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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29356020/matrine-inhibits-the-progression-of-prostate-cancer-by-promoting-expression-of-gadd45b
#1
Hai Huang, Qiong Wang, Tao Du, Chunhao Lin, Yiming Lai, Dingjun Zhu, Wanhua Wu, Xiaoming Ma, Soumin Bai, Zean Li, Leyuan Liu, Qi Li
BACKGROUND: Matrine is a naturally occurring alkaloid extracted from the Chinese herb Sophora flavescens. It has been demonstrated to exhibit antiproliferative properties, promote apoptosis, and inhibit cell invasion in a number of cancer cell lines by modulating the NF-κB pathway to downregulate the expression of MMP2 and MM9. It has also been shown to improve the efficacy of chemotherapy when it is combined with other chemotherapy drugs. However, the therapeutic potential of matrine for prostate cancer needs to be further studied...
January 21, 2018: Prostate
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29355037/neoadjuvant-and-adjuvant-treatment-in-high-risk-prostate-cancer
#2
Marco Bandini, Nicola Fossati, Giorgio Gandaglia, Felix Preisser, Paolo Dell'Oglio, Emanuele Zaffuto, Armando Stabile, Andrea Gallina, Nazareno Suardi, Shahrokh F Shariat, Francesco Montorsi, Pierre I Karakiewicz, Alberto Briganti
High-risk prostate cancer (HRPCa) represents a heterogeneous disease with potential risk for local and distant progression. In these patients, a multi-modal approach consisting of neoadjuvant and/or adjuvant systemic therapies has been proposed. The aim of this review is to summarize the emerging roles of neoadjuvant and adjuvant therapies in HRPCa patients. Areas covered: This review collects the most relevant phase III randomized controlled trials (RCTs) testing the effect of neoadjuvant and adjuvant systemic therapies in combination with radical prostatectomy (RP) or radiotherapy (RT) for HRPCa patients...
January 20, 2018: Expert Review of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29353450/cancer-treatment-and-bone-health
#3
REVIEW
Catherine Handforth, Stella D'Oronzo, Robert Coleman, Janet Brown
Considerable advances in oncology over recent decades have led to improved survival, while raising concerns about long-term consequences of anticancer treatments. In patients with breast or prostate malignancies, bone health is a major issue due to the high risk of bone metastases and the frequent prolonged use of hormone therapies that alter physiological bone turnover, leading to increased fracture risk. Thus, the onset of cancer treatment-induced bone loss (CTIBL) should be considered by clinicians and recent guidelines should be routinely applied to these patients...
January 20, 2018: Calcified Tissue International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352714/effect-of-single-agent-daily-prednisone-on-outcomes-and-toxicities-in-metastatic-castration-resistant-prostate-cancer-pooled-analysis-of-prospective-studies
#4
REVIEW
Pooja Ghatalia, Gregory R Pond, Arnoud J Templeton, Guru Sonpavde
The clinical effect of prednisone in metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) is unknown. We performed a pooled analysis of control arms of randomized controlled trials that had or had not administered single-agent prednisone. Randomized controlled trials with a control arm that included single-agent placebo (or no anticancer therapy) or single-agent prednisone (with or without placebo) were eligible for analysis. Patients receiving prednisone combined with other agents in the control arm were excluded...
December 27, 2017: Clinical Genitourinary Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352713/clinical-variables-associated-with-overall-survival-in-metastatic-castration-resistant-prostate-cancer-patients-treated-with-sipuleucel-t-immunotherapy
#5
Xiao X Wei, Jaselle Perry, Emily Chang, Li Zhang, Robert A Hiatt, Charles J Ryan, Eric J Small, Lawrence Fong
BACKGROUND: Sipuleucel-T is an autologous cell-based cancer immunotherapy for men with asymptomatic or minimally symptomatic metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). Its approval by the Food and Drug Administration was based on demonstration of an overall survival (OS) benefit in randomized placebo-controlled phase III trials. However, treatment was associated with a prostate-specific antigen (PSA) decline in only a small minority of patients. Understanding the clinical factors that are associated with OS could help guide treatment decisions, including patient selection and the timing of sipuleucel-T relative to other therapies...
