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Guangyu Hou, Jinping Li, Yan Wang, Suchun Wang, Cheng Peng, Xiaohui Yu, Jihui Jin, Wenming Jiang
The H5 highly pathogenic avian influenza viruses (HPAIVs) in China pose a serious challenge to public health and the poultry industry. In this study, we constructed a replication-competent recombinant influenza A virus of clade Н5N1 expressing the clade H5 HA1 protein from a tricistronic NS segment. We used a truncated NS1 protein of 73 amino acids combined with a heterologous dimerization domain to increase protein stability. H5 HA1 and nuclear export information were fused in frame with a truncated NS1 open reading frame, separated by 2A self-processing sites...
June 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
Matthew G Thompson, Raquel Muñoz-Moreno, Prasanna Bhat, Renat Roytenberg, John Lindberg, Matthew R Gazzara, Michael J Mallory, Ke Zhang, Adolfo García-Sastre, Beatriz M A Fontoura, Kristen W Lynch
Three of the eight RNA segments encoded by the influenza A virus (IAV) undergo alternative splicing to generate distinct proteins. Previously, we found that host proteins hnRNP K and NS1-BP regulate IAV M segment splicing, but the mechanistic details were unknown. Here we show NS1-BP and hnRNP K bind M mRNA downstream of the M2 5' splice site (5'ss). NS1-BP binds most proximal to the 5'ss, partially overlapping the U1 snRNP binding site, while hnRNP K binds further downstream and promotes U1 snRNP recruitment...
June 19, 2018: Nature Communications
Lili Li, Hui Zhao, Ping Liu, Chunfeng Li, Natalie Quanquin, Xue Ji, Nina Sun, Peishuang Du, Cheng-Feng Qin, Ning Lu, Genhong Cheng
Zika virus infection stimulates a type I interferon (IFN) response in host cells, which suppresses viral replication. Type I IFNs exert antiviral effects by inducing the expression of hundreds of IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs). To screen for antiviral ISGs that restricted Zika virus replication, we individually knocked out 21 ISGs in A549 lung cancer cells and identified PARP12 as a strong inhibitor of Zika virus replication. Our findings suggest that PARP12 mediated the ADP-ribosylation of NS1 and NS3, nonstructural viral proteins that are involved in viral replication and modulating host defense responses...
June 19, 2018: Science Signaling
S N Surendran, T Veluppillai, T Eswaramohan, K Sivabalakrishnan, F Noordeen, R Ramasamy
Background & objectives: Aedes aegypti and Ae. albopictus are major arboviral vectors that are considered to lay eggs, and undergo preimaginal development only in fresh water collections. However, recently they have been also shown to develop in coastal brackish water habitats. The ability of the biologically variant salinity-tolerant Aedes vectors to transmit arboviral diseases is unknown. We therefore, investigated the infection of salinity-tolerant Aedes mosquitoes with dengue virus (DENV) and analysed dengue incidence and rainfall data to assess the contribution of salinity-tolerant Aedes vectors to dengue transmission in the coastal Jaffna peninsula in Sri Lanka...
January 2018: Journal of Vector Borne Diseases
Chaitawat Sa-Ngamuang, Peter Haddawy, Viravarn Luvira, Watcharapong Piyaphanee, Sopon Iamsirithaworn, Saranath Lawpoolsri
Differentiating dengue patients from other acute febrile illness patients is a great challenge among physicians. Several dengue diagnosis methods are recommended by WHO. The application of specific laboratory tests is still limited due to high cost, lack of equipment, and uncertain validity. Therefore, clinical diagnosis remains a common practice especially in resource limited settings. Bayesian networks have been shown to be a useful tool for diagnostic decision support. This study aimed to construct Bayesian network models using basic demographic, clinical, and laboratory profiles of acute febrile illness patients to diagnose dengue...
