus...
September 23, 2016: Archives of Virology
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