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Moritz Flick, Martin Albrecht, Gezina T M L Oei, Renske Steenstra, Raphaela P Kerindongo, Coert J Zuurbier, Hemal H Patel, Markus W Hollmann, Benedikt Preckel, Nina C Weber
Caveolae, lipid enriched invaginations of the plasma membrane, are epicentres of cellular signal transduction. The structural proteins of caveolae, caveolins, regulate effector pathways in anaesthetic-induced cardioprotection, including the RISK pathway. Helium (He) postconditioning (HePoc) is known to mimic anaesthetic conditioning and to prevent damage from myocardial infarction. We hypothesize that HePoc regulates caveolin-1 and caveolin-3 (Cav-1 and Cav-3) expression in the rat heart and activates the RISK pathway...
October 11, 2016: European Journal of Pharmacology
Wating Su, Yuan Zhang, Qiongxia Zhang, Jinjin Xu, Liying Zhan, Qiqi Zhu, Qingquan Lian, Huimin Liu, Zhong-Yuan Xia, Zhengyuan Xia, Shaoqing Lei
BACKGROUND: Patients with diabetes are prone to develop cardiac hypertrophy and more susceptible to myocardial ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury, which are concomitant with hyperglycemia-induced oxidative stress and impaired endothelial nitric oxide (NO) synthase (eNOS)/NO signaling. Caveolae are critical in the transduction of eNOS/NO signaling in cardiovascular system. Caveolin (Cav)-3, the cardiomyocytes-specific caveolae structural protein, is decreased in the diabetic heart in which production of reactive oxygen species are increased...
October 12, 2016: Cardiovascular Diabetology
Sumita Chakrabarti, Andrew Chang, Nai-Jiang Liu, Alan R Gintzler
Caveolin-1 is the predominant structural protein of caveolae, a subset of (lipid) membrane rafts that compartmentalize cell signaling. Caveolin-1 binds most to G protein-coupled receptors and their signaling partners, thereby enhancing interactions among signaling cascade components and the relative activation of specific G protein-coupled pathways. This study reveals that chronic opioid exposure of μ-opioid receptor (MOR) expressing Chinese hamster ovary cells (MOR-CHO) and chronic in vivo morphine exposure of rat spinal cord augmented recruitment of multiple components of MOR-adenylyl cyclase (AC) stimulatory signaling by caveolin-1...
October 10, 2016: Journal of Neurochemistry
Frances Corrigan, Kimberley A Mander, Anna V Leonard, Robert Vink
BACKGROUND: The neuroinflammatory response following traumatic brain injury (TBI) is known to be a key secondary injury factor that can drive ongoing neuronal injury. Despite this, treatments that have targeted aspects of the inflammatory pathway have not shown significant efficacy in clinical trials. MAIN BODY: We suggest that this may be because classical inflammation only represents part of the story, with activation of neurogenic inflammation potentially one of the key initiating inflammatory events following TBI...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Neuroinflammation
Bing Han, Courtney A Copeland, Yumeko Kawano, Erika Berman Rosenzweig, Eric D Austin, Layla Shahmirzadi, Sha Tang, Krishnan Raghunathan, Wendy K Chung, Anne K Kenworthy
Congenital generalized lipodystrophy (CGL) and pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) have recently been associated with mutations in the caveolin-1 (CAV1) gene, which encodes the primary structural protein of caveolae. However, little is currently known about how these CAV1 mutations impact caveolae formation or contribute to the development of disease. Here, we identify a heterozygous F160X CAV1 mutation predicted to generate a C-terminally truncated mutant protein in a patient with both PAH and CGL using whole exome sequencing, and characterize the properties of CAV1, caveolae-associated proteins, and caveolae in skin fibroblasts isolated from the patient...
September 26, 2016: Traffic
Adam Kassan, Uyen Pham, Quynhmy Nguyen, Melissa E Reichelt, Eunbyul Cho, Piyush M Patel, David M Roth, Brian P Head, Hemal H Patel
Autophagy is a dynamic recycling process responsible for the breakdown of misfolded proteins and damaged organelles, providing nutrients and energy for cellular renovation and homeostasis. Loss of autophagy is associated with cardiovascular diseases. Caveolin-3 (Cav-3), a muscle-specific isoform, is a structural protein within caveolae and is critical to stress adaptation in the heart. Whether Cav-3 plays a role in regulating autophagy to modulate cardiac stress responses remains unknown. In the present study, we used HL-1 cells, a cardiac muscle cell line, with stable Cav-3 knockdown (Cav-3 KD) and Cav-3 over-expression (Cav-3 OE) to study the impact of Cav-3 in regulation of autophagy...
October 5, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
Ana Magalhaes, Inês Matias, Inês Palmela, Maria Alexandra Brito, Sérgio Dias
Cholesterol has been identified as a causative factor in numerous pathologies including atherosclerosis and cancer. One of the frequent effects of elevated cholesterol levels in humans is the compromise of endothelial function due to activation of pro-inflammatory signalling pathways. While the mechanisms involved in endothelial activation by cholesterol during an inflammatory response are well established, less is known about the mechanisms by which cholesterol may affect endothelial barrier function, which were the subject of the present study...