December 27, 2017: Clinical Genitourinary Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352019/opposing-roles-of-tgf%C3%AE-and-bmp-signaling-in-prostate-cancer-development
#6
Xin Lu, Eun-Jung Jin, Xi Cheng, Shan Feng, Xiaoying Shang, Pingna Deng, Shan Jiang, Qing Chang, Sharif Rahmy, Seema Chaudhary, Xuemin Lu, Ren Zhao, Y Alan Wang, Ronald A DePinho
SMAD4 constrains progression of Pten-null prostate cancer and serves as a common downstream node of transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) and bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) pathways. Here, we dissected the roles of TGFβ receptor II (TGFBR2) and BMP receptor II (BMPR2) using a Pten-null prostate cancer model. These studies demonstrated that the molecular actions of TGFBR2 result in both SMAD4-dependent constraint of proliferation and SMAD4-independent activation of apoptosis. In contrast, BMPR2 deletion extended survival relative to Pten deletion alone, establishing its promoting role in BMP6-driven prostate cancer progression...
December 1, 2017: Genes & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350549/abiraterone-acetate-and-its-use-in-the-treatment-of-metastatic-prostate-cancer-a-review
#7
Orazio Caffo, Antonello Veccia, Stefania Kinspergher, Francesca Maines
Abiraterone acetate, which targets enzymatic complexes playing a central role in steroidogenesis, demonstrated to increase survival significantly in both chemo-naive and docetaxel pretreated, becoming one of the drugs of choice for metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer. More recently, this agent in combination to androgen deprivation therapy demonstrated to be efficacious also in metastatic castration-sensitive prostate cancer. The present review is aimed to outline the clinical development of abiraterone acetate, the pivotal trials which led to its approval for the clinical practice, new evidence about its efficacy in metastatic castration-sensitive prostate cancer, its place in the therapeutic landscape of prostate cancer and future directions of development...
January 19, 2018: Future Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349937/changes-in-clinical-characteristics-of-patients-with-an-initial-diagnosis-of-prostate-cancer-in-korea-10-year-trends-reported-by-a-tertiary-center
#8
Ji Eun Heo, Hyun Kyu Ahn, Jinu Kim, Byung Ha Chung, Kwang Suk Lee
BACKGROUND: The Korea Central Cancer Registry reported that incidence rates of prostate cancer have not increased continuously. We used recent trends in the incidence of prostate cancer to generate a preliminary report of the Korean population with prostate cancer. METHODS: Patients initially diagnosed with prostate cancer by prostate biopsy from 2006 to 2015 at our tertiary center were selected. All patients were categorized according to age (< 65, 65-75, > 75 years), time period (2006-2010 vs...
February 5, 2018: Journal of Korean Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348457/ltbp3-promotes-early-metastatic-events-during-cancer-cell-dissemination
#9
Elena I Deryugina, Ewa Zajac, Lior Zilberberg, Tomoki Muramatsu, Grishma Joshi, Branka Dabovic, Daniel Rifkin, James P Quigley
Latent transforming growth factor β (TGFβ)-binding proteins (LTBPs) are important for the secretion, activation, and function of mature TGFβ, especially so in cancer cell physiology. However, specific roles of the LTBPs remain understudied in the context of the primary tumor microenvironment. Herein, we investigated the role of LTBP3 in the distinct processes involved in cancer metastasis. By using three human tumor cell lines of different tissue origin (epidermoid HEp-3 and prostate PC-3 carcinomas and HT-1080 fibrosarcoma) and several metastasis models conducted in both mammalian and avian settings, we show that LTBP3 is involved in the early dissemination of primary cancer cells, namely in the intravasation step of the metastatic cascade...
January 19, 2018: Oncogene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348142/sema3c-drives-cancer-growth-by-transactivating-multiple-receptor-tyrosine-kinases-via-plexin-b1
#10
James W Peacock, Ario Takeuchi, Norihiro Hayashi, Liangliang Liu, Kevin J Tam, Nader Al Nakouzi, Nastaran Khazamipour, Tabitha Tombe, Takashi Dejima, Kevin Ck Lee, Masaki Shiota, Daksh Thaper, Wilson Cw Lee, Daniel Hf Hui, Hidetoshi Kuruma, Larissa Ivanova, Parvin Yenki, Ivy Zf Jiao, Shahram Khosravi, Alice L-F Mui, Ladan Fazli, Amina Zoubeidi, Mads Daugaard, Martin E Gleave, Christopher J Ong
Growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) pathway activation is a key mechanism for mediating cancer growth, survival, and treatment resistance. Cognate ligands play crucial roles in autocrine or paracrine stimulation of these RTK pathways. Here, we show SEMA3C drives activation of multiple RTKs including EGFR, ErbB2, and MET in a cognate ligand-independent manner via Plexin B1. SEMA3C expression levels increase in castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC), where it functions to promote cancer cell growth and resistance to androgen receptor pathway inhibition...