June 18, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Gaurav Baheti, Varshil Mehta, Menka Ramchandani, Gopal Chandra Ghosh
The clinical profile and presentation of patients with dengue fever may differ from asymptomatic infection to the dreadful complications like dengue shock syndrome. However, neurological complications are very rare. Dengue encephalitis occurs by a direct involvement of central nervous system by the dengue virus which is an extremely rare complication. A 33-year-old man presented with fever, vomiting and severe headache. He had one episode of generalised tonic-clonic seizure followed by an altered sensorium on the day of admission to the hospital...
June 15, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
Priscila Conrado Guerra Nunes, Rita Maria Ribeiro Nogueira, Manoela Heringer, Thaís Chouin-Carneiro, Cintia Damasceno Dos Santos Rodrigues, Ana Maria Bispo de Filippis, Monique da Rocha Queiroz Lima, Flávia Barreto Dos Santos
Dengue is a worldwide problem characterized by a multifactorial pathogenesis. Considering the viral components, it is known that high viremia or high levels of the secreted nonstructural protein 1 (NS1) may be associated with a more severe disease. We aimed to characterize the NS1 antigenemia and viremia in dengue fatal and non-fatal cases, as potential markers of progression to a fatal outcome. NS1 antigenemia and viremia were determined in Brazilian dengue fatal cases ( n = 40) and non-fatal cases ( n = 40), representative of the four dengue virus (DENV) serotypes...
June 14, 2018: Viruses
Kevin Tsai, David G Courtney, Edward M Kennedy, Bryan R Cullen
While the issue of whether RNA interference (RNAi) ever forms part of the antiviral innate immune response in mammalian somatic cells remains controversial, there is considerable evidence demonstrating that few, if any, viral small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) are produced in infected cells. Moreover, inhibition of RNAi by mutational inactivation of key RNAi factors, such as Dicer or Argonaute 2, fails to enhance virus replication. One potential explanation for this lack of inhibitory effect is that mammalian viruses encode viral suppressors of RNAi (VSRs) that are so effective that viral siRNAs are not produced in infected cells...
June 14, 2018: RNA
Xiujie Gao, Yingfen Wen, Jian Wang, Wenxin Hong, Chunlin Li, Lingzhai Zhao, Chibiao Yin, Xia Jin, Fuchun Zhang, Lei Yu
BACKGROUND: Zika virus (ZIKV) had spread rapidly in the past few years in southern hemisphere where dengue virus (DENV) had caused epidemic problems for over half a century. The high degree of cross-reactivity of Envelope (E) protein specific antibody responses between ZIKV and DENV made it challenging to perform differential diagnosis between the two infections using standard ELISA method for E protein. METHODS: Using an IgG capture ELISA, we investigated the kinetics of nonstructural protein 1 (NS1) antibody response during natural ZIKV infection and the cross-reactivity to NS1 proteins using convalescent sera obtained from patients infected by either DENV or ZIKV...
June 14, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
Saranya Sridhar, Alexander Luedtke, Edith Langevin, Ming Zhu, Matthew Bonaparte, Tifany Machabert, Stephen Savarino, Betzana Zambrano, Annick Moureau, Alena Khromava, Zoe Moodie, Ted Westling, Cesar Mascareñas, Carina Frago, Margarita Cortés, Danaya Chansinghakul, Fernando Noriega, Alain Bouckenooghe, Josh Chen, Su-Peing Ng, Peter B Gilbert, Sanjay Gurunathan, Carlos A DiazGranados
Background In efficacy trials of a tetravalent dengue vaccine (CYD-TDV), excess hospitalizations for dengue were observed among vaccine recipients 2 to 5 years of age. Precise risk estimates according to observed dengue serostatus could not be ascertained because of the limited numbers of samples collected at baseline. We developed a dengue anti-nonstructural protein 1 (NS1) IgG enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and used samples from month 13 to infer serostatus for a post hoc analysis of safety and efficacy...
