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Ganga Anil Kumar, Kuppuswamy Subramaniam
Pairing of homologous chromosomes is essential for genetic recombination during gametogenesis. In many organisms, chromosome ends are attached to cytoplasmic dynein, and dynein-driven chromosomal movements facilitate the pairing process. Factors that promote / control the cytoskeletal tethering of chromosomes are largely unknown. Here, we show that the conserved RNA-binding protein PUF-8 facilitates the tethering and pairing processes in the C. elegans germline by promoting proteasome activity. We have isolated a hypomorphic allele of pas-1 , which encodes a proteasome core subunit, and find that the homologous chromosomes fail to pair in the puf-8; pas-1 double mutant due to failure of chromosome tethering...
March 14, 2018: Development
Ahmed M Mustafa, Hui Li, Amira A Radwan, Kuichuan Sheng, Xiang Chen
The effect of hydrothermal (HTP) and Ca(OH)2 pretreatments on the biogas produced by the anaerobic digestion of sugarcane bagasse (SCB) was studied. HTP, Ca(OH)2 and combination pretreatment had significant effects on hemicellulose and lignin degradation during pretreatment and methane yield through digestion. The highest biogas production observed in combination pretreatment HTP 180 + 8.5% of SCB reached 318 mL/g Volatile Solids (VS), which were 47% higher than the untreated SCB, with the highest methane content 69% and highest lignin degradation 44%...
March 8, 2018: Bioresource Technology
Jared Crain, Suchismita Mondal, Jessica Rutkoski, Ravi P Singh, Jesse Poland
Genomics and phenomics have promised to revolutionize the field of plant breeding. The integration of these two fields has just begun and is being driven through big data by advances in next-generation sequencing and developments of field-based high-throughput phenotyping (HTP) platforms. Each year the International Maize and Wheat Improvement Center (CIMMYT) evaluates tens-of-thousands of advanced lines for grain yield across multiple environments. To evaluate how CIMMYT may utilize dynamic HTP data for genomic selection (GS), we evaluated 1170 of these advanced lines in two environments, drought (2014, 2015) and heat (2015)...
March 2018: Plant Genome
Peng Luan, Sophia Lee, Tia A Arena, Maciej Paluch, Joe Kansopon, Sharon Viajar, Zahira Begum, Nancy Chiang, Gerald Nakamura, Philip E Hass, Athena W Wong, Greg A Lazar, Avinash Gill
To rapidly find "best-in-class" antibody therapeutics, it has become essential to develop high throughput (HTP) processes that allow rapid assessment of antibodies for functional and molecular properties. Consequently, it is critical to have access to sufficient amounts of high quality antibody, to carry out accurate and quantitative characterization. We have developed automated workflows using liquid handling systems to conduct affinity-based purification either in batch or tip column mode. Here, we demonstrate the capability to purify >2000 antibodies per day from microscale (1 mL) cultures...
March 1, 2018: MAbs
Nuria Ferrandiz, Consuelo Barroso, Oana Telecan, Nan Shao, Hyun-Min Kim, Sarah Testori, Peter Faull, Pedro Cutillas, Ambrosious P Snijders, Monica P Colaiácovo, Enrique Martinez-Perez
The formation of haploid gametes from diploid germ cells requires the regulated two-step release of sister chromatid cohesion (SCC) during the meiotic divisions. Here, we show that phosphorylation of cohesin subunit REC-8 by Aurora B promotes SCC release at anaphase I onset in C. elegans oocytes. Aurora B loading to chromatin displaying Haspin-mediated H3 T3 phosphorylation induces spatially restricted REC-8 phosphorylation, preventing full SCC release during anaphase I. H3 T3 phosphorylation is locally antagonized by protein phosphatase 1, which is recruited to chromosomes by HTP-1/2 and LAB-1...
February 26, 2018: Nature Communications
Hannah Weinberg-Wolf, Nicholas A Fagan, George M Anderson, Marios Tringides, Olga Dal Monte, Steve W C Chang
Psychiatric disorders, particularly depression and anxiety, are often associated with impaired serotonergic function. However, serotonergic interventions yield inconsistent effects on behavioral impairments. To better understand serotonin's role in these pathologies, we investigated the role of serotonin in a behavior frequently impaired in depression and anxiety, attention. In this study, we used a quantitative, repeated, within-subject, design to test how L-5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP), the immediate serotonin precursor, modulates central serotoninergic function and attention in macaques...
