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ADHD dietary recommendations

Melissa L Danielson, Susanna N Visser, Andrea Chronis-Tuscano, George J DuPaul
OBJECTIVE: To characterize lifetime and current rates of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) treatments among US children and adolescents with current ADHD and describe the association of these treatments with demographic and clinical factors. STUDY DESIGN: Data are from the 2014 National Survey of the Diagnosis and Treatment of ADHD and Tourette Syndrome, a follow-back survey of parents from the 2011-2012 National Survey of Children's Health. Weighted analyses focused on receipt of ADHD treatment among children aged 4-17 years with current ADHD (n = 2495) by 4 treatment types: medication, school supports, psychosocial interventions, and alternative treatments...
January 2018: Journal of Pediatrics
Emmanuelle C S Bostock, Kenneth C Kirkby, Bruce V M Taylor
BACKGROUND: The ketogenic diet (KD) has been used in treatment-resistant epilepsy since the 1920s. It has been researched in a variety of neurological conditions in both animal models and human trials. The aim of this review is to clarify the potential role of KD in psychiatry. METHODS: Narrative review of electronic databases PubMED, PsychINFO, and Scopus. RESULTS: The search yielded 15 studies that related the use of KD in mental disorders including anxiety, depression, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Matteo M Pusceddu, Philip Kelly, Catherine Stanton, John F Cryan, Timothy G Dinan
OBJECTIVE: The impact of lifetime dietary habits and their role in physical, mental, and social well-being has been the focus of considerable recent research. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids as a dietary constituent have been under the spotlight for decades. Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids constitute key regulating factors of neurotransmission, neurogenesis, and neuroinflammation and are thereby fundamental for development, functioning, and aging of the CNS. Of note is the fact that these processes are altered in various psychiatric disorders, including attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, depression, and Alzheimer's disease...
December 2016: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
Susanna N Visser, Rebecca H Bitsko, Melissa L Danielson, Reem M Ghandour, Stephen J Blumberg, Laura A Schieve, Joseph R Holbrook, Mark L Wolraich, Steven P Cuffe
OBJECTIVES: To describe the parent-reported prevalence of treatments for attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) among a national sample of children with special health care needs (CSHCN), and assess the alignment of ADHD treatment with current American Academy of Pediatrics guidelines. STUDY DESIGN: Parent-reported data from the 2009-2010 National Survey of Children with Special Health Care Needs allowed for weighted national and state-based prevalence estimates of medication, behavioral therapy, and dietary supplement use for ADHD treatment among CSHCN aged 4-17 years with current ADHD...
June 2015: Journal of Pediatrics
Ahmad Ghanizadeh, Behzad Haddad
BACKGROUND: The purpose of this research was to study the effectiveness of the overall dietary intervention rather than a single nutrient on children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). METHODS: This is a randomized controlled trial conducted at a child psychiatry clinic in Iran. Participants were 106 children and adolescents with ADHD. One group received methylphenidate plus dietary recommendations, while the other group only received methylphenidate...
2015: Annals of General Psychiatry
H Himmerich, F Erbguth
Nutrition and specific nutritional supplements can have prophylactic or therapeutic properties with respect to certain psychiatric disorders. A traditional Mediterranean diet, for example, seems to have prophylactic benefits against depression and dementia, whereas overeating and obesity increase the risk for both.Although evidence for nutritional supplements in the treatment of psychiatric disorders is not sufficient for general recommendations, data from observational studies and randomized controlled trials (RCT) seem to point to their use for specific indications...
December 2014: Der Nervenarzt
Michael H Bloch, Jilian Mulqueen
Polyunsaturated fatty acid supplementation appears to have modest benefit for improving ADHD symptoms. Melatonin appears to be effective in treating chronic insomnia in children with ADHD but appears to have minimal effects in reducing core ADHD symptoms. Many other natural supplements are widely used in the United States despite minimal evidence of efficacy and possible side effects. This review synthesizes and evaluates the scientific evidence regarding the potential efficacy and side effects of natural supplements and herbal remedies for ADHD...
