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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640705/genomic-analysis-of-childhood-brain-tumors-methods-for-genome-wide-discovery-and-precision-medicine-become-mainstream
#1
Stephen C Mack, Paul A Northcott
Recent breakthroughs in next-generation sequencing technology and complementary genomic platforms have transformed our capacity to interrogate the molecular landscapes of human cancers, including childhood brain tumors. Numerous high-throughput genomic studies have been reported for the major histologic brain tumor entities diagnosed in children, including interrogations at the level of the genome, epigenome, and transcriptome, many of which have yielded essential new insights into disease biology. The nature of these discoveries has been largely platform dependent, exemplifying the usefulness of applying different genomic and computational strategies, or integrative approaches, to address specific biologic and/or clinical questions...
June 22, 2017: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637019/clinicopathological-characteristics-of-ros1-and-ret-rearranged-nsclc-in-caucasian-patients-data-from-a-cohort-of-713-non-squamous-nsclc-lacking-kras-egfr-her2-braf-pik3ca-alk-alterations
#2
Frédéric Dugay, Francisco Llamas-Gutierrez, Marjory Gournay, Sarah Medane, François Mazet, Dan Christian Chiforeanu, Emmanuelle Becker, Régine Lamy, Hervé Léna, Nathalie Rioux-Leclercq, Marc-Antoine Belaud-Rotureau, Florian Cabillic
Targeted therapies have substantially changed the management of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients with driver oncogenes. Given the high frequency, EGFR and ALK aberrations were the first to be detected and paved the way for tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) treatments. Other kinases such as ROS1 and more recently RET have emerged as promising targets, and ROS1 and RET TKIs are already available for precision medicine.We screened a large cohort of 713 Caucasian non-squamous NSCLC patients lacking EGFR/KRAS/BRAF/HER2/PI3KCA/ALK aberrations for ROS1 and RET rearrangements using fluorescence in situ hybridization to determine the frequency and clinicopathological characteristics of ROS1- and RET-positive patients...
June 8, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634908/an-entrustable-professional-activity-epa-based-framework-to-prepare-fourth-year-medical-students-for-internal-medicine-careers
#3
D Michael Elnicki, Meenakshy K Aiyer, Maria L Cannarozzi, Alexander Carbo, Paul R Chelminski, Shobhina G Chheda, Saumil M Chudgar, Heather E Harrell, L Chad Hood, Michelle Horn, Karnjit Johl, Gregory C Kane, Diana B McNeill, Marty D Muntz, Anne G Pereira, Emily Stewart, Heather Tarantino, T Robert Vu
The purpose of the fourth year of medical school remains controversial. Competing demands during this transitional phase cause confusion for students and educators. In 2014, the Association of American Medical Colleges (AAMC) released 13 Core Entrustable Professional Activities for Entering Residency (CEPAERs). A committee comprising members of the Clerkship Directors in Internal Medicine and the Association of Program Directors in Internal Medicine applied these principles to preparing students for internal medicine residencies...
June 20, 2017: Journal of General Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634700/management-of-tuberous-breast-deformities-review-of-long-term-outcomes-and-patient-satisfaction-with-breast-q
#4
Stefania Tenna, Barbara Cagli, Beniamino Brunetti, Mauro Barone, Paolo Persichetti
BACKGROUND: The treatment of a tuberous breast deformity has changed over the years, with a large variety of procedures described. However, maintaining a long-lasting breast contour is an ongoing challenge. The aim of this study was to evaluate the long-term results of tuberous breast corrections, focusing on the incidence of secondary procedures and patient satisfaction. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty-six patients who underwent correction of a tuberous breast deformity from 2000 through 2013 were considered...
June 20, 2017: Aesthetic Plastic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634371/factors-related-to-good-asthma-control-using-different-medical-adherence-scales-in-latvian-asthma-patients-an-observational-study
#5
Dins Smits, Girts Brigis, Jana Pavare, Baiba Maurina, Noël Christopher Barengo
One of the main challenges in asthma control is adherence to pharmaceutical treatment. The aim of this study was to test the association between adherence to asthma medication, control and medical beliefs, cognitive and emotional perceptions using three different validated questionnaires. Beliefs about asthma medicine, cognitive and emotional factors were determined in a cross-sectional survey of patients attending outpatient pulmonologist practices in Latvia (n = 352). The validated Beliefs about Medicines Questionnaire and the Brief Illness Perception Questionnaire were used...
June 20, 2017: NPJ Primary Care Respiratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633732/to-err-is-human-can-american-medicine-learn-from-past-mistakes
#6
Jeffrey B Ritterman
The history of medicine includes many errors. Some persisted for decades and caused great harm. Several are highlighted in this article, including the mythical thymic diseases: thymic asthma and status thymicolymphaticus. Some medical mistakes, such as the diet-heart hypothesis of Ancel Keys, continue to cause harm. To avoid future errors and their associated harm, I suggest a cultural shift encouraging professional humility and greater questioning of medical dogma. Medical education focused on teaching students this history may help with this cultural shift...
