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Epitope mapping

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330423/t-cell-immunity-to-zika-virus-targets-immunodominant-epitopes-that-show-cross-reactivity-with-other-flaviviruses
#1
C J Reynolds, O M Suleyman, A M Ortega-Prieto, J K Skelton, P Bonnesoeur, A Blohm, V Carregaro, J S Silva, E A James, B Maillère, M Dorner, R J Boyton, D M Altmann
Zika virus (ZIKV) Infection has several outcomes from asymptomatic exposure to rash, conjunctivitis, Guillain-Barré syndrome or congenital Zika syndrome. Analysis of ZIKV immunity is confounded by the fact that several related Flaviviruses infect humans, including Dengue virus 1-4, West Nile virus and Yellow Fever virus. HLA class II restricted T cell cross-reactivity between ZIKV and other Flaviviruses infection(s) or vaccination may contribute to protection or to enhanced immunopathology. We mapped immunodominant, HLA class II restricted, CD4 epitopes from ZIKV Envelope (Env), and Non-structural (NS) NS1, NS3 and NS5 antigens in HLA class II transgenic mice...
January 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327672/linear-epitopes-in-african-swine-fever-virus-p72-recognized-by-monoclonal-antibodies-prepared-against-baculovirus-expressed-antigen
#2
Mallory E Heimerman, Maria V Murgia, Ping Wu, Andre D Lowe, Wei Jia, Raymond R Rowland
Protein p72 is the major capsid protein of African swine fever virus (ASFV) and is an important target for test and vaccine development. Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) were prepared against a recombinant antigenic fragment, from amino acid (aa) 20-303, expressed in baculovirus. A total of 29 mAbs were recovered and tested by immunofluorescent antibody (IFA) staining on ASFV Lisbon-infected Vero cells. Six antibodies were IFA-positive and selected for further characterization. Epitope mapping was performed against overlapping polypeptides expressed in E...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324225/the-marburgvirus-neutralizing-human-monoclonal-antibody-mr191-targets-a-conserved-site-to-block-virus-receptor-binding
#3
Liam B King, Marnie L Fusco, Andrew I Flyak, Philipp A Ilinykh, Kai Huang, Bronwyn Gunn, Robert N Kirchdoerfer, Kathryn M Hastie, Amandeep K Sangha, Jens Meiler, Galit Alter, Alexander Bukreyev, James E Crowe, Erica Ollmann Saphire
Since their first identification 50 years ago, marburgviruses have emerged several times, with 83%-90% lethality in the largest outbreaks. Although no vaccines or therapeutics are available for human use, the human antibody MR191 provides complete protection in non-human primates when delivered several days after inoculation of a lethal marburgvirus dose. The detailed neutralization mechanism of MR191 remains outstanding. Here we present a 3.2 Å crystal structure of MR191 complexed with a trimeric marburgvirus surface glycoprotein (GP)...
January 10, 2018: Cell Host & Microbe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316918/in-silico-epitope-mapping-and-experimental-evaluation-of-the-merozoite-adhesive-erythrocytic-binding-protein-maebl-as-a-malaria-vaccine-candidate
#4
Pedro Cravo, Renato B Machado, Juliana A Leite, Taizy Leda, Rossarin Suwanarusk, Najara Bittencourt, Letusa Albrecht, Carla Judice, Stefanie C P Lopes, Marcus V G Lacerda, Marcelo U Ferreira, Irene S Soares, Yun Shan Goh, Daniel Y Bargieri, François Nosten, Bruce Russell, Laurent Rénia, Fabio T M Costa
BACKGROUND: Technical limitations for culturing the human malaria parasite Plasmodium vivax have impaired the discovery of vaccine candidates, challenging the malaria eradication agenda. The immunogenicity of the M2 domain of the Merozoite Adhesive Erythrocytic Binding Protein (MAEBL) antigen cloned from the Plasmodium yoelii murine parasite, has been previously demonstrated. RESULTS: Detailed epitope mapping of MAEBL through immunoinformatics identified several MHCI, MHCII and B cell epitopes throughout the peptide, with several of these lying in the M2 domain and being conserved between P...
January 10, 2018: Malaria Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315611/isolation-of-a-high-affinity-bet-v-1-specific-igg-derived-scfv-from-a-subject-vaccinated-with-hypoallergenic-bet-v-1-fragments
#5
Elisabeth Gadermaier, Katharina Marth, Christian Lupinek, Raffaela Campana, Gerhard Hofer, Katharina Blatt, Dubravka Smiljkovic, Uwe Roder, Margarete Focke-Tejkl, Susanne Vrtala, Walter Keller, Peter Valent, Rudolf Valenta, Sabine Flicker
BACKGROUND: Recombinant hypoallergenic allergen derivatives have been used in clinical immunotherapy studies and clinical efficacy seems to be related to the induction of blocking IgG antibodies recognizing the wild type allergens. However, so far no treatment-induced IgG antibodies have been characterized. OBJECTIVE: To clone, express and characterize IgG antibodies induced by vaccination with two hypoallergenic recombinant fragments of the major birch pollen allergen, Bet v 1 in a non-allergic subject...
