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Alfentanil

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216524/multiple-fatalities-in-the-north-of-england-associated-with-synthetic-fentanyl-analogue-exposure-detection-and-quantitation-a-case-series-from-early-2017
#1
Laura Hikin, Paul R Smith, Eleanor Ringland, Simon Hudson, Stephen R Morley
BACKGROUND: Synthetic fentanyl analogues are highly potent opioid drugs which have no pharmaceutical use in humans. We detected the synthetic fentanyl analogues; carfentanil, butyryl fentanyl, fluorobutyrylfentanyl, furanylfentanyl, and alfentanil as well as fentanyl itself in 25 cases in early 2017. There have been no previous reports of synthetic fentanyl deaths in the United Kingdom (UK). METHODS: Cases in which the history clearly stated drug use but where a post mortem blood morphine concentration was lower than would be expected to explain the sudden death, were referred for further analysis by high resolution accurate mass (HRAM) mass spectrometry...
November 29, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29181095/quantitation-of-fentanyl-analogs-in-dried-blood-spots-by-flow-through-desorption-coupled-to-online-solid-phase-extraction-tandem-mass-spectrometry
#2
Rebecca L Shaner, Nicholas D Schulze, Craig Seymour, Elizabeth I Hamelin, Jerry D Thomas, Rudolph C Johnson
An automated dried blood spot (DBS) elution coupled with solid phase extraction and tandem mass spectrometric analysis for multiple fentanyl analogs was developed and assessed. This method confirms human exposures to fentanyl, sufentanil, carfentanil, alfentanil, lofentanil, α-methyl fentanyl, and 3-methyl fentanyl in blood with minimal sample volume and reduced shipping and storage costs. Seven fentanyl analogs were detected and quantitated from DBS made from venous blood. The calibration curve in matrix was linear in the concentration range of 1...
2017: Analytical Methods: Advancing Methods and Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29178007/correction-to-pharmacokinetics-of-fentanyl-and-its-derivatives-in-children-a-comprehensive-review
#3
Victoria C Ziesenitz, Janelle D Vaughns, Gilbert Koch, Gerd Mikus, Johannes N van den Anker
Fentanyl and its derivatives sufentanil, alfentanil, and remifentanil are potent opioids. A comprehensive review of the use of fentanyl and its derivatives in the pediatric population was performed using the National Library of Medicine PubMed. Studies were included if they contained original pharmacokinetic parameters or models using established routes of administration in patients younger than 18 years of age. Of 372 retrieved articles, 44 eligible pharmacokinetic studies contained data of 821 patients younger than 18 years of age, including more than 46 preterm infants, 64 full-term neonates, 115 infants/toddlers, 188 children, and 28 adolescents...
November 24, 2017: Clinical Pharmacokinetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132231/the-use-of-desflurane-for-neurosurgical-procedures-in-rhesus-macaque-macaca-mulatta
#4
Henri Gmj Bertrand, Charlotte Sandersen, Paul A Flecknell
Volatile agents are widely used to anaesthetise laboratory non-human primates as they allow a rapid induction and recovery as well as an easy adjustment of the anaesthesia plan. Desflurane is currently the volatile agent with the lowest solubility in blood, and hence enables the most rapid onset of anaesthesia and most rapid recovery. This study aimed to investigate the suitability of desflurane for maintenance of general anaesthesia in rhesus macaques undergoing elective experimental neurosurgery. Fourteen primates (five males and nine females) were sedated with ketamine (10 mg kg(-1)) and anaesthesia was induced with propofol (usually 8 mg kg(-1) IV)...
January 1, 2017: Laboratory Animals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111148/effects-of-opioid-and-nonopioid-analgesics-on-canine-wheal-formation-and-cultured-human-mast-cell-degranulation
#5
Eric Schmidt-Rondon, Zhenping Wang, Shelle A Malkmus, Anna Di Nardo, Keith Hildebrand, Linda Page, Tony L Yaksh
Mast cell (MC) degranulation has been implicated in the side effect profile of a variety of clinically useful agents. Thus, after intrathecal delivery, formation of space-occupying, meningeally-derived masses may be related to local MC degranulation. We systematically characterized degranulating effects of opioid and nonopioid analgesics on cutaneous flares in the dog and in primary human MC (hMC) cultures. METHODS: Dogs were anesthetized with IV propofol and received intradermal (ID) injections (50μL)...