2017: Permanente Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633567/endogenous-bioelectric-signaling-networks-exploiting-voltage-gradients-for-control-of-growth-and-form
#7
Michael Levin, Giovanni Pezzulo, Joshua M Finkelstein
Living systems exhibit remarkable abilities to self-assemble, regenerate, and remodel complex shapes. How cellular networks construct and repair specific anatomical outcomes is an open question at the heart of the next-generation science of bioengineering. Developmental bioelectricity is an exciting emerging discipline that exploits endogenous bioelectric signaling among many cell types to regulate pattern formation. We provide a brief overview of this field, review recent data in which bioelectricity is used to control patterning in a range of model systems, and describe the molecular tools being used to probe the role of bioelectrics in the dynamic control of complex anatomy...
June 21, 2017: Annual Review of Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633171/examining-accuracy-of-self-assessment-of-in-training-examination-performance-in-a-context-of-guided-self-assessment
#8
Oksana Babenko, Denise Campbell-Scherer, Shirley Schipper, John Chmelicek, Tanya Barber, Kimberley Duerksen, Shelley Ross
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: In our family medicine residency program, we have established a culture of guided self-assessment through a systematic approach of direct observation of residents and documentation of formative feedback. We have observed that our residents have become more accurate in self-assessing their clinical performance. The objective of this study was to examine whether this improved accuracy extended to residents' self-assessment of their medical knowledge and clinical reasoning on the In-Training Examination (ITE)...
June 2017: Family Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633169/untapped-potential-performance-of-procedural-skills-in-the-family-medicine-clerkship
#9
Martina Kelly, Kelly M Everard, Lara Nixon, Alexander Chessman
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: While family medicine residency directors have expressed concern about low procedural skills proficiency among incoming residents, curricular recommendations do not provide widely accepted guidance. This study was designed to describe requirements and experiences in procedural skill training during the family medicine clerkship and test the hypothesis that more rural placements may support this training. METHODS: The survey was conducted as part of the CAFM Educational Research Alliance (CERA) Family Medicine Clerkship Director (CD) 2013 survey...
June 2017: Family Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633168/integration-of-clinical-pharmacists-in-family-medicine-residency-programs
#10
Jody L Lounsbery, Jennie B Jarrett, Lori M Dickerson, Stephen A Wilson
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Clinical pharmacists are valued educators and practitioners within family medicine residency programs (FMRPs). Since the last survey of clinical pharmacists within FMRPs, there have been significant advancements to pharmacy education and training as well as growth of interprofessional education and collaborative practice within family medicine. The objective of this study is to describe the integration of clinical pharmacists within FMRPs. METHODS: All 480 Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education (ACGME)-approved FMRPs were contacted to identify clinical pharmacists involved with their programs...
June 2017: Family Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632645/management-of-symptomatic-lumbar-disk-herniation-an-international-perspective
#11
Pravesh S Gadjradj, Mark P Arts, Maurits W van Tulder, Wim J R Rietdijk, Wilco C Peul, Biswadjiet S Harhangi
STUDY DESIGN: A questionnaire survey. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the current practice patterns of surgeons regarding both the surgical and nonsurgical management of lumbar disk herniation (LDH) worldwide and to compare this with the current literature. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Sciatica is a common diagnosis in the general population. Sciatica is most frequently caused by LDH. Multiple surgical techniques and treatment modalities are available to treat LDH, albeit some with small effect sizes or without compelling evidence...
June 19, 2017: Spine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631171/qualitative-assessment-of-vaccination-hesitancy-among-members-of-the-apostolic-church-of-zimbabwe-a-case-study
#12
Z Machekanyanga, S Ndiaye, R Gerede, K Chindedza, C Chigodo, M E Shibeshi, J Goodson, F Daniel, L Zimmerman, R Kaiser
Vaccine hesitancy or lack of confidence in vaccines is considered a threat to the success of vaccination programs. The rise and spread of measles outbreaks in southern Africa in 2009-2010 were linked to objections among Apostolic Church members, estimated at about 3.5 million in Zimbabwe as of 2014. To inform planning of interventions for a measles-rubella vaccination campaign, we conducted an assessment of the factors contributing to vaccine hesitancy using data from various stakeholders. Among nine districts in three regions of Zimbabwe, we collected data on religious attitudes toward, and perceptions of, vaccines through focus group discussions with health workers serving Apostolic communities and members of the National Expanded Programme on Immunization; semi-structured interviews with religious leaders; and open-ended questions in structured interviews with Apostolic parents/caregivers...
June 19, 2017: Journal of Religion and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28631089/targeted-temperature-management-in-the-icu-guidelines-from-a-french-expert-panel
#13
REVIEW
Alain Cariou, Jean-François Payen, Karim Asehnoune, Gerard Audibert, Astrid Botte, Olivier Brissaud, Guillaume Debaty, Sandrine Deltour, Nicolas Deye, Nicolas Engrand, Gilles Francony, Stéphane Legriel, Bruno Levy, Philippe Meyer, Jean-Christophe Orban, Sylvain Renolleau, Bernard Vigue, Laure De Saint Blanquat, Cyrille Mathien, Lionel Velly
Over the recent period, the use of induced hypothermia has gained an increasing interest for critically ill patients, in particular in brain-injured patients. The term "targeted temperature management" (TTM) has now emerged as the most appropriate when referring to interventions used to reach and maintain a specific level temperature for each individual. TTM may be used to prevent fever, to maintain normothermia, or to lower core temperature. This treatment is widely used in intensive care units, mostly as a primary neuroprotective method...