June 13, 2018: New England Journal of Medicine
Soumi Sukla, Anisa Ghosh, Rajdeep Saha, Abhishek De, Samit Adhya, Subhajit Biswas
PURPOSE: Zika virus infections have recently been reported in many dengue-endemic areas globally. Both dengue (DENV) and Zika (ZIKV) virus are transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes, raising the possibility of mixed infections in both vector and host. We evaluated DENV and ZIKV prevalence in human and vector samples in Kolkata, a DENV-endemic city. METHODOLOGY: Blood samples were collected from 70 patients presenting dengue-like fever symptoms at a hospital in Kolkata during 2015-16...
June 13, 2018: Journal of Medical Microbiology
Philipp Mathé, Daniel Z Egah, Janis A Müller, Nathan Y Shehu, Emmanuel T Obishakin, David D Shwe, Victor C Pam, Mark O Okolo, Christopher Yilgwan, Simji S Gomerep, Jonas Fuchs, Ibrahim Abok, Kenneth I Onyedibe, Ewa J Olugbo, Samson E Isa, Salamatu S Machunga-Mambula, Caleb J Attah, Jan Münch, Stephen Oguche, Marcus Panning
BACKGROUND: Zika virus (ZIKV) has been known for decades in Africa but contemporary data is lacking at large. OBJECTIVES: To describe the seroepidemiology of ZIKV in North Central Nigeria. STUDY DESIGN: We performed a cross-sectional study at six health care facilities in North Central Nigeria from January to December 2016. Detection of ZIKV antibodies was done using an anti-ZIKV recombinant non-structural protein 1 (NS1)-based ELISA. A colorimetric assay to detect ZIKV neutralizing antibodies was used on ELISA reactive and randomly selected ELISA non-reactive samples...
May 26, 2018: Journal of Clinical Virology: the Official Publication of the Pan American Society for Clinical Virology
P Maza-Márquez, R Vílchez-Vargas, A González-Martínez, J González-López, B Rodelas
The abundance of fungi in a full-scale membrane bioreactor (MBR) treating urban wastewater and experiencing seasonal foaming was assessed by quantitative PCR (qPCR), comparing three different sets of widely used universal fungal primers targeting the gene encoding the small ribosomal subunit RNA, 18S-rDNA, (primers NS1-Fung and FungiQuant) or the internal transcribed spacer ITS2 (primers ITS3-ITS4). Fungi were a numerically important fraction of the MBR microbiota (≥106 18S-rDNA copies/L activated sludge), and occurred both in the aerated and anoxic bioreactors...
June 5, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
Zhenzhong Wang, Xianglong Yu, Xiaoyu Niu, Jing Yang, Yi Tang, Jingdong Hu, Youxiang Diao
The NS1protein, a nonstructural protein of Tembusu virus, plays a key role in the pathogenesis of TMUV. To research host proteins that interact with NS1 protein, the cDNA library of duck embryo fibroblasts (DEF) was successfully constructed. The recombinant plasmid, pGBKT7-NS1, was transformed into the yeast Y2H to be cloned and tested for autoactivation and toxicity. The autoactivation and toxicity test of bait showed that the yeast two hybrid test could be carried out normally. A total of 7 clones from the library were got by Yeast Two-Hybrid System, and 4 proteins, including RPS7, MORC3, GABARAPL1 and MTSS1, may be interacted with DTMUV NS1 after sequencing and blast...
June 5, 2018: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
Alejandro Marín-López, Eva Calvo-Pinilla, Diego Barriales, Gema Lorenzo, Alejandro Brun, Juan Anguita, Javier Ortego
The development of vaccines against Bluetongue, a prevalent livestock disease, has been focused on surface antigens that induce strong neutralizing antibody responses. Because their antigenic variability, these vaccines are usually serotype restricted. We now show that a single highly conserved non-structural protein, NS1, expressed in a modified vaccinia Ankara virus (MVA) vector can provide multiserotype protection in IFNAR(-/-) 129 mice against Bluetongue virus that is largely dependent on CD8 T cell responses...
