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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907050/when-is-the-brain-dead-living-like-electrophysiological-responses-and-photon-emissions-from-applications-of-neurotransmitters-in-fixed-post-mortem-human-brains
#1
Michael A Persinger, Nicolas Rouleau, Nirosha J Murugan, Lucas W E Tessaro, Justin N Costa
The structure of the post-mortem human brain can be preserved by immersing the organ within a fixative solution. Once the brain is perfused, cellular and histological features are maintained over extended periods of time. However, functions of the human brain are not assumed to be preserved beyond death and subsequent chemical fixation. Here we present a series of experiments which, together, refute this assumption. Instead, we suggest that chemical preservation of brain structure results in some retained functional capacity...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898359/motherhood-and-infant-contact-regulate-neuroplasticity-in-the-serotonergic-midbrain-dorsal-raphe
#2
M Allie Holschbach, Joseph S Lonstein
The adult brain shows remarkable neuroplasticity in response to hormones and the socioemotional modifications that they influence. In females with reproductive and maternal experience, this neuroplasticity includes the birth and death of cells in several forebrain regions involved in maternal caregiving and postpartum affective state. Such plasticity in midbrain sites critical for these behavioral and emotional processes has never been examined, though. By visualizing bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) to label mitotic cells, NeuroD for neuronal precursors, and TUNEL to identify dying cells, we found that the midbrain dorsal raphe nucleus (DR, the source of most ascending serotoninergic projections) exhibited significant neuroplasticity in response to motherhood...
November 19, 2016: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27894208/whole-body-mri-including-diffusion-weighted-mri-compared-with-5-htp-pet-ct-in-the-detection-of-neuroendocrine-tumors
#3
Lina Carlbom, José Caballero-Corbalán, Dan Granberg, Jens Sörensen, Barbro Eriksson, Håkan Ahlström
AIM: We wanted to explore if whole-body magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) including diffusion-weighted (DW) and liver-specific contrast agent-enhanced imaging could be valuable in lesion detection of neuroendocrine tumors (NET). [11C]-5-Hydroxytryptophan positron emission tomography/computed tomography (5-HTP PET/CT) was used for comparison. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty-one patients with NET were investigated with whole-body MRI, including DW imaging (DWI) and contrast-enhanced imaging of the liver, and whole-body 5-HTP PET/CT...
November 29, 2016: Upsala Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893374/differential-evolution-optimization-of-the-sar-distribution-for-head-and-neck-hyperthermia
#4
Grazia Cappiello, Brian Mc Ginley, Muhammad Adnan Elahi, Tomas Drizdal, Margarethus M Paulides, Martin Glavin, Martin O'Halloran, Edward Jones
Hyperthermia is an emerging cancer treatment modality which involves applying heat to the malignant tumor. The heating can be delivered using electromagnetic (EM) energy, mostly in the radiofrequency (RF) or microwave range. Accurate patient-specific hyperthermia treatment planning (HTP) is essential for effective and safe treatments, in particular for deep and loco-regional hyperthermia. An important aspect of HTP is the ability to focus microwave energy into the tumor and reduce the occurrence of hot spots in healthy tissue...
November 14, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Bio-medical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882537/neurochemical-and-behavioral-effects-of-hypidone-hydrochloride-yl-0919-a-novel-combined-selective-serotonin-reuptake-inhibitor-and-partial-5-ht1a-agonist
#5
Li-Ming Zhang, Xiao-Yun Wang, Nan Zhao, Yu-Lu Wang, Xiao-Xu Hu, Yu-Hua Ran, Yan-Qin Liu, You-Zhi Zhang, Ri-Fang Yang, Yun-Feng Li
The purpose of the present study was to investigate the pharmacology of hypidone hydrochloride (YL-0919), a novel selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) and 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT)1A receptor agonist with high affinity for serotonin transporter (SERT) and 5-HT1A receptors. YL-0919 promoted [(35) S]GTPγ S binding at 85% of the magnitude of the full 5-HT1A receptor agonist 8-hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamino) tetralin (8-OH-DPAT), suggesting that YL-0919 is a high-efficacy partial agonist of 5-HT1A receptors...