October 27, 2017: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020995/sedation-with-propofol-during-ercp-is-the-combination-with-esketamine-more-effective-and-safer-than-with-alfentanil-study-protocol-for-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#6
Susanne Eberl, Lena Koers, Jeanin E van Hooft, Edwin de Jong, Thomas Schneider, Markus W Hollmann, Benedikt Preckel
BACKGROUND: Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) is a gastrointestinal procedure that requires a relatively motionless patient during the intervention. Deep sedation by intravenous propofol combined with an opioid has recently become the preferred sedation technique. However, when high doses of propofol are used, side effects, namely respiratory depression, may occur. Esketamine has hypnotic, analgesic, and sympathomimetic effects. Our assumption is that a combination of propofol with esketamine reduces the dosage of individual drugs, thereby minimizing sedation side effects while keeping the same satisfaction level of patients and endoscopists...
October 11, 2017: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28980330/the-fentanyl-family-a-distinguished-medical-history-tainted-by-abuse
#7
R B Raffa, J V Pergolizzi, J A LeQuang, R Taylor, S Colucci, M H Annabi
WHAT IS KNOWN AND OBJECTIVE: Beginning in the 1950s, a family of potent opioids was synthesized and developed (fentanyl and analogues). They continue to serve as valuable analgesic agents. But the recent spike and notoriety of their abuse has raised alarm, even calls for tighter control. We review the trajectory of these compounds. COMMENT: To rectify shortcomings of the then available opioid analgesics, an analogue family of compounds was synthesized having a piperidine ring (presumptive principal active moiety in morphine and meperidine)...
October 4, 2017: Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28948899/comparison-of-emergence-times-and-quality-between-isoflurane-and-sevoflurane-in-rhesus-macaque-macaca-mulatta-undergoing-neurosurgical-procedure
#8
Henri G M J Bertrand, Svenja Springer, Wesley Burnside, Charlotte Sandersen, Paul A Flecknell
Volatile agents for anaesthesia are widely used for anaesthetizing laboratory primates, and isoflurane is one of the most frequently used agents. Sevoflurane has been shown to offer a more rapid recovery than isoflurane in a number of species, but no comparisons have been made in non-human primates. This study compared the recovery characteristics of isoflurane and sevoflurane in rhesus macaques undergoing experimental neurosurgery. Twelve primates (7 males and 5 females) were randomly allocated to the treatment groups...
October 2017: Laboratory Animals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928100/effects-of-alfentanil-or-fentanyl-added-to-propofol-for-sedation-in-colonoscopy-on-cognitive-functions-randomized-controlled-trial
#9
Güler Doğanay, Perihan Ekmekçi, Baturay Kansu Kazbek, Hakan Yılmaz, Gülbanu Erkan, Filiz Tüzüner
BACKGROUND/AIMS: To assess the effect of propofol supplemented with alfentanil or fentanyl on cognitive functions for sedation during elective colonoscopy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients (n=150, 18-65 years old, American Society of Anesthesiologists risk group I-III) scheduled undergo elective colonoscopy were included. They were randomized into three groups using the closed envelope methodpropofol-alfentanil (Group A), propofol-fentanyl (Group F), and propofol only (Group P)...
September 19, 2017: Turkish Journal of Gastroenterology: the Official Journal of Turkish Society of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28834382/application-of-a-screening-method-for-fentanyl-and-its-analogues-using-uhplc-qtof-ms-with-data-independent-acquisition-dia-in-ms-e-mode-and-retrospective-analysis-of-authentic-forensic-blood-samples
#10
Carolina Noble, Petur Weihe Dalsgaard, Sys Stybe Johansen, Kristian Linnet
The steady appearance of new fentanyl analogues and the associated overdose deaths require the development of sensitive screening approaches to detect these compounds in biological samples and seizures. We developed a targeted screening method to detect 50 4-anilidopiperidine-related fentanyl analogues in whole blood using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry in data-independent acquisition mode. Sample preparation was performed using protein precipitation on a fully automated robotic setup...