January 9, 2018: Allergy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29314603/investigating-protein-ligand-interactions-by-solution-nmr-spectroscopy
#6
Walter Becker, Krishna Chaitanya Bhattiprolu, Nina Gubensäk, Klaus Zangger
Protein-ligand interactions are of fundamental importance in almost all processes in living organisms. The ligands comprise small molecules, drugs or biological macromolecules and their interaction strength varies over several orders of magnitude. Solution NMR spectroscopy offers a large repertoire of techniques to study such complexes. Here we give an overview of the different NMR approaches available. The information they provide ranges from the simple information about the presence of binding or epitope mapping to the complete 3D structure of the complex...
January 4, 2018: Chemphyschem: a European Journal of Chemical Physics and Physical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29314341/synthesis-of-galactosylated-glycosylphosphatylinositols-derivatives-from-trypanosoma-brucei
#7
Maurice Grube, Lee Bo-Young, Monika Garg, Dana Michel, Ankita Malik, Ivan Vilotijevic, Peter H Seeberger, Daniel Varon Silva
Trypanosoma brucei uses variant surface glycoproteins (VSGs) to evade the host immune system and ensure parasitic longevity in animals and humans. VSGs are attached to the cell membrane by complex glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchors (GPI). Distinguishing structural feature of VSG GPIs are multiple alpha and beta-galactosides attached to the conserved GPI core structure. T. brucei GPIs have been associated with macrophage activation and alleviation of parasitemia during infection, acting as disease onset delaying antigens...
January 3, 2018: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313477/evaluation-of-the-diagnostic-performance-of-onchocerca-volvulus-linear-epitopes-in-a-peptide-enzyme-linked-immunosorbent-assay
#8
Ole Lagatie, Ann Verheyen, Erik Nijs, Bieke Van Dorst, Linda Batsa Debrah, Alex Debrah, Taniawati Supali, Erliyani Sartono, Lieven J Stuyver
Diagnostic tools for the detection of infection with Onchocerca volvulus are presently limited to microfilaria detection in skin biopsies and serological assessment using the Ov16 immunoglobulin G4 (IgG4) rapid test, both of which have limited sensitivity. We have investigated the diagnostic performance of a peptide enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) based on immunodominant linear epitopes previously discovered. Peptides that were used in these assays were designated O. volvulus motif peptides (OvMP): OvMP-1 (VSV-EPVTTQET-VSV), OvMP-2 (VSV-KDGEDK-VSV), OvMP-3 (VSV-QTSNLD-VSV), and the combination of the latter two, OvMP-23 (VSV-KDGEDK-VSV-QTSNLD-VSV)...
January 8, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313073/correction-to-characterization-of-the-first-fully-human-anti-tem1-scfv-in-models-of-solid-tumor-imaging-and-immunotoxin-based-therapy
#9
Xiaopeng Yuan, Mingjuan Yang, Xiang Chen, Xuhua Zhang, Shrey Sukhadia, Najia Musolino, Huijing Bao, Tingtao Chen, Chen Xu, Qirui Wang, Stephen Santoro, Daniel Ricklin, Jia Hu, Ruihe Lin, Wei Yang, Zhijun Li, Weijun Qin, Aizhi Zhao, Nathalie Scholler, George Coukos
Tumor endothelial marker 1 (TEM1) has been identified as a novel surface marker upregulated on the blood vessels and stroma in many solid tumors. We previously isolated a novel single-chain variable fragment (scFv) 78 against TEM1 from a yeast display scFv library. Here we evaluated the potential applications of scFv78 as a tool for tumor molecular imaging, immunotoxin-based therapy and nanotherapy. Epitope mapping, three-dimensional (3D) structure docking and affinity measurements indicated that scFv78 could bind to both human and murine TEM1, with equivalent affinity, at a well-conserved conformational epitope...
January 8, 2018: Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy: CII
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29291232/development-of-monoclonal-antibody-for-differentiating-porcine-reproductive-and-respiratory-syndrome-virus-and-identification-of-a-novel-non-structural-protein-2-epitope-peptide
#10
Feng-Xue Wang, Yong Yang, Xing Liu, Min-Hui He, Ying Liu, Na Sun, Hong-Wei Zhu, Jing-Qiang Ren, Hua Wu, Yong-Jun Wen
Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) nucleocapsid protein (NP) is the immunodominant region of PRRSV viral proteins. Non-structural protein 2 (Nsp2) and its hypervariable region play an essential role in the differential diagnosis of PRRSV. Western blot and immunofluorescence assay (IFA) analyses found that 2 out of 18 monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) recognized the NP and that 5 of 11 MAbs recognized Nsp2-120aa. IFA data demonstrated that 2 MAbs raised against the NP have a positive reaction to PRRSV; either HP-PRRSV, classic PRRSV or the vaccine strain at 1:100 dilution...