November 24, 2016: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881277/impact-of-health-policy-changes-on-trends-in-the-pharmaceutical-market-in-turkey
#6
Esra Safak Yılmaz, Güvenç Koçkaya, Fatma Betül Yenilmez, Mete Saylan, Mehtap Tatar, Akif Akbulat, Hakkı Gürsöz, Saim Kerman
BACKGROUND: The implementation phase of the Turkish Health Transformation Program (HTP) began in 2003, with the aim of organizing, financing, and delivering health care services effectively, efficiently, and equally. The HTP impacted all clinical and economic outcomes of health, including pharmaceutical sales, by improving access to health services. OBJECTIVES: To understand the impact of five selected major policy changes that made an impact on supply, demand, or price in the pharmaceutical market between 1998 and 2012...
September 2016: Value in Health Regional Issues
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27846826/natural-product-htp-screening-for-antibacterial-e-coli-0157-h7-and-anti-inflammatory-agents-in-lps-from-e-coli-o111-b4-activated-macrophages-and-microglial-cells-focus-on-sepsis
#7
Elizabeth A Mazzio, Nan Li, David Bauer, Patricia Mendonca, Equar Taka, Mohammed Darb, Leeshawn Thomas, Henry Williams, Karam F A Soliman
BACKGROUND: Acute systemic inflammatory response syndrome arising from infection can lead to multiple organ failure and death, with greater susceptibility occurring in immunocompromised individuals. Moreover, sub-acute chronic inflammation is a contributor to the pathology of diverse degenerative diseases (Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease and arthritis). Given the known limitations in Western medicine to treat a broad range of inflammatory related illness as well as the emergence of antibiotic resistance, there is a renewed interest in complementary and alternative medicines (CAMs) to achieve these means...
November 15, 2016: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27844338/phospholipid-polydiacetylene-vesicle-based-colorimetric-assay-for-high-throughput-screening-of-bacteriocins-and-halocins
#8
Manoj Kumar Yadav, Vijay Kumar, Bijender Singh, Santosh Kumar Tiwari
The colorimetric assay is phospholipid/polydiacetylene vesicle-based assay used for the detection of membrane-acting peptides. Bacteriocins and halocins are antimicrobial peptides known to kill target cells by membrane disruption. Therefore, the assay was applied for high-throughput (HTP) screening of bacteriocins and halocins produced by lactic acid bacteria and haloarchaea, respectively. The assay consisted of vesicles which were synthesized using four different phospholipids: dipalmitoylphosphatydilcholine (DPPC), dimyristoylphosphatidylcholine (DMPC), dimyristoylphosphoethanolamine (DMPE) and dimyristoylphosphatidylglycerol (DMPG) in combination with diacetylene monomer 10,12-tricosadiy noic acid (TRCDA)...
November 14, 2016: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832969/advances-in-analytical-methodologies-to-guide-bioprocess-engineering-for-bio-therapeutics
#9
Radka Saldova, Michelle Kilcoyne, Henning Stöckmann, Silvia Millán Martín, Amanda M Lewis, Catherine M E Tuite, Jared Q Gerlach, Marie Le Berre, Michael C Borys, Zheng Jian Li, Nicholas R Abu-Absi, Kirk Leister, Lokesh Joshi, Pauline M Rudd
This study was performed to monitor the glycoform distribution of a recombinant antibody fusion protein expressed in CHO cells over the course of fed-batch bioreactor runs using high-throughput methods to accurately determine the glycosylation status of the cell culture and its product. Three different bioreactors running similar conditions were analysed at the same six time-points using the advanced methods described here. N-glycans from cell and secreted glycoproteins from CHO cells were analysed by HILIC-UPLC and MS, and the total glycosylation (both N- and O-linked glycans) secreted from the CHO cells were analysed by lectin microarrays...