August 19, 2017: Drug Testing and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28750840/electroacupuncture-reduced-sedative-and-analgesic-requirements-for-diagnostic-eus-a-prospective-randomized-double-blinded-sham-controlled-study
#11
Anthony Yuen Bun Teoh, Charing Ching Ning Chong, Wing Wa Leung, Simon Kin Cheong Chan, Yee Kit Tse, Enders Kwok Wai Ng, Paul Bo San Lai, Justin Che Yuen Wu, James Yun Wong Lau
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The role of electroacupuncture (EA) in reducing sedative and analgesic requirements during EUS is uncertain. The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy of EA in reducing procedure-related pain and discomfort during EUS. METHODS: This was a double-blinded randomized controlled study conducted between March 2014 and July 2016. Consecutive patients who were scheduled for diagnostic EUS were recruited and randomized to receive EA or sham-electroacupuncture (SA)...
July 24, 2017: Gastrointestinal Endoscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688027/pharmacokinetics-of-fentanyl-and-its-derivatives-in-children-a-comprehensive-review
#12
REVIEW
Victoria C Ziesenitz, Janelle D Vaughns, Gilbert Koch, Gerd Mikus, Johannes N van den Anker
Fentanyl and its derivatives sufentanil, alfentanil, and remifentanil are potent opioids. A comprehensive review of the use of fentanyl and its derivatives in the pediatric population was performed using the National Library of Medicine PubMed. Studies were included if they contained original pharmacokinetic parameters or models using established routes of administration in patients younger than 18 years of age. Of 372 retrieved articles, 44 eligible pharmacokinetic studies contained data of 821 patients younger than 18 years of age, including more than 46 preterm infants, 64 full-term neonates, 115 infants/toddlers, 188 children, and 28 adolescents...
July 7, 2017: Clinical Pharmacokinetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504483/comparison-of-a-new-intranasal-naloxone-formulation-to-intramuscular-naloxone-results-from-hypothesis-generating-small-clinical-studies
#13
B T Gufford, G R Ainslie, J R White, M E Layton, J M Padowski, G M Pollack, M F Paine
Easy-to-use naloxone formulations are needed to help address the opioid overdose epidemic. The pharmacokinetics of i.v., i.m., and a new i.n. naloxone formulation (2 mg) were compared in six healthy volunteers. Relative to i.m. naloxone, geometric mean (90% confidence interval [CI]) absolute bioavailability of i.n. naloxone was modestly lower (55%; 90% CI, 43-70% vs. 41%; 90% CI, 27-62%), whereas average (±SE) mean absorption time was substantially shorter (74 ± 8.8 vs. 6.7 ± 4.9 min). The opioid-attenuating effects of i...
September 2017: Clinical and Translational Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28464270/effect-of-intravenous-alfentanil-on-nonpainful-thermally-induced-hyperalgesia-in-healthy-volunteers
#14
Carolyn Schifftner, Gery Schulteis, Mark S Wallace
Experimental interventions that activate specific components of clinical pain are necessary for characterization of underlying mechanisms and pharmacology. Cutaneous hyperalgesia has been described that uses nonpainful heat to induce secondary hyperalgesia. This study evaluated the effect of intravenous alfentanil on experimental cutaneous hyperalgesia created using this method. Eighteen subjects participated in a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled crossover study consisting of 2 sessions, 1 with alfentanil and 1 with placebo...
September 2017: Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438447/randomized-clinical-trial-of-propofol-versus-alfentanil-for-moderate-procedural-sedation-in-the-emergency-department
#15
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
James R Miner, Brian E Driver, Johanna C Moore, Erik Faegerstrom, Lauren Klein, Matthew Prekker, Jon B Cole
STUDY OBJECTIVE: To compare the frequency of airway and respiratory adverse events leading to an intervention between moderate sedation using alfentanil or propofol. METHODS: We performed a randomized clinical trial in which adults undergoing moderate sedation in the ED received either alfentanil or propofol. Our primary outcome was the frequency of airway and respiratory adverse events leading to an intervention. Other outcomes included sedation depth, efficacy, sedation time, patient satisfaction, pain, and satisfaction...