January 30, 2018: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Kun Hwang, Seong Kyung Yoo, Dae Joong Kim
The aim of this study was to measure the location of the septoaponeurosis junction relative to the tarsal plate in the upper eyelids of Koreans through a histologic study.Thirty-four upper eyelids from 34 Korean adult cadavers (mean age, 77.8 years) were used. Sagittal sections on the midpupillary line were made, and 10-μm-thick sections were prepared and stained with hematoxylin-eosin and Masson trichrome. Under a magnifying loupe with a scale, the height of the tarsal plate (HTP), thickness of the tarsal plate (TTP), distance from the lid margin to the septoaponeurosis junction (MJD), and distance from the upper border of the tarsal plate to the septoaponeurosis junction (TJD) were measured...
February 12, 2018: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
Riccardo Marano, Biagio Merlino, Luigi Natale, Giancarlo Savino, Vincenzo Vingiani, Giuseppe Rovere, Anna Rita Larici, Roberto Iezzi, Nicola Magarelli, Antonella Lombardo, Massimo Pasquale, Riccardo Manfredi
PURPOSE: An accurate evaluation of left ventricular volumes, mass, and ejection fraction (EF) and an early exclusion or detection of significant coronary artery disease or cardiac allograft vasculopathy are mandatory for clinical management and prognosis assessment of heart-transplanted patients (HTP). The purpose of this article was to evaluate the role of dual-step prospective electrocardiography-triggered Dual-Source CT (pECGdual-step-DSCT) in HTP for the assessment of left-ventricular function, in comparison with echocardiography (echo) and cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) performed on the same day, and of the coronary arteries as well...
January 31, 2018: Journal of Thoracic Imaging
Hajime J Yuasa, Mayumi Sugiura, Terue Harumoto
Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) is a heme-containing enzyme that catalyses the oxidative cleavage of L-Trp. The ciliate Blepharisma stoltei has four IDO genes (IDO-I, -II, -III and -IV), which seem to have evolved via two sequential gene duplication events. Each IDO enzyme has a distinct enzymatic property, where IDO-III ha-s a high affinity for L-Trp, whereas the affinity of the other three isoforms for L-Trp is low. IDO-I also exhibits a significant catalytic activity with another indole compound: 5-hydroxy-L-tryptophan (5-HTP)...
December 27, 2017: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics
Hao Wang, Hari Bisoyi, Ling Wang, Augustine Urbas, Timothy Bunning, Quan Li
We report the synthesis of a novel halogen bonded light-driven axially chiral molecular switch. The photoactive halogen bonded chiral switch is able to induce a self-organized, tunable helical superstructure, i.e., cholesteric liquid crystal (CLC), when doped into an achiral liquid crystal host. The halogen bonded switch as a chiral dopant is found to possess high helical twisting power (HTP) and shows a large change of its HTP upon photoisomeriza-tion. This light-driven dynamic modulation of structure has enabled reversible selective reflection color tuning across the entire visible spectrum...
December 29, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
Fatih Santas, Yusuf Celik, Mehmet Ali Eryurt
This study aimed to investigate whether there was an improvement in the equitable access to maternal and child health care services by examining the effects of socioeconomic and individual factors in Turkey from 1993 to 2013 and determine the effectiveness of health care reforms implemented mainly under the Health Transformation Program since 2003 on equitable access t;o maternal and child health care services in terms of years. The study used nationally representative 5 Turkey Demographic and Health Surveys (1993, 1998, 2003, 2008, and 2013)...
December 26, 2017: International Journal of Health Planning and Management
Hiroya Nishikawa, Daigou Mochizuki, Hiroki Higuchi, Yasushi Okumura, Hirotsugu Kikuchi
We demonstrate reversible RGB-color photocontrol of a chiral nematic liquid crystal (N*LC) by using newly synthesized closed- and open-type chiral dopants. The photoswitching elements in the dopants are azobenzene units on axially chiral binaphthyl cores. Owing to cis - trans photoisomerization of the azobenzene units, both closed- and open-type compounds showed higher solubility, larger helical twisting power (HTP), and larger changes in HTP than conventional chiral dopants in host LCs. Thus, even at very low dopant concentrations, we successfully controlled the chirality of the induced helical structure of the N*LCs...
December 2017: ChemistryOpen
E Huttunen-Saarivirta, P Rajala, M Marja-Aho, J Maukonen, E Sohlberg, L Carpén
In this work, six common stainless steel grades were compared with respect to ennoblement characteristics, corrosion performance and tendency to biofouling in brackish sea water in a pilot-scale cooling water circuit. Two tests were performed, each employing three test materials, until differences between the materials were detected. Open circuit potential (OCP) was measured continuously in situ. Potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) measurements were conducted before and after the tests...