2016: PloS One
Francisco Santoyo-González, Mariano Ortega-Muñoz, M Dolores Giron-Gonzalez, Rafael Salto-Gonzalez, Ana Belen Jodar Reyes, Samantha E De Jesus, F Javier Lopez-Jaramillo, Fernando Hernandez-Mateo
A novel one-pot methodology for the synthesis of PEI-coated gold nanoparticles (AuPEI-NPs) that combines the reductant-stabilizer properties of PEI and microwave irradiation starting from hydrogen tetrachloroaurate (HAuCl4) and branched PEI 25kDa (b25kPEI) is reported. The method is straightforward, green and low-cost where the Au:PEI w:w ratio (1:1 to 1:128) is a key parameter to modulate their capabilities as DNA delivery nanocarriers. Transfection assays in CHO-k1 cells demonstrate that AuPEI-NPs with 1:16 and 1:32 w:w ratios behave as effective DNA gene vectors with improved transfection efficiencies (2-fold) and significant lower toxicity compared with unmodified b25kPEI and Lipofectamine 2000...
September 29, 2016: Chemistry, An Asian Journal
Janka Bábíčková, Barbara M Klinkhammer, Eva M Buhl, Sonja Djudjaj, Mareike Hoss, Felix Heymann, Frank Tacke, Jürgen Floege, Jan U Becker, Peter Boor
Progressive renal diseases are associated with rarefaction of peritubular capillaries, but the ultrastructural and functional alterations of the microvasculature are not well described. To study this, we analyzed different time points during progressive kidney damage and fibrosis in 3 murine models of different disease etiologies. These models were unilateral ureteral obstruction, unilateral ischemia-reperfusion injury, and Col4a3-deficient mice, we analyzed ultrastructural alterations in patient biopsy specimens...
September 24, 2016: Kidney International
Fenfen Kong, Fei Liu, Wei Li, Xiaomeng Guo, Zuhua Wang, Hanbo Zhang, Qingpo Li, Lihua Luo, Yongzhong Du, Yi Jin, Jian You
Near-infrared (NIR) laser-controlled gene delivery presents some benefits in gene therapy, inducing enhanced gene transfection efficiency. In this study, a "photothermal transfection" agent is obtained by wrapping poly(ethylenimine)-cholesterol derivatives (PEI-Chol) around single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs). The PEI-Chol modified SWNTs (PCS) are effective in compressing DNA molecules and protecting them from DNaseI degradation. Compared to the complexes formed by PEI with DNA (PEI/DNA), complexes of PCS and DNA that are formed (PCS/DNA) exhibit a little lower toxicity to HEK293 and HeLa cells under the same PEI molecule weight and weight ratios...
September 28, 2016: Small
Yun-Ui Bae, Jae-Wan Huh, Bieong-Kil Kim, Hyeon Young Park, Young-Bae Seu, Kyung-Oh Doh
Cholesterol is an important cell membrane component and has been used as co-lipid for cationic liposome to enhance gene delivery. However, the role of cholesterol in transfection efficiency has not been fully understood. In this study, transfection efficiency of liposome was measured after cholesterol was added to the cell culture medium. As a result, addition of cholesterol increased transfection efficiency of several liposomes consisting of different lipid components in various cells (AGS, CHO, COS7 and, MCF7)...
September 21, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Xiaowu Gu, Alaina M Reagan, Mark E McClellan, Michael H Elliott
Caveolae are specialized, invaginated plasma membrane domains that are defined morphologically and by the expression of signature proteins called, caveolins. Caveolae and caveolins are abundant in a variety of cell types including vascular endothelium, glia, and fibroblasts where they play critical roles in transcellular transport, endocytosis, mechanotransduction, cell proliferation, membrane lipid homeostasis, and signal transduction. Given these critical cellular functions, it is surprising that ablation of the caveolae organelle does not result in lethality suggesting instead that caveolae and caveolins play modulatory roles in cellular homeostasis...
September 21, 2016: Progress in Retinal and Eye Research
Hui Zhang, Pengcheng Yu, Shengwei Zhong, Tingting Ge, Shasha Peng, Xiaoquan Guo, Zuohong Zhou
Telocytes (TCs), novel interstitial cells, have been identified in various organs of many mammals. However, information about TCs of lower animals remains rare. Herein, pancreatic TCs of the Chinese giant salamanders (Andrias davidianus) were identified by CD34 immunohistochemistry (IHC) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The IHC micrographs revealed CD34(+) TCs with long telopodes (Tps) that were located in the interstitium of the pancreas. CD34(+) TCs/Tps were frequently observed between exocrine acinar cells and were close to blood vessels...