June 6, 2018: Journal of Virology
Yuwen Wang, Jingjing Cheng, Dan Xie, Xiaofeng Ding, Hailing Hou, Xi Chen, Puchun Er, Furong Zhang, Lujun Zhao, Zhiyong Yuan, Qingsong Pang, Ping Wang, Dong Qian
BACKGROUND: Cisplatin-based chemotherapy with concurrent radiotherapy is a standard treatment for advanced esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). NS1-binding protein (NS1-BP), a member of the BTB-kelch protein family, has been shown to inhibit the proliferation of Hela cells by suppressing c-Myc. In the present study, we examined the potential function role of NS1-BP expression in ESCC, and particularly, the sensitivity of ESCC to radiotherapy. METHODS: NS1-BP expression was examined using immunohistochemistry in two cohorts (n = 98 for the training cohort; n = 46 for independent validation cohort) of ESCC patients receiving cisplatin-based chemotherapy and concurrent radiotherapy...
June 5, 2018: Cancer communications
Syed Z Shah, Basit Jabbar, Nadeem Ahmed, Anum Rehman, Hira Nasir, Sarooj Nadeem, Iqra Jabbar, Zia Ur Rahman, Shafiq Azam
In South Asia, Haemaphysalis spinigera tick transmits Kyasanur Forest Disease Virus (KFDV), a flavivirus that causes severe hemorrhagic fever with neurological manifestations such as mental disturbances, severe headache, tremors, and vision deficits in infected human beings with a fatality rate of 3-10%. The disease was first reported in March 1957 from Kyasanur forest of Karnataka (India) from sick and dying monkeys. Since then, between 400 and 500 humans cases per year have been recorded; monkeys and small mammals are common hosts of this virus...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Songjiao Wen, Dehong Ma, Yao Lin, Lihua Li, Shan Hong, Xiaoman Li, Xiaodan Wang, Juemin Xi, Lijuan Qiu, Yue Pan, Junying Chen, Xiyun Shan, Qiangming Sun
A dengue outbreak abruptly occurred at the border of China, Myanmar, and Laos in June 2017. By November 3rd 2017, 1184 infected individuals were confirmed as NS1-positivein Xishuangbanna, a city located at the border. To verify the causative agent, complete genome information was obtained through PCR and sequencing based on the viral RNAs extracted from patient samples. Phylogenetic trees were constructed by the maximum likelihood method (MEGA 6.0). Nucleotide and amino acid substitutions were analyzed by BioEdit, followed by RNA secondary structure prediction of untranslated regions (UTRs) and protein secondary structure prediction in coding sequences (CDSs)...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Peng Lin, Honglin Wang, Yuening Cheng, Shanshan Song, Yaru Sun, Miao Zhang, Li Guo, Li Yi, Mingwei Tong, Zhigang Cao, Shuang Li, Shipeng Cheng, Jianke Wang
Broad coverage of mink enteritis virus (MEV) vaccination program in northeast of China has provided effective protection from mink viral enteritis. Nevertheless, MEV vaccine failures were reported due to continually evolving and changing virulence of field variants or wild-type MEV. In this study, a combined loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) method, named LAMP-SNP assay, was developed for detection and differentiation of wild-type and vaccine strains of MEV...
May 30, 2018: Scientific Reports
Laura Rivino
Our understanding of how T cells respond to dengue virus has greatly advanced in the last decade but important questions still remain unanswered. Dengue virus infection elicits a broad anti-viral T cell response with NS3, NS4b and NS5 being the main targets for CD8+ T cells, which dominate the response while the structural proteins capsid, envelope and the secreted protein NS1 are the preferential targets for CD4+ T cells. Upon T cell activation during acute dengue infection, dengue-specific T cells acquire expression of the skin-homing marker cutaneous associated antigen (CLA) and they can be found at high frequencies in the skin of infected patients...
2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
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