November 5, 2017: Bioelectrochemistry
Jung Il Kwon, Yooheon Park, Sung Hee Han, Hyung Joo Suh
Alcalase hydrolysis of liquid egg white was used to produce 5-hydroxytryptophan (HTP) under various conditions and investigate the sleep-potentiating activity of liquid egg white hydrolysate (LEH) on pentobarbital-induced sleep. Alcalase hydrolysis yielded the highest content of 5-HTP (13.50 μg/mL), while neutrase hydrolysis showed the lowest 5-HTP content (5.23 μg/mL). The liquid egg white to water ratio (1:1) was optimal for the production of 5-HTP with high amino-nitrogen (A-N) content and degree of hydrolysis...
2017: Korean Journal for Food Science of Animal Resources
Mayumi Sugiura, Hajime J Yuasa, Terue Harumoto
Mating pheromones (gamone 1 and gamone 2) in the ciliate Blepharisma are biologically active substances that trigger sexual reproduction (conjugation) under starvation conditions. Gamone 1 is a glycoprotein secreted by type I cells, and gamone 2 is a tryptophan (Trp)-derivative compound secreted by type II cells. Both gamones stimulate complementary mating type cells to promote each gamone production and induce pair formation. To elucidate the biosynthetic pathway of gamone 2, we investigated the enzymes involved in the pathway and the specificity of the enzymes...
December 2017: Protist
Chao-Guang Chen, Georgina Sansome, Michael J Wilson, Con Panousis
We have recently described a one-step zero-background IgG reformatting method that enables the rapid reformatting of phage-displayed antibody fragments into a single-mammalian cell expression vector for full IgG expression (Chen et al. Nucleic Acids Res 42:e26, 2014). The strategy utilizes our unique positive selection method, referred to as insert-tagged (InTag) positive selection, where a positive selection marker (e.g. chloramphenicol-resistance gene) is cloned together with the antibody inserts into the expression vector...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Lorenzo E Hernández-Castellano, Ranya Özçelik, Laura L Hernandez, Rupert M Bruckmaier
In ruminants, colostrum is the main source of immunoglobulins for the newborn animal, conferring immune protection until the immune system becomes active and able to synthesize its own immunoglobulins. Serotonin (5-HT), a biogenic amine derived from tryptophan, has stimulatory effects on many physiological processes, including components of the innate (mastocytes, eosinophils, and natural killer cells) and adaptive (T and B lymphocytes) immune systems. Based on the known effects of 5-HT on the immune system, we hypothesized that increased concentrations of 5-HT, through administration of its precursor 5-hydroxy-l-tryptophan (5-HTP), may positively affect development of the calf's immune system and therefore support health and growth performance during the first weeks of life...
October 25, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
D Marko, N Briglia, S Summerer, A Petrozza, F Cellini, R Iannacone
High-throughput phenotyping has opened whole new perspectives for crop improvement and better understanding of quantitative traits in plants. Generation of loss-of-function and gain-of-function plant mutants requires processing and imaging a large number of plants in order to determine unknown gene functions and phenotypic changes generated by genetic modifications or selection of new traits. The use of phenomics for the evaluation of transgenic lines contributed significantly to the identification of plants more tolerant to biotic/abiotic stresses and furthermore, helped in the identification of unknown gene functions...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Yan Ma, Wei Li, Xiaobo Li, Dongmei Bao, Jianpei Lu
To obtain sufficient purified and active fusion protein-hepatocyte-targeting peptide-human endostatin (HTP-rES), we studied the growth curve and the optimal induction timing of BL21/pET21b-HTP-rES. Different conditions of pH value, induction time, induction concentration and induction temperature were optimized by univariate analysis. After washing, refolding and purifying, the activity of fusion protein was identified by flow cytometry and 3-(4,5)-dimethylthiahiazo (-z-y1)-3,5-di-phenytetrazoliumromide (MTT)...
December 25, 2016: Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao, Chinese Journal of Biotechnology
Sarah Inwood, Eugen Buehler, Michael Betenbaugh, Madhu Lal, Joseph Shiloach
Protein expression from human embryonic kidney cells (HEK 293) is an important tool for structural and clinical studies. It is previously shown that microRNAs (small, noncoding RNAs) are effective means for improved protein expression from these cells, and by conducting a high-throughput screening of the human microRNA library, several microRNAs are identified as potential candidates for improving expression. From these, miR-22-3p is chosen for further study since it increased the expression of luciferase, two membrane proteins and a secreted fusion protein with minimal effect on the cells' growth and viability...
October 7, 2017: Biotechnology Journal
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