January 18, 2018: EMBO Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345961/effects-of-quercetin-kaempferol-and-exogenous-glutathione-on-phospho-and-total-akt-in-3t3-l1-preadipocytes
#11
William Y Boadi, Andrew Lo
Obesity has been reported to be a risk factor for some types of cancer, such as prostate and lung. The AKT or PI3K-AKT is a signal transduction pathway that promotes survival and growth in response to extracellular signals. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of two flavonoids, quercetin and kaempferol, and exogenous glutathione (GSH) on the expressions of phospho- and total-AKT levels in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) levels were measured in the treated samples and used as the internal standard...
January 18, 2018: Journal of Dietary Supplements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29345000/cell-death-under-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-control-in-prostate-cancer-therapeutic-response
#12
REVIEW
Diane Begemann, Harry Anastos, Natasha Kyprianou
Prostate cancer is a widespread problem among men, with >160 000 new cases in 2017 alone. Androgen deprivation therapy is commonly used in prostate cancer treatment to block androgens required for cancer growth, but disease relapse after androgen deprivation therapy is both common and severe. Changes in androgen receptor signaling from androgen deprivation therapy have been linked to therapeutic resistance and tumor progression. Resistant cells can become reprogrammed to undergo epithelial-mesenchymal transition, a phenotypic switch from benign, epithelial cells to a mobile cell with mesenchymal traits...
January 17, 2018: International Journal of Urology: Official Journal of the Japanese Urological Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344766/patient-reported-symptoms-before-palliative-radiotherapy-predict-survival-differences
#13
Carsten Nieder, Thomas A Kämpe, Adam Pawinski, Astrid Dalhaug
BACKGROUND: Widely used prognostic scores, e. g., for brain or bone metastases, are based on disease- and patient-related factors such as extent of metastases, age and performance status, which were available in the databases used to develop the scores. Few groups were able to include patient-reported symptoms. In our department, all patients were assessed with the Edmonton Symptom Assessment System (ESAS, a one-sheet questionnaire addressing 11 major symptoms and wellbeing on a numeric scale of 0-10) at the time of treatment planning since 2012...
January 17, 2018: Strahlentherapie und Onkologie: Organ der Deutschen Röntgengesellschaft ... [et Al]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344250/prevention-of-body-weight-loss-and-sarcopenia-by-a-novel-selective-androgen-receptor-modulator-in-cancer-cachexia-models
#14
Megumi Morimoto, Katsuji Aikawa, Takahito Hara, Masuo Yamaoka
Cancer cachexia is a syndrome that impairs the quality of life and overall survival of patients, and thus the effectiveness of anticancer agents. There are no effective therapies for cancer cachexia due to the complexity of the syndrome, and insufficient knowledge of its pathogenesis results in difficulty establishing appropriate animal models. Previously, promising results have been obtained in clinical trials using novel agents including the ghrelin receptor agonist anamorelin, and the selective androgen receptor modulator (SARM) enobosarm to treat cachexia in patients with cancer...
December 2017: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343829/targeted-inhibitors-of-p-glycoprotein-increase-chemotherapeutic-induced-mortality-of-multidrug-resistant-tumor-cells
#15
Amila K Nanayakkara, Courtney A Follit, Gang Chen, Noelle S Williams, Pia D Vogel, John G Wise
Overexpression of ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporters is often linked to multidrug resistance (MDR) in cancer chemotherapies. P-glycoprotein (P-gp) is one of the best studied drug transporters associated with MDR. There are currently no approved drugs available for clinical use in cancer chemotherapies to reverse MDR by inhibiting P-glycoprotein. Using computational studies, we previously identified several compounds that inhibit P-gp by targeting its nucleotide binding domain and avoiding its drug binding domains...
January 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340285/quantitative-bone-scan-lesion-area-as-an-early-surrogate-outcome-measure-indicative-of-overall-survival-in-metastatic-prostate-cancer
#16
Matthew S Brown, Grace Hyun J Kim, Gregory H Chu, Bharath Ramakrishna, Martin Allen-Auerbach, Cheryce P Fischer, Benjamin Levine, Pawan K Gupta, Christiaan W Schiepers, Jonathan G Goldin
A clinical validation of the bone scan lesion area (BSLA) as a quantitative imaging biomarker was performed in metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC). BSLA was computed from whole-body bone scintigraphy at baseline and week 12 posttreatment in a cohort of 198 mCRPC subjects (127 treated and 71 placebo) from a clinical trial involving a different drug from the initial biomarker development. BSLA computation involved automated image normalization, lesion segmentation, and summation of the total area of segmented lesions on bone scan AP and PA views as a measure of tumor burden...
