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Jacob P R Jacobsen, Andrew D Krystal, K Ranga R Krishnan, Marc G Caron
Serotonin transporter (SERT) inhibitors treat depression by elevating brain extracellular 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HTExt). However, only one-third of patients respond adequately. Treatment-resistant depression (TRD) is a major unmet need. Interestingly, elevating 5-HTExt beyond what is achieved by a SERT inhibitor appears to treat TRD. Adjunctive administration of 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP) safely elevates 5-HTExt beyond the SERT inhibitor effect in humans; however, 5-HTP cannot be a clinically viable drug because of its poor pharmacokinetics...
September 28, 2016: Trends in Pharmacological Sciences
Xingdong Wang, Chunxing Li, Bin Zhang, Jingjiang Lin, Qiaoqiao Chi, Yin Wang
In this study, the immobilization and risk assessment of heavy metals (HMs) in sewage sludge (SS) during hydrothermal treatment combined with pyrolysis (HTP) was investigated. The experimental results showed that the immobilization of HMs in SS was significantly affected and that the eco-toxicity/risk of SS to the environment was reduced through HTP, in addition to the enhancement of dehydration and a reduction in the volume of the sewage sludge. After the HTP process, although the majority of HMs were accumulated in the biochar, the HMs could be transformed from bioavailable fractions to more stable fractions, such as the acid soluble/exchangeable fractions (F1) of Zn, Ni and Cd in the biochar, which decreased to less than 6...
December 2016: Bioresource Technology
Marco Mele, Lars Rolighed, MarieLouise Jespersen, Lars Rejnmark, Peer Christiansen
INTRODUCTION: Cancer in the parathyroid gland is rare, but parathyroid cancer is occasionally seen in relation to genetic abnormalities. Due to a limited amount of evidence, the optimal handling of these cases is not clear. Furthermore, the presence of a malignant parathyroid tumor is rarely known at the time of the initial operation; therefore, re-operations are often necessary. The aim of this study was to present the case of a patient with a previously diagnosed jaw tumor and parathyroid carcinoma that presents as a recurrence of hyperparathyroid hypercalcemia...
April 2016: International Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism
Olle Eriksson, Anders Wall, Ulf Olsson, Ina Marteinsdottir, Maria Holstad, Hans Ågren, Per Hartvig, Bengt Långström, Tord Naessén
STUDY OBJECTIVE: To investigate potential quantitative and qualitative differences in brain serotonergic activity between women with Premenstrual Dysphoria (PMD) and asymptomatic controls. BACKGROUND: Serotonin-augmenting drugs alleviate premenstrual mood symptoms in the majority of women with PMD while serotonin-depleting diets worsen PMD symptoms, both indicating intrinsic differences in brain serotonergic activity in women with PMD compared to asymptomatic women...
2016: PloS One
Tisha Bohr, Guinevere Ashley, Evan Eggleston, Kyra Firestone, Needhi Bhalla
Synapsis involves the assembly of a proteinaceous structure, the synaptonemal complex (SC), between paired homologous chromosomes and is essential for proper meiotic chromosome segregation. In C. elegans, the synapsis checkpoint selectively removes nuclei with unsynapsed chromosomes by inducing apoptosis. This checkpoint depends on Pairing Centers (PCs), cis- acting sites that promote pairing and synapsis. We have hypothesized that the stability of homolog pairing at PCs is monitored by this checkpoint. Here, we report that SC components SYP-3, HTP-3, HIM-3 and HTP-1 are required for a functional synapsis checkpoint...
September 7, 2016: Genetics
Tania M Puvirajesinghe, Jeremy E Turnbull
Microarray technologies inspired the development of carbohydrate arrays. Initially, carbohydrate array technology was hindered by the complex structures of glycans and their structural variability. The first designs of glycoarrays focused on the HTP (high throughput) study of protein-glycan binding events, and subsequently more in-depth kinetic analysis of carbohydrate-protein interactions. However, the applications have rapidly expanded and now achieve successful discrimination of selective interactions between carbohydrates and, not only proteins, but also viruses, bacteria and eukaryotic cells, and most recently even live cell responses to immobilized glycans...
2016: Microarrays
Michael J Delves, Ursula Straschil, Andrea Ruecker, Celia Miguel-Blanco, Sara Marques, Jake Baum, Robert E Sinden
The prevention of parasite transmission from the human host to the mosquito has been recognized as a vital tool for malaria eradication campaigns. However, transmission-blocking antimalarial drug and/or vaccine discovery and development is currently hampered by the expense and difficulty of producing mature Plasmodium falciparum gametocytes in vitro-the parasite stage responsible for mosquito infection. Current protocols for P. falciparum gametocyte culture usually require complex parasite synchronization and addition of stimulating and/or inhibitory factors, and they may not have demonstrated the essential property of mosquito infectivity...