December 2017: Annals of Intensive Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630933/statistical-thinking-for-21st-century-scientists
#14
REVIEW
D R Cox, Bradley Efron
Statistical science provides a wide range of concepts and methods for studying situations subject to unexplained variability. Such considerations enter fields ranging from particle physics and astrophysics to genetics, sociology and economics, and beyond; to associated areas of application such as engineering, agriculture, and medicine, in particular in clinical trials. Successful application hinges on absorption of statistical thinking into the subject matter and, hence, depends strongly on the field in question and on the individual investigators...
June 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28630158/computational-studies-of-peptide-induced-membrane-pore-formation
#15
REVIEW
Richard Lipkin, Themis Lazaridis
A variety of peptides induce pores in biological membranes; the most common ones are naturally produced antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), which are small, usually cationic, and defend diverse organisms against biological threats. Because it is not possible to observe these pores directly on a molecular scale, the structure of AMP-induced pores and the exact sequence of steps leading to their formation remain uncertain. Hence, these questions have been investigated via molecular modelling. In this article, we review computational studies of AMP pore formation using all-atom, coarse-grained, and implicit solvent models; evaluate the results obtained and suggest future research directions to further elucidate the pore formation mechanism of AMPs...
August 5, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628070/nursing-doctoral-faculty-perceptions-related-to-the-effect-of-increasing-enrollments-on-productivity
#16
Suzanne C Smeltzer, Nancy C Sharts-Hopko, Mary Ann Cantrell, Mary Ann Heverly, Amanda Jenkinson
Nursing faculty teaching in research and clinical doctoral programs participated in a national survey study to examine the impact of expanded doctoral enrollments on the doctoral faculty's scholarly productivity. They were invited to respond to an open-ended question soliciting information not already addressed in the survey. Results of the analysis are reported here. Findings corroborated the review of literature and results of the survey and focus groups that provided the basis for the survey's development...
July 2017: Nursing Education Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28625495/assessing-the-effect-of-an-intensive-2-week-surgical-training-and-innovation-program-for-high-school-students
#17
Brian Labadie, Roshan M Patel, Jessica Gandy Labadie, Christina Hwang, Zhamshid Okhunov, Jaime Landman
OBJECTIVE: The summer surgery program (SSP) was founded in 2012 as an educational program for students at the critical juncture between high school and college to engender interest in medicine, science, and innovation. This program has a distinct emphasis on innovation and problem solving based on real-life operative challenges identified by students during surgical observation in the operating room. The effect of the SSP regarding postsecondary education and career goals was evaluated by participants using a follow-up questionnaire...
June 15, 2017: Journal of Surgical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620945/measuring-the-statistical-validity-of-summary-meta-analysis-and-meta-regression-results-for-use-in-clinical-practice
#18
Brian H Willis, Richard D Riley
An important question for clinicians appraising a meta-analysis is: are the findings likely to be valid in their own practice-does the reported effect accurately represent the effect that would occur in their own clinical population? To this end we advance the concept of statistical validity-where the parameter being estimated equals the corresponding parameter for a new independent study. Using a simple ('leave-one-out') cross-validation technique, we demonstrate how we may test meta-analysis estimates for statistical validity using a new validation statistic, Vn, and derive its distribution...
June 15, 2017: Statistics in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28618458/dreaming-a-gateway-to-the-unconscious
#19
Steve Paulson, Deirdre Barrett, Kelly Bulkeley, Rubin Naiman
Where do our dreams originate from, and what do they tell us? Is there a universal set of symbols that are common to all dreams, regardless of a person's ethnicity or culture? What does dreaming reveal about the unconscious? Why do some dreams remain etched in our memories, whereas others are almost instantly forgotten? Some scientists have adopted the position that dreams are little more than noise in the brain, without any substantive purpose or function. Yet, such a stance seemingly runs counter to the experience of many people who reflect upon and even analyze their dreams, often in search of clues to their daily lives or insights into their deeper selves...
June 15, 2017: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616160/cardiopulmonary-arrest-in-primary-care-clinics-more-holes-than-cheese-a-survey-of-the-knowledge-and-attitudes-of-primary-care-physicians-regarding-resuscitation
#20
Sharon Einav, Oren Wacht, Nechama Kaufman, Eliezer Alkalay
BACKGROUND: Patients experiencing pre-arrest symptoms may first refer to their primary care physician. The study's aim was to determine the likelihood that a patient undergoing out-of-hospital cardiac arrest will receive appropriate resuscitation efforts in a primary care clinic in a country with a directive that clinics maintain resuscitation equipment and physicians undergo periodic resuscitation training. METHODS: An anonymous, 23-question online cross-sectional survey was created and administered to primary care physicians working in community clinics (10/1/2015-5/3/2015)...
2017: Israel Journal of Health Policy Research
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