September 20, 2016: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
Manuel A Fernandez-Rojo, Grant A Ramm
Caveolin-1 (CAV1), the structural protein of caveolae in the plasma membrane, has emerged as a regulator of liver function. CAV1 modulates several molecular pathways leading to the regulation of hepatic lipid accumulation, lipid and glucose metabolism, mitochondrial biology, and hepatocyte proliferation. CAV1 thus plays a crucial role in maintaining hepatic physiology during metabolic adaptation to fasting, liver steatosis, and hepatocyte proliferation associated with liver regeneration. With failure of such processes, CAV1 has been implicated in the modulation of cholestasis, hepatitis, cirrhosis, and hepatocarcinogenesis...
October 2016: Trends in Molecular Medicine
Shalini Gross, Kavi Devraj, Yuxi Feng, Jadranka Macas, Stefan Liebner, Thomas Wieland
Nucleoside diphosphate kinase B (NDPK-B) is an enzyme required for nucleoside triphosphate homeostasis, which has been shown to interact with caveolin-1 (Cav-1). In endothelial cells (ECs), NDPK-B contributes to the regulation of angiogenesis and adherens junction (AJ) integrity. We therefore investigated whether an interaction of NDPK-B with Cav-1 in ECs is required for this regulation and the involvement of VEGF signaling herein. We report that simultaneous depletion of NDPK-B/Cav-1 in HUVECs synergistically impaired sprouting angiogenesis...
September 14, 2016: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
Takuya Taniguchi, Naoki Maruyama, Takehiro Ogata, Takeru Kasahara, Naohiko Nakanishi, Kotaro Miyagawa, Daisuke Naito, Tetsuro Hamaoka, Masahiro Nishi, Satoaki Matoba, Tomomi Ueyama
Mutations in the PTRF/Cavin-1 gene cause congenital generalized lipodystrophy type 4 (CGL4) associated with myopathy. Additionally, long-QT syndrome and fatal cardiac arrhythmia are observed in patients with CGL4 who have homozygous PTRF/Cavin-1 mutations. PTRF/Cavin-1 deficiency shows reductions of caveolae and caveolin-3 (Cav3) protein expression in skeletal muscle, and Cav3 deficiency in the heart causes cardiac hypertrophy with loss of caveolae. However, it remains unknown how loss of PTRF/Cavin-1 affects cardiac morphology and function...
2016: PloS One
Yi Sun, Yaying Chen, Xiaoyu Ma, Yuan Yuan, Changsheng Liu, Joachim Kohn, Jiangchao Qian
Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide. Most patients have metastases at the time of diagnosis, thus demanding development of more effective and specific agents. In this study, the specific anticancer effect of hydroxyapatite nanoparticles (HAPNs) to human lung cancer cells (A549) and the underlying mechanisms were investigated, using normal bronchial epithelial cells (16HBE) as the control. Rod-shaped HAPNs (∼10 nm in width and 50 nm in length) were prepared by aqueous precipitation method...
October 5, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Ling Guo, Hongyan Zhang, Yinglong Hou, Tianshu Wei, Ju Liu
Endothelial subcellular structures, including caveolae, fenestrae and transendothelial channels, are crucial for regulating microvascular function. Plasmalemma vesicle-associated protein (PLVAP) is an endothelial cell-specific protein that forms the stomatal and fenestral diaphragms of blood vessels and regulates basal permeability, leukocyte migration and angiogenesis. Loss of PLVAP in mice leads to premature mortality due to disrupted homeostasis. Evidence from previous studies suggested that PLVAP is involved in cancer, traumatic spinal cord injury, acute ischemic brain disease, transplant glomerulopathy, Norrie disease and diabetic retinopathy...
September 2016: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Hui Li, Ting Luo, Ruilong Sheng, Jingjing Sun, Zhao Wang, Amin Cao
Developing new amphiphilic polymers with natural product moieties has been regarded as a promising way to achieve biocompatibility and certain biological functions. In prior work, we developed some natural (l)-arginine modified cationic polymers (PAHMAA-Rs) as cationic gene carriers. For the sake of continuing optimize the gene delivery performance, herein, a new series of (l)-arginine and (l)-histidine co-modified cationic poly (ω-aminohexyl methacrylamide)s (PAHMAA-R-H) were synthesized and characterized with (1)H NMR, GPC-SLS and FT-IR...
August 22, 2016: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
Emma S Sherling, Christiaan van Ooij
Malaria is caused by infection of erythrocytes by parasites of the genus Plasmodium To survive inside erythrocytes, these parasites induce sweeping changes within the host cell, one of the most dramatic of which is the formation of multiple membranous compartments, collectively referred to as the exomembrane system. As an uninfected mammalian erythrocyte is devoid of internal membranes, the parasite must be the force and the source behind the formation of these compartments. Even though the first evidence of the presence these of internal compartments was obtained over a century ago, their functions remain mostly unclear, and in some cases completely unknown, and the mechanisms underlying their formation are still mysterious...
September 2016: FEMS Microbiology Reviews
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