September 2016: Nature Protocols
Noble Kumar Talari, Manas Panigrahi, Sailaja Madigubba, Sundaram Challa, Prakash Babu Phanithi
Meningiomas are the neoplasms that arise from the arachnoid cells of the meninges. It was reported that cancer cells escape from immune system through the metabolism of an aromatic essential amino acid tryptophan (TRP) via Kynurenine (KYN) pathway. However, the role of TRP metabolites such as, 5-Hydroxy tryptophan (5-HTP), 5-Hydroxy tryptamine (5-HT), N-acetyl serotonin (NAS), Melatonin (MEL), KYN, N-acetyl tryptamine, 5-Hydroxy indole acetic acid (5-HIAA) and 5-Methoxy indole acetic acid is not yet evaluated in human meningioma...
July 29, 2016: Journal of Neuro-oncology
Youngwoo Kim, Hungu Kang, Azuho Tsunoi, Tomohiro Hayashi, Masahiko Hara, Jaegeun Noh
The formation and surface structure of 3-hexylthiophene (HTP) self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) on Au(111) prepared by solution and ambient-pressure vapor deposition at room temperature (RT) for 24 h were examined by means of scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and cyclic voltammetry (CV). STM imaging revealed that HTP SAMs formed by solution deposition have a disordered phase, whereas those formed by vapor deposition exhibit a striped phase with a unidirectional orientation. The distance between the rows in the striped phase was measured to be 1...
March 2016: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
D Brauers, M Rütschi, G Pagenstert
Introduction: The revision rates were high for patients with Metasul-LDH® hip prosthesis (LDH = large-diameter head) with DUROM® acetabulum components implanted in a single centre between 2003 and 2008. This suggested that there was a system-related weakness in total hip replacements with large diameter heads. It was suspected that the tapered connection between head and stem was responsible for the implantation failure. This led to a scientific reappraisal of the unsuccessful hip prostheses, in order to clarify whether there was a tribological problem or a cone failure...
July 13, 2016: Zeitschrift Für Orthopädie und Unfallchirurgie
Y Yang, M D Sumption, E W Collings
High temperatures and under pressure (HTP) processing has been used to study the effects of chemical doping in MgB2. ZrB2, TiB2 and NbB2 were selected as additives since, like MgB2, they have an AlB2-type structure and similar lattice parameters. Dy2O3 was selected as it has been reported to generate nanoscale, secondary intragrain phases in MgB2. While C is known to enter the B-sublattice readily, attempts to dope Zr and other elements onto the Mg site have been less successful due to slow bulk diffusion, low solubility in MgB2, or both...
2016: Scientific Reports
Samantha R Weaver, Austin P Prichard, Elizabeth L Endres, Stefanie A Newhouse, Tonia L Peters, Peter M Crump, Matthew S Akins, Thomas D Crenshaw, Rupert M Bruckmaier, Laura L Hernandez
Hypocalcemia is a metabolic disorder that affects dairy cows during the transition from pregnancy to lactation. Twelve multiparous Holstein cows and twelve multiparous Jersey cows were intravenously infused daily for approximately 7 days prepartum with either saline or 1.0mg/kg bodyweight of the immediate precursor to serotonin synthesis, 5hydroxy-l-tryptophan (5-HTP). On infusion days, blood was collected before, after, and at 2, 4, and 8h postinfusion. Blood and urine were collected daily before the infusion period, for 14 days postpartum and on day 30 postpartum...
July 2016: Journal of Endocrinology
Atena Haghighattalab, Lorena González Pérez, Suchismita Mondal, Daljit Singh, Dale Schinstock, Jessica Rutkoski, Ivan Ortiz-Monasterio, Ravi Prakash Singh, Douglas Goodin, Jesse Poland
BACKGROUND: Low cost unmanned aerial systems (UAS) have great potential for rapid proximal measurements of plants in agriculture. In the context of plant breeding and genetics, current approaches for phenotyping a large number of breeding lines under field conditions require substantial investments in time, cost, and labor. For field-based high-throughput phenotyping (HTP), UAS platforms can provide high-resolution measurements for small plot research, while enabling the rapid assessment of tens-of-thousands of field plots...
2016: Plant Methods
Suneeta Yadav, Chandra Mohini Chaturvedi
Avian literature reports the modulation of 'photoperiodic gonadal responses' by the temporal phase relation of serotonergic and dopaminergic oscillations in Japanese quail. But, the modulation of 'light colour responses' by the temporal synergism of neural oscillations is not yet known. Hence the present study was designed to investigate the interaction of the light colour (blue, red) and the phase relation of neural oscillations in the reproductive regulation of Japanese quail. Three week old male Japanese quail were divided into two groups and maintained under a long day length condition (16L:8D) and were exposed to a 30 lux intensity of blue LED (light emitting diode) (B LED) and a red LED light (R LED)...