December 2017: Virusdisease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29289749/sequence-defined-antibodies-improve-the-detection-of-cadherin-2-n-cadherin-during-zebrafish-development
#11
Giulio Russo, Ulrike Theisen, Wieland Fahr, Saskia Helmsing, Michael Hust, Reinhard W Köster, Stefan Dübel
Cadherin-2 plays a fundamental role during zebrafish CNS and heart morphogenesis. Profiling zCdh2 expression via antibody staining is essential to achieving better understanding of its role during zebrafish development. Generation of recombinant human antibodies to zCdh2 by phage display was used to identify monoclonal antibodies with reduced unspecific binding patterns when compared to available commercial antibodies. Specificity was profiled using flow cytometry of wild type, zCdh2-defective mutant and zCdh2-GFP zebrafish cells...
December 28, 2017: New Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29286392/overlapping-peptide-library-to-map-qa-1-epitopes-in-a-protein
#12
Yi Xu, Samiksha Wasnik, David J Baylink, Edmundo Carreon Berumen, Xiaolei Tang
Qa-1 (HLA-E in human) belongs to a group of non-classical major histocompatibility complex 1b (MHC-Ib) molecules. Recent data suggest that Qa-1 molecules play important roles in surveying cells for structural and functional integrity, inducing immune regulation, and limiting immune responses to viral infections. Additionally, functional augmentation of Qa-1-restricted CD8+ T cells through epitope immunization has shown therapeutic effects in several autoimmune disease animal models, e.g. experimental allergic encephalomyelitis, collagen-induced arthritis, and non-obese diabetes...
December 20, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29273568/hantavirus-gc-induces-long-term-immune-protection-via-lamp-targeting-dna-vaccine-strategy
#13
Dong-Bo Jiang, Jin-Peng Zhang, Lin-Feng Cheng, Guan-Wen Zhang, Yun Li, Zi-Chao Li, Zhen-Hua Lu, Zi-Xin Zhang, Yu-Chen Lu, Lian-He Zheng, Fang-Lin Zhang, Kun Yang
Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) occurs widely throughout Eurasia. Unfortunately, there is no effective treatment, and prophylaxis remains the best option against the major pathogenic agent, hantaan virus (HTNV), which is an Old World hantavirus. However, the absence of cellular immune responses and immunological memory hampers acceptance of the current inactivated HFRS vaccine. Previous studies revealed that a lysosome-associated membrane protein 1 (LAMP1)-targeting strategy involving a DNA vaccine based on the HTNV glycoprotein Gn successfully conferred long-term immunity, and indicated that further research on Gc, another HTNV antigen, was warranted...
December 19, 2017: Antiviral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29261802/two-classes-of-protective-antibodies-against-pseudorabies-virus-variant-glycoprotein-b-implications-for-vaccine-design
#14
Xiangdong Li, Fanli Yang, Xule Hu, Feifei Tan, Jianxun Qi, Ruchao Peng, Min Wang, Yan Chai, Liying Hao, Junhua Deng, Chenyu Bai, Juan Wang, Hao Song, Shuguang Tan, Guangwen Lu, George F Gao, Yi Shi, Kegong Tian
Pseudorabies virus (PRV) belongs to the Herpesviridae family, and is an important veterinary pathogen. Highly pathogenic PRV variants have caused severe epidemics in China since 2011, causing huge economic losses. To tackle the epidemics, we identified a panel of mouse monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) against PRV glycoprotein B (gB) that effectively block PRV infection. Among these 15 mAbs, fourteen of them block PRV entry in a complement-dependent manner. The remaining one, 1H1 mAb, however can directly neutralize the virus independent of complement and displays broad-spectrum neutralizing activities...
December 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29237828/identification-of-novel-structural-determinants-in-mw965-env-that-regulate-the-neutralization-phenotype-and-conformational-masking-potential-of-primary-hiv-1-isolates
#15
Zakiya M Qualls, Alok Choudhary, William Honnen, Raja Prattipati, James E Robinson, Abraham Pinter
The subtype C HIV-1 isolate MW965.26 is a highly neutralization-sensitive tier-1a primary isolate that is widely used in vaccine studies, but the basis for the sensitive neutralization phenotype of this isolate is not known. Substituting the MW965.26 V1/V2 domain into a neutralization-sensitive SF162 Env clone resulted in high resistance to standard anti-V3 monoclonal antibodies, demonstrating that this region possessed strong masking activity in a standard Env backbone and indicating that determinants elsewhere in MW965...