November 7, 2016: Methods: a Companion to Methods in Enzymology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27765606/effect-of-lippia-alba-and-cymbopogon-citratus-essential-oils-on-biofilms-of-streptococcus-mutans-and-cytotoxicity-in-cho-cells
#10
A Tofiño-Rivera, M Ortega-Cuadros, D Galvis-Pareja, H Jiménez-Rios, L J Merini, M C Martínez-Pabón
BACKGROUND: Caries is a public health problem, given that it prevails in 60 to 90% of the school-age global population. Multiple factors interact in its etiology, among them dental plaque is necessary to have lactic acid producing microorganisms like Streptococcus from he Mutans group. Existing prevention and treatment measures are not totally effective and generate adverse effects, which is why it is necessary to search for complementary strategies for their management. AIM: The study sought to evaluate the eradication capacity of Streptococcus mutans biofilms and the toxicity on eukaryotic cells of Lippia alba and Cymbopogon citratus essential oils METHODOLOGY: Essential oils were extracted from plant material through steam distillation and then its chemical composition was determined...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27692695/adjunctive-5-hydroxytryptophan-slow-release-for-treatment-resistant-depression-clinical-and-preclinical-rationale
#11
Jacob P R Jacobsen, Andrew D Krystal, K Ranga R Krishnan, Marc G Caron
Serotonin transporter (SERT) inhibitors treat depression by elevating brain extracellular 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HTExt). However, only one-third of patients respond adequately. Treatment-resistant depression (TRD) is a major unmet need. Interestingly, elevating 5-HTExt beyond what is achieved by a SERT inhibitor appears to treat TRD. Adjunctive administration of 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP) safely elevates 5-HTExt beyond the SERT inhibitor effect in humans; however, 5-HTP cannot be a clinically viable drug because of its poor pharmacokinetics...
September 28, 2016: Trends in Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27686724/migration-and-risk-assessment-of-heavy-metals-in-sewage-sludge-during-hydrothermal-treatment-combined-with-pyrolysis
#12
Xingdong Wang, Chunxing Li, Bin Zhang, Jingjiang Lin, Qiaoqiao Chi, Yin Wang
In this study, the immobilization and risk assessment of heavy metals (HMs) in sewage sludge (SS) during hydrothermal treatment combined with pyrolysis (HTP) was investigated. The experimental results showed that the immobilization of HMs in SS was significantly affected and that the eco-toxicity/risk of SS to the environment was reduced through HTP, in addition to the enhancement of dehydration and a reduction in the volume of the sewage sludge. After the HTP process, although the majority of HMs were accumulated in the biochar, the HMs could be transformed from bioavailable fractions to more stable fractions, such as the acid soluble/exchangeable fractions (F1) of Zn, Ni and Cd in the biochar, which decreased to less than 6...
December 2016: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27679651/recurrence-of-hyperparathyroid-hypercalcemia-in-a-patient-with-the-hrpt-2-mutation-and-a-previous-parathyroid-carcinoma-in-hyperparathyroidism-jaw-tumor-syndrome
#13
Marco Mele, Lars Rolighed, MarieLouise Jespersen, Lars Rejnmark, Peer Christiansen
INTRODUCTION: Cancer in the parathyroid gland is rare, but parathyroid cancer is occasionally seen in relation to genetic abnormalities. Due to a limited amount of evidence, the optimal handling of these cases is not clear. Furthermore, the presence of a malignant parathyroid tumor is rarely known at the time of the initial operation; therefore, re-operations are often necessary. The aim of this study was to present the case of a patient with a previously diagnosed jaw tumor and parathyroid carcinoma that presents as a recurrence of hyperparathyroid hypercalcemia...
April 2016: International Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27617751/women-with-premenstrual-dysphoria-lack-the-seemingly-normal-premenstrual-right-sided-relative-dominance-of-5-htp-derived-serotonergic-activity-in-the-dorsolateral-prefrontal-cortices-a-possible-cause-of-disabling-mood-symptoms
#14
Olle Eriksson, Anders Wall, Ulf Olsson, Ina Marteinsdottir, Maria Holstad, Hans Ågren, Per Hartvig, Bengt Långström, Tord Naessén
STUDY OBJECTIVE: To investigate potential quantitative and qualitative differences in brain serotonergic activity between women with Premenstrual Dysphoria (PMD) and asymptomatic controls. BACKGROUND: Serotonin-augmenting drugs alleviate premenstrual mood symptoms in the majority of women with PMD while serotonin-depleting diets worsen PMD symptoms, both indicating intrinsic differences in brain serotonergic activity in women with PMD compared to asymptomatic women...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27605049/synaptonemal-complex-components-are-required-for-meiotic-checkpoint-function-in-caenorhabditis-elegans
#15
Tisha Bohr, Guinevere Ashley, Evan Eggleston, Kyra Firestone, Needhi Bhalla
Synapsis involves the assembly of a proteinaceous structure, the synaptonemal complex (SC), between paired homologous chromosomes and is essential for proper meiotic chromosome segregation. In C. elegans, the synapsis checkpoint selectively removes nuclei with unsynapsed chromosomes by inducing apoptosis. This checkpoint depends on Pairing Centers (PCs), cis- acting sites that promote pairing and synapsis. We have hypothesized that the stability of homolog pairing at PCs is monitored by this checkpoint. Here, we report that SC components SYP-3, HTP-3, HIM-3 and HTP-1 are required for a functional synapsis checkpoint...