September 2016: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
Olof Eriksson, Ramkumar Selvaraju, Torsten Eich, Mariam Willny, Torkel B Brismar, Lina Carlbom, Håkan Ahlström, Gunnar Tufvesson, Torbjörn Lundgren, Olle Korsgren
No imaging methodology currently exists to monitor viable islet mass after clinical intraportal islet transplantation. We investigated the potential of the endocrine positron emission tomography (PET) marker [(11)C]5-hydroxytryptophan ([(11)C]5-HTP) for this purpose. In a preclinical proof-of-concept study, the ex vivo and in vivo [(11)C]5-HTP signal was compared with the number of islets transplanted in rats. In a clinical study, human subjects with an intraportal islet graft (n = 8) underwent two [(11)C]5-HTP PET and MRI examinations 8 months apart...
September 2016: Diabetes
Honghai Zhang, Haiting Zhao, Xiaoxuan Yang, Qingsheng Xue, Joseph F Cotten, Hua-Jun Feng
OBJECTIVE: The DBA/1 mouse is a relevant animal model of sudden unexpected death in epilepsy (SUDEP), as it exhibits seizure-induced respiratory arrest (S-IRA) evoked by acoustic stimulation, followed by cardiac arrhythmia and death. Defects in serotonergic neurotransmission may contribute to S-IRA. The tryptophan hydroxylase-2 (TPH2) enzyme converts L-tryptophan to 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP), a precursor for central nervous system (CNS) serotonin (5-HT) synthesis; and DBA/1 mice have a polymorphism that decreases TPH2 activity...
August 2016: Epilepsia
Amit Baumel, Christoph U Correll, Marta Hauser, Mary Brunette, Armando Rotondi, Dror Ben-Zeev, Jennifer D Gottlieb, Kim T Mueser, Eric D Achtyes, Nina R Schooler, Delbert G Robinson, Susan Gingerich, Patricia Marcy, Piper Meyer-Kalos, John M Kane
OBJECTIVE: The authors examined patients' acceptance of the Health Technology Program (HTP), an integrative approach to relapse prevention after hospitalization of adults with schizophrenia or related disorders. The program combines use of digital tools with support from a mental health technology coach (MHTC). METHODS: Patients with schizophrenia spectrum disorders received six months of treatment that began within 60 days of a psychiatric hospitalization and included the development of a personalized relapse prevention plan, three digital tools, and contacts with MHTCs...
September 1, 2016: Psychiatric Services: a Journal of the American Psychiatric Association
Conor G McAloon, Michael L Doherty, Paul Whyte, Luke O'Grady, Simon J More, Locksley L McV Messam, Margaret Good, Peter Mullowney, Sam Strain, Martin J Green
Bovine paratuberculosis is a disease characterised by chronic granulomatous enteritis which manifests clinically as a protein-losing enteropathy causing diarrhoea, hypoproteinaemia, emaciation and, eventually death. Some evidence exists to suggest a possible zoonotic link and a national voluntary Johne's Disease Control Programme was initiated by Animal Health Ireland in 2013. The objective of this study was to estimate herd-level true prevalence (HTP) and animal-level true prevalence (ATP) of paratuberculosis in Irish herds enrolled in the national voluntary JD control programme during 2013-14...
June 1, 2016: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
Somanshu Banerjee, Kazuyoshi Tsutsui, Chandra Mohini Chaturvedi
Reproductive performance of many avian species, including Japanese quail, is reported to be modulated by specific temporal phase relation of serotonergic and dopaminergic oscillations. Accordingly, it has been shown that the serotonin precursor 5-HTP and the dopamine precursor l-DOPA given 8 h apart induce gonadal suppression and given 12 h apart lead to gonadal stimulation, while other temporal relationships were found to be ineffective. In the present study, we investigated the effects of 8- and 12-h phase relation of neural oscillations on testicular responses including expression of GnRH-I, GnIH, pro-apoptotic proteins (p53 and Bax), inactive and active executioner caspase-3, and the uncleaved DNA repair enzyme PARP-1...
May 15, 2016: Journal of Experimental Biology
Tomas Furmark, Ina Marteinsdottir, Andreas Frick, Kerstin Heurling, Maria Tillfors, Lieuwe Appel, Gunnar Antoni, Per Hartvig, Håkan Fischer, Bengt Långström, Elias Eriksson, Mats Fredrikson
It is disputed whether anxiety disorders, like social anxiety disorder, are characterized by serotonin over- or underactivity. Here, we evaluated whether our recent finding of elevated neural serotonin synthesis rate in patients with social anxiety disorder could be reproduced in a separate cohort, and whether allelic variation in the tryptophan hydroxylase-2 (TPH2) G-703T polymorphism relates to differences in serotonin synthesis assessed with positron emission tomography. Eighteen social anxiety disorder patients and six healthy controls were scanned during 60 minutes in a resting state using positron emission tomography and 5-hydroxy-L-[β -(11)C]tryptophan, [(11)C]5-HTP, a substrate of the second enzymatic step in serotonin synthesis...
October 2016: Journal of Psychopharmacology
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