October 2014: Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America
Maren Johanne Heilskov Rytter, Louise Beltoft Borup Andersen, Tine Houmann, Niels Bilenberg, Allan Hvolby, Christian Mølgaard, Kim F Michaelsen, Lotte Lauritzen
BACKGROUND: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most prevalent psychiatric conditions in childhood. Dietary changes have been suggested as a way of reducing ADHD symptoms. AIMS: To provide an overview of the evidence available on dietary interventions in children with ADHD, a systematic review was carried out of all dietary intervention studies in children with ADHD. METHODS: Relevant databases were searched in October 2011, with an update search in March 2013...
January 2015: Nordic Journal of Psychiatry
Jim Stevenson, Jan Buitelaar, Samuele Cortese, Maite Ferrin, Eric Konofal, Michel Lecendreux, Emily Simonoff, Ian C K Wong, Edmund Sonuga-Barke
BACKGROUND: The efficacy of three dietary treatments for ADHD has been repeatedly tested in randomized controlled trials (RCTs). These interventions are restricted elimination diets (RED), artificial food colour elimination (AFCE) and supplementation with free fatty acids (SFFA). There have been three systematic reviews and associated meta-analyses of the RCTs for each of these treatments. SCOPE: The aim of this review is to critically appraise the studies on the dietary treatments of ADHD, to compare the various meta-analyses of their efficacy that have been published and to identify where the design of such RCTs could be improved and where further investigations are needed...
May 2014: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
Paul Montgomery, Jennifer R Burton, Richard P Sewell, Thees F Spreckelsen, Alexandra J Richardson
BACKGROUND: Omega-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA), especially DHA (docosahexaenonic acid) are essential for brain development and physical health. Low blood Omega-3 LC-PUFA have been reported in children with ADHD and related behavior/learning difficulties, as have benefits from dietary supplementation. Little is known, however, about blood fatty acid status in the general child population. We therefore investigated this in relation to age-standardized measures of behavior and cognition in a representative sample of children from mainstream schools...
2013: PloS One
Priya Rajyaguru, Miriam Cooper
Dietary constituents have been increasingly researched as both potential aetiological factors and interventions for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms. Although the involvement of dietary factors in ADHD is biologically plausible, the literature to date does not indicate causality and there are no grounds yet for the routine recommendation of dietary manipulation in ADHD.
June 2013: British Journal of Psychiatry: the Journal of Mental Science
Sharon K Sagiv, Sally W Thurston, David C Bellinger, Chitra Amarasiriwardena, Susan A Korrick
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association of prenatal mercury exposure and fish intake with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)-related behavior. METHODS: For a population-based prospective birth cohort recruited in New Bedford, Massachusetts (1993-1998), we analyzed data for children examined at age 8 years with peripartum maternal hair mercury measures (n = 421) or maternal report of fish consumption during pregnancy (n = 515). Inattentive and impulsive/hyperactive behaviors were assessed using a teacher rating scale and neuropsychological testing...
December 2012: Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine
J Gordon Millichap, Michelle M Yee
This article is intended to provide a comprehensive overview of the role of dietary methods for treatment of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) when pharmacotherapy has proven unsatisfactory or unacceptable. Results of recent research and controlled studies, based on a PubMed search, are emphasized and compared with earlier reports. The recent increase of interest in this form of therapy for ADHD, and especially in the use of omega supplements, significance of iron deficiency, and the avoidance of the "Western pattern" diet, make the discussion timely...
February 2012: Pediatrics
Richard J Johnson, Mark S Gold, David R Johnson, Takuji Ishimoto, Miguel A Lanaspa, Nancy R Zahniser, Nicole M Avena
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) affects nearly 10% of children in the United States, and the prevalence of this disorder has increased steadily over the past decades. The cause of ADHD is unknown, although recent studies suggest that it may be associated with a disruption in dopamine signaling whereby dopamine D2 receptors are reduced in reward-related brain regions. This same pattern of reduced dopamine-mediated signaling is observed in various reward-deficiency syndromes associated with food or drug addiction, as well as in obesity...