October 2017: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28296748/efficacy-of-lidocaine-on-preventing-incidence-and-severity-of-pain-associated-with-propofol-using-in-pediatric-patients-a-prisma-compliant-meta-analysis-of-randomized-controlled-trials
#16
Bing-Chen Lang, Chun-Song Yang, Ling-Li Zhang, Wen-Sheng Zhang, Yu-Zhi Fu
BACKGROUND: Propofol injection pain was considered as one conundrum during clinical anesthesia. The systematic review about the effect of lidocaine in reducing injection pain among children has not been established. The aim of the study was to systematically evaluate the efficacy and safety of such intervention. METHODS: The literature search was performed from the inception to the May 31, 2016 in PubMed, Ovid EMBASE, and Cochrane database. All randomized controlled trials that using lidocaine for propofol injection pain in children were enrolled...
March 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28259933/synergistic-antinociceptive-effects-of-alfentanil-and-propofol-in-the-formalin-test
#17
Na Jia, Xiaochun Zuo, Chao Guo, Yuwen Li, Jia Cui, Chao Zhao, Shanshan Cao, Chao Wang, Ruili Li, Yin Wu, Aidong Wen
The present study was conducted to determine the combined analgesic effect of alfentanil and propofol in the formalin test. Diluted formalin was injected into the dorsal surface of the right hind paw in rats. Nociceptive behavior was determined by counting the number of flinches of the injected paw for 1 h after injection; a reduction in formalin‑induced flinching was interpreted as an antinociceptive effect. Isobolographic analysis was used to determine the type of antinociceptive interaction (additivity, antagonism or synergism)...
April 2017: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096580/randomized-double-blind-comparison-of-remifentanil-and-alfentanil-in-patients-undergoing-laparoscopic-cholecystectomy-using-total-intravenous-anesthesia
#18
José M Beleña, Mónica Núñez, Alfonso Vidal, Diego Anta
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: To compare the use of remifentanil and alfentanil to suppress intraoperative adrenergic response of pain and the influence of these drugs on the recovery profile in patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy using a total intravenous anesthesia (TIVA) technique. MATERIAL AND METHODS: One hundred patients undergoing elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy were randomized to be managed with either remifentanil (group R) or alfentanil (group A)...
October 2016: Journal of Anaesthesiology, Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28001306/doxapram-mediated-increase-in-cardiac-output-reduces-opioid-plasma-concentrations-a-pk-pd-pk-pd-modeling-study-in-healthy-volunteers
#19
Margot Roozekrans, Erik Olofsen, Rutger van der Schrier, Merel Boom, René Mooren, Albert Dahan
Doxapram is an analeptic that induces ventilatory stimulation and increases blood pressure and cardiac output (CO). Its mechanism of action is blockade of background K(+) -channels expressed on type 1 carotid body cells. In the randomized controlled trial, the authors explored the role of the increase in CO by doxapram (plasma concentration (Cp) 1000-3,500 ng/mL) on the pharmacokinetics (PK) and pharmacodynamics of the potent opioid alfentanil (Cp 100-200 ng/mL). Population PK-PD analyses were performed on the doxapram PK-CO data and the alfentanil PK-antinociception data...
December 21, 2016: Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27973590/investigating-power-density-and-the-degree-of-nonlinearity-in-intrinsic-components-of-anesthesia-eeg-by-the-hilbert-huang-transform-an-example-using-ketamine-and-alfentanil
#20
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Feng-Fang Tsai, Shou-Zen Fan, Yi-Shiuan Lin, Norden E Huang, Jia-Rong Yeh
Empirical mode decomposition (EMD) is an adaptive filter bank for processing nonlinear and non-stationary signals, such as electroencephalographic (EEG) signals. EMD works well to decompose a time series into a set of intrinsic mode functions with specific frequency bands. An IMF therefore represents an intrinsic component on its correspondingly intrinsic frequency band. The word of 'intrinsic' means the frequency is totally adaptive to the nature of a signal. In this study, power density and nonlinearity are two critical parameters for characterizing the amplitude and frequency modulations in IMFs...
2016: PloS One
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