September 7, 2016: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27600069/glycoarray-technologies-deciphering-interactions-from-proteins-to-live-cell-responses
#16
REVIEW
Tania M Puvirajesinghe, Jeremy E Turnbull
Microarray technologies inspired the development of carbohydrate arrays. Initially, carbohydrate array technology was hindered by the complex structures of glycans and their structural variability. The first designs of glycoarrays focused on the HTP (high throughput) study of protein-glycan binding events, and subsequently more in-depth kinetic analysis of carbohydrate-protein interactions. However, the applications have rapidly expanded and now achieve successful discrimination of selective interactions between carbohydrates and, not only proteins, but also viruses, bacteria and eukaryotic cells, and most recently even live cell responses to immobilized glycans...
2016: Microarrays
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27560172/routine-in-vitro-culture-of-p-falciparum-gametocytes-to-evaluate-novel-transmission-blocking-interventions
#17
Michael J Delves, Ursula Straschil, Andrea Ruecker, Celia Miguel-Blanco, Sara Marques, Jake Baum, Robert E Sinden
The prevention of parasite transmission from the human host to the mosquito has been recognized as a vital tool for malaria eradication campaigns. However, transmission-blocking antimalarial drug and/or vaccine discovery and development is currently hampered by the expense and difficulty of producing mature Plasmodium falciparum gametocytes in vitro-the parasite stage responsible for mosquito infection. Current protocols for P. falciparum gametocyte culture usually require complex parasite synchronization and addition of stimulating and/or inhibitory factors, and they may not have demonstrated the essential property of mosquito infectivity...
September 2016: Nature Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27473286/altered-tryptophan-metabolism-in-human-meningioma
#18
Noble Kumar Talari, Manas Panigrahi, Sailaja Madigubba, Sundaram Challa, Prakash Babu Phanithi
Meningiomas are the neoplasms that arise from the arachnoid cells of the meninges. It was reported that cancer cells escape from immune system through the metabolism of an aromatic essential amino acid tryptophan (TRP) via Kynurenine (KYN) pathway. However, the role of TRP metabolites such as, 5-Hydroxy tryptophan (5-HTP), 5-Hydroxy tryptamine (5-HT), N-acetyl serotonin (NAS), Melatonin (MEL), KYN, N-acetyl tryptamine, 5-Hydroxy indole acetic acid (5-HIAA) and 5-Methoxy indole acetic acid is not yet evaluated in human meningioma...
July 29, 2016: Journal of Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27455710/striped-phase-of-3-hexylthiophene-self-assembled-monolayers-on-au-1-11-formed-by-vapor-phase-deposition
#19
Youngwoo Kim, Hungu Kang, Azuho Tsunoi, Tomohiro Hayashi, Masahiko Hara, Jaegeun Noh
The formation and surface structure of 3-hexylthiophene (HTP) self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) on Au(111) prepared by solution and ambient-pressure vapor deposition at room temperature (RT) for 24 h were examined by means of scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and cyclic voltammetry (CV). STM imaging revealed that HTP SAMs formed by solution deposition have a disordered phase, whereas those formed by vapor deposition exhibit a striped phase with a unidirectional orientation. The distance between the rows in the striped phase was measured to be 1...
March 2016: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27409127/-scientific-assessment-of-350-failed-metasul-ldh%C3%A2-hip-prostheses-with-durom%C3%A2-acetabulum-component-with-probable-conus-insufficiency-implanted-in-a-single-centre-during-2003-to-2008
#20
D Brauers, M Rütschi, G Pagenstert
Introduction: The revision rates were high for patients with Metasul-LDH® hip prosthesis (LDH = large-diameter head) with DUROM® acetabulum components implanted in a single centre between 2003 and 2008. This suggested that there was a system-related weakness in total hip replacements with large diameter heads. It was suspected that the tapered connection between head and stem was responsible for the implantation failure. This led to a scientific reappraisal of the unsuccessful hip prostheses, in order to clarify whether there was a tribological problem or a cone failure...
July 13, 2016: Zeitschrift Für Orthopädie und Unfallchirurgie
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