September 2011: Postgraduate Medicine
Elizabeth A Hurt, L Eugene Arnold, Nicholas Lofthouse
Evidence for dietary/nutritional treatments of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) varies widely, from double-blind, placebo-controlled trials to anecdotal. In guiding patients, clinicians can apply the SECS versus RUDE rule: treatments that are Safe, Easy, Cheap, and Sensible (SECS) require less evidence than those that are Risky, Unrealistic, Difficult, or Expensive (RUDE). Two nutritional treatments appear worth general consideration: Recommended Daily Allowance/Reference Daily Intake multivitamin/mineral supplements as a pediatric health intervention not specific to ADHD and essential fatty acids, especially a mix of eicosapentaenoic acid, docosahexaenoic acid, and γ-linolenic acid as an ADHD-specific intervention...
October 2011: Current Psychiatry Reports
Yujeong Kim, Hyeja Chang
This study investigated the correlation between consumption of sugar intake by fifth grade students in primary schools and development of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). A total of 107 students participated, and eight boys and one girl (8.4% of the total) categorized as high risk for ADHD according to diagnostic criteria. There were significant differences in the occupations and drinking habits of the respondents' fathers between the normal group and risk group. In a comparison of students' nutrition intake status with daily nutrition intake standards for Koreans, students consumed twice as much protein as the recommended level, whereas their calcium intake was only 60% of the recommended DRI (dietary reference intake)...
June 2011: Nutrition Research and Practice
Carlo Agostoni, Christian Braegger, Tamás Decsi, Sanja Kolacek, Walter Mihatsch, Luis A Moreno, John Puntis, Raanan Shamir, Hania Szajewska, Dominique Turck, Johannes van Goudoever
The aim of this commentary is to review data on the effect of supplementation of paediatric patients ages 2 years or older with n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA). Some evidence for a positive effect on functional outcome in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) was found; however, benefit was seen in only about half of the randomised controlled trials (RCT), and studies varied widely not only in dose and form of supplementation but also in the functional outcome parameter tested...
July 2011: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
A Aben, M Danckaerts
UNLABELLED: Background There is a growing trend towards the use of alternative forms of treatment for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (adhd), such as the food supplements omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids. AIM: To study biochemical aspects, important hypotheses regarding the role of these fatty acids in brain development, the mode of operation and research results concerning the effectiveness of treating adhd with these supplements. METHOD: A Medline search was performed using the Mesh-term 'fatty acids' and the search terms 'omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids' and 'attention deficit hyperactivity disorder'...
2010: Tijdschrift Voor Psychiatrie
Mercedes Serrano, Cecilia Martins, Belén Pérez-Dueñas, Lilian Gómez-López, Empar Murgui, Carmen Fons, Angels García-Cazorla, Rafael Artuch, Fernando Jara, José A Arranz, Johannes Häberle, Paz Briones, Jaume Campistol, Mercedes Pineda, Maria A Vilaseca
Inherited urea cycle disorders represent one of the most common groups of inborn errors of metabolism. Late-onset urea cycle disorders caused by partial enzyme deficiencies may present with unexpected clinical phenotypes. We report 9 patients followed up in our hospital presenting late-onset urea cycle disorders who initially manifested neuropsychiatric/neurodevelopmental symptoms (the most prevalent neuropsychiatric/neurodevelopmental diagnoses were mental retardation, attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder [ADHD], language disorder, and delirium)...
March 2010: Journal of Child Neurology
Ka-Hung Ng, Barbara J Meyer, Lauren Reece, Natalie Sinn
Research has shown associations between attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and erythrocyte long-chain n-3 PUFA (LC n-3 PUFA) levels, with limited evidence for dietary LC n-3 PUFA intake and ADHD. The aims of the present study were to assess dietary PUFA intakes and food sources in children with ADHD, to compare these intakes to previously published Australian National Nutrition Survey (NNS) data and determine any relationships between intakes and ADHD symptoms. Eighty-six 3-d-weighed food records (FR) were analysed from children with ADHD...
December 2009: British Journal of Nutrition
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