December 13, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236299/apicomplexa-specific-%C3%AE-hairpin-of-plasmodium-and-toxoplasma-profilins-a-molecular-dynamics-simulation-study
#16
Priyadarsini Kadirvel, Sharmila Anishetty
Profilin is one of the actin-binding proteins that regulate dynamics of actin polymerization. It plays a key role in cell motility and invasion. It also interacts with several other proteins notably through its poly-L-proline (PLP) binding site. Profilin in apicomplexa is characterized by a unique mini-domain consisting of a large β-hairpin extension and an acidic loop which is relatively longer in Plasmodium species. Profilin is essential for the invasive blood stages of Plasmodium falciparum. In the current study, unbound profilins from Plasmodium falciparum (Pf), Toxoplasma gondii (Tg) and Homo sapiens (Hs) were subjected to molecular dynamics (MD) simulations for a timeframe of 100 ns each to understand the conformational dynamics of these proteins...
December 13, 2017: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29236287/characterization-of-a-norovirus-specific-monoclonal-antibody-that-exhibits-wide-spectrum-binding-activities
#17
Lijun Zheng, Wenhui Wang, Jinjin Liu, Xuhui Chen, Sanjing Li, Qiaoli Wang, Yuqi Huo, Chuan Qin, Shuo Shen, Mingchen Wang
Noroviruses (NoVs) are increasingly recognized as the leading cause of acute non-bacterial gastroenteritis worldwide. To screen for NoV-specific monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) with wide spectrum binding activities that could be used for the development of NoV-related detection reagents, we immunized mice with a combination of virus like particles (VLPs) derived from eight different genotypes (two from genogroup I and six from genogroup II), of which two (GI.7 and GII.2) were newly produced VLPs. Indirect enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) confirmed that two mAbs (8D8 and 10B11) bound to all eight major capsid proteins (VP1) with varied binding abilities...
December 13, 2017: Journal of Medical Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229678/epitope-mapping-of-serca2a-identifies-an-antigenic-determinant-that-induces-mainly-atrial-myocarditis-in-a-j-mice
#18
Bharathi Krishnan, Chandirasegaran Massilamany, Rakesh H Basavalingappa, Arunakumar Gangaplara, Rajkumar A Rajasekaran, Muhammad Z Afzal, Vahid Khalilzad-Sharghi, You Zhou, Jean-Jack Riethoven, Shyam S Nandi, Paras K Mishra, Raymond A Sobel, Jennifer L Strande, David Steffen, Jay Reddy
Sarcoplasmic/endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ adenosine triphosphatase (SERCA)2a, a critical regulator of calcium homeostasis, is known to be decreased in heart failure. Patients with myocarditis or dilated cardiomyopathy develop autoantibodies to SERCA2a suggesting that they may have pathogenetic significance. In this report, we describe epitope mapping analysis of SERCA2a in A/J mice that leads us to make five observations: 1) SERCA2a contains multiple T cell epitopes that induce varying degrees of myocarditis...
December 11, 2017: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215073/solution-structure-of-the-major-fish-allergen-parvalbumin-sco-j-1-derived-from-the-pacific-mackerel
#19
Hiroyuki Kumeta, Haruka Nakayama, Kenji Ogura
Although fish is an important part of the human diet, it is also a common source of food allergy. The major allergen in fish is parvalbumin, a well-conserved Ca2+-binding protein found in the white muscle of many fish species. Here, we studied the solution structure of the parvalbumin Sco j 1, derived from the Pacific mackerel, using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. We mapped the IgE-binding epitope proposed in a recent study onto the present structure. Interestingly, three of four residues, which were elucidated as key residues of the IgE-binding epitope, were exposed to solvent, whereas one residue faced the inside of the molecule...
December 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214036/strong-viral-associations-with-sle-among-filipinos
#20
Evan S Vista, Michael H Weisman, Mariko L Ishimori, Hua Chen, Rebecka L Bourn, Ben F Bruner, Laniyati Hamijoyo, Robelle D Tanangunan, Noga J Gal, Julie M Robertson, John B Harley, Joel M Guthridge, Sandra V Navarra, Judith A James
Objectives: Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is considered an important environmental factor in SLE aetiology, but the relationship between SLE and EBV in the Filipino population is unknown. We tested associations between SLE, lupus-associated autoantibodies and seropositivity for EBV and other herpes viruses in the Filipino population. Methods: Sera from Filipino patients with SLE (n=233), unaffected first-degree relatives (FDRs, n=543) and unrelated controls (n=221) were tested for antibodies against EBV, cytomegalovirus (CMV) and herpes simplex viruses (HSV-1 and HSV-2) by standardised ELISAs...
2017: Lupus Science & Medicine
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