January 2018: Journal of Medical Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340076/mitochondrial-ros-activates-erk-autophagy-pathway-as-a-protected-mechanism-against-deoxypodophyllotoxin-induced-apoptosis
#17
Sang-Hun Kim, Kwang-Youn Kim, Sul-Gi Park, Sun-Nyoung Yu, Young-Wook Kim, Hyo-Won Nam, Hyun-Hee An, Young-Woo Kim, Soon-Cheol Ahn
Deoxypodophyllotoxin (DPT) is a naturally occurring flavolignan isolated from Anthriscus sylvestris. Recently, it has been reported that DPT inhibits tubulin polymerization and induces G2/M cell cycle arrest followed by apoptosis through multiple cellular processes. Despite these findings, details regarding the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying the DPT-mediated cell death have been poorly understood. To define a mechanism of DPT-mediated cell death response, we examined whether DPT activates signaling pathways for autophagy and apoptosis...
December 19, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340049/pharmacological-treatment-with-inhibitors-of-nuclear-export-enhances-the-antitumor-activity-of-docetaxel-in-human-prostate-cancer
#18
Giovanni Luca Gravina, Andrea Mancini, Alessandro Colapietro, Francesco Marampon, Roberta Sferra, Simona Pompili, Leda Assunta Biordi, Roberto Iorio, Vincenzo Flati, Christian Argueta, Yosef Landesman, Michael Kauffman, Sharon Shacham, Claudio Festuccia
Background and aims: Docetaxel (DTX) modestly increases patient survival of metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) due to insurgence of pharmacological resistance. Deregulation of Chromosome Region Maintenance (CRM-1)/ exportin-1 (XPO-1)-mediated nuclear export may play a crucial role in this phenomenon. Material and methods: Here, we evaluated the effects of two Selective Inhibitor of Nuclear Export (SINE) compounds, selinexor (KPT-330) and KPT-251, in association with DTX by using 22rv1, PC3 and DU145 cell lines with their...
December 19, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339377/robust-antitumor-responses-result-from-local-chemotherapy-and-ctla-4-blockade
#19
Charlotte E Ariyan, Mary Sue Brady, Robert H Siegelbaum, Jian Hu, Danielle M Bello, Jamie Green, Charles Fisher, Robert A Lefkowitz, Katherine S Panageas, Melissa Pulitzer, Marissa Vignali, Ryan Emerson, Christopher Tipton, Harlan Robins, Taha Merghoub, Jianda Yuan, Achim Jungbluth, Jorge Blando, Padmanee Sharma, Alexander Y Rudensky, Jedd D Wolchok, James P Allison
Clinical responses to immunotherapy have been associated with augmentation of preexisting immune responses, manifested by heightened inflammation in the tumor microenvironment. However, many tumors have a non-inflamed microenvironment, and response rates to immunotherapy in melanoma have been <50%. We approached this problem by utilizing immunotherapy (CTLA-4 blockade) combined with chemotherapy to induce local inflammation. In murine models of melanoma and prostate cancer, the combination of chemotherapy and CTLA-4 blockade induced a shift in the cellular composition of the tumor microenvironment, with infiltrating CD8+ and CD4+ T cells increasing the CD8/Foxp3 T-cell ratio...
January 16, 2018: Cancer Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339046/stereotactic-body-radiation-therapy-sbrt-for-high-risk-prostate-cancer-where-are-we-now
#20
REVIEW
Alejandro Gonzalez-Motta, Mack Roach
PURPOSE: Stereotactic body radiation therapy (SBRT) is increasingly being used for the management of localized prostate cancer. This trend combined with declining use of brachytherapy (BT) has pushed issues and questions regarding the use of SBRT to the forefront. A systematic literature review was conducted to review the current evidence of biochemical disease-free survival (bDFS) and toxicity of SBRT in high-risk (HR) prostate cancer. METHODS AND MATERIALS: A search was carried out on the PubMed and Embase databases...
December 2, 2017: Practical Radiation Oncology
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