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Carnitine elderly

Nur Abu Ahmad, Zaher Armaly, Sylvia Berman, Adel Jabour, Shlomit Aga-Mizrachi, Efrat Mosenego-Ornan, Avi Avital
Over the past decade, the prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) has reached epidemic proportions. The search for novel pharmacological treatment for CKD has become an area of intensive clinical research. l-Carnitine, considered as the "gatekeeper" responsible for admitting long chain fatty acids into cell mitochondria. l-Carnitine synthesis and turnover are regulated mainly by the kidney and its levels inversely correlate with serum creatinine of normal subjects and CKD patients. Previous studies showed that l-carnitine administration to elderly people is improving and preserving cognitive function...
October 1, 2016: Physiology & Behavior
Cecilia Maldonado, Natalia Guevara, Cecilia Queijo, Raquel González, Pietro Fagiolino, Marta Vázquez
Blood carnitine and/or acetylcarnitine deficiencies are postulated in the literature as possible causes of higher ammonia levels. The aim of this study was to investigate if the use of valproic acid, the age of the patients, or certain central nervous system pathologies can cause carnitine and/or acetylcarnitine deficiency leading to increased ammonia levels. Three groups of patients were studied: (A) epileptic under phenytoin monotherapy (n = 31); (B) with bipolar disorder under valproic acid treatment (n = 28); (C) elderly (n = 41)...
2016: BioMed Research International
Mariangela Rondanelli, Simone Perna, Milena Anna Faliva, Gabriella Peroni, Vittoria Infantino, Raffaella Pozzi
INTRODUCION: sarcopenia is defined as a syndrome characterized by progressive and generalized loss of muscle mass and strength. The main cause of sarcopenia is the alteration of protein metabolism, in which the proteolytic processes are not accompanied by an appropriate protein synthesis and muscle cells lose progressively the sensitivity to the anabolic stimulus. The most rational approach to delay the progression of sarcopenia and counteract the anabolic resistance is proper nutrition...
2015: Nutrición Hospitalaria: Organo Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Nutrición Parenteral y Enteral
S I Gavrilova, Ya B Kalyn, T P Safarova, O B Yakovleva, V S Sheshenin, V V Kornilov, E S Shipilova
AIM: A comparative evaluation of the efficacy and safety of monotherapy with one of the modern antidepressants (venlafaxine, agomelatine, or fluvoxamine) and combination treatment of one of the above mentioned antidepressants with acetyl-L-carnitine (ALС, carnicetine) in the geriatric psychiatric unit. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Two groups of elderly patients (aged 60-79 years) with mild or moderate depression, randomized according to a number of demographic and clinical characteristics, were treated with antidepressants in monotherapy or combined therapy (antidepressant/carnicetine) within 8 weeks...
2015: Zhurnal Nevrologii i Psikhiatrii Imeni S.S. Korsakova
Yanhua Su, Yang Liu, Jiansheng Xie, Zhiyong Xu, Weiqing Wu, Qian Geng, Fuwei Luo
OBJECTIVE: To identify potential mutation of SLC22A5 gene in a 5-month-old boy affected with primary carnitine deficiency and provide genetic counseling and prenatal diagnosis for the members of his family. METHODS: DNA was extracted from peripheral blood samples derived from the proband, his parents and elder sister, as well as amniotic fluid from his pregnant mother. All of the 10 exons of the SLC22A5 gene were amplified by PCR and subjected to Sanger sequencing...
August 2015: Zhonghua Yi Xue Yi Chuan Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Yixue Yichuanxue Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Medical Genetics
Harshad Devarbhavi
Idiosyncratic drug-induced liver injury (DILI) is an important cause of morbidity and mortality following drugs taken in therapeutic doses. Hepatotoxicity is a leading cause of attrition in drug development, or withdrawal or restricted use after marketing. No age is exempt although adults and the elderly are at increased risk. DILI spans the entire spectrum ranging from asymptomatic elevation in transaminases to severe disease such as acute hepatitis leading to acute liver failure. The liver specific Roussel Uclaf Causality Assessment Method is the most validated and extensively used for determining the likelihood that an implicated drug caused DILI...
September 2012: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hepatology
Michela Bosetti, Maurizio Sabbatini, Anna Calarco, Alessia Borrone, Gianfranco Peluso, Mario Cannas
Several studies have evidenced that in aging, osteoblast functional activity is impaired: osteoblast proliferation is slower and matrix deposition is less efficient. Because peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptor γ2 (PPARγ2) and fatty acids are important inhibitory signals in osteoblast development, we have investigated in human primary osteoblasts obtained from patients of different ages, the influence of retinoic acid and calcitriol on enzymes involved in differentiative (PPARγ2, β-catenin, and insulin-like growth factor 1) and metabolic (carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1) intracellular pathways, and on transglutaminase 2, as enzyme fundamental for stabilizing the newly deposited extracellular matrix in bone...
January 2016: Journal of Bone and Mineral Metabolism
Janos Kerner, Elizabeth Yohannes, Kwangwon Lee, Ashraf Virmani, Aleardo Koverech, Claudio Cavazza, Mark R Chance, Charles Hoppel
Previously we showed that in vivo treatment of elderly Fisher 344 rats with acetylcarnitine abolished the age-associated defect in respiratory chain complex III in interfibrillar mitochondria and improved the functional recovery of the ischemic/reperfused heart. Herein, we explored mitochondrial protein acetylation as a possible mechanism for acetylcarnitine's effect. In vivo treatment of elderly rats with acetylcarnitine restored cardiac acetylcarnitine content and increased mitochondrial protein lysine acetylation and increased the number of lysine-acetylated proteins in cardiac subsarcolemmal and interfibrillar mitochondria...
January 2015: Mechanisms of Ageing and Development
Marie-Abele Bind, Antonella Zanobetti, Antonio Gasparrini, Annette Peters, Brent Coull, Andrea Baccarelli, Letizia Tarantini, Petros Koutrakis, Pantel Vokonas, Joel Schwartz
BACKGROUND: Previous studies have found relationships between DNA methylation and various environmental contaminant exposures. Associations with weather have not been examined. Because temperature and humidity are related to mortality even on non-extreme days, we hypothesized that temperature and relative humidity may affect methylation. METHODS: We repeatedly measured methylation on long interspersed nuclear elements (LINE-1), Alu, and 9 candidate genes in blood samples from 777 elderly men participating in the Normative Aging Study (1999-2009)...
July 2014: Epidemiology
S Rizza, M Copetti, C Rossi, M A Cianfarani, M Zucchelli, A Luzi, C Pecchioli, O Porzio, G Di Cola, A Urbani, F Pellegrini, M Federici
AIMS: Age is one of the most important determinants of cardiovascular health, therefore the management of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) in elderly people entails great challenge. A possible explanation of vascular senescence process is the mitochondrial damage and dysfunction. We hypothesized that metabolomic profiling would identify biomarkers predicting major cardiovascular events (MACEs) in elderly people, improving the clinical standard cardiovascular risk factors. METHODS AND RESULTS: Targeted-mass-spectrometry-based profiling of 49 metabolites was performed in a group of very old participants (n = 67, mean age = 85 ± 3 years) with a high rate of previous CVD (68%)...
February 2014: Atherosclerosis
Lei Cheng, Xiao-fang Tang
OBJECTIVE: To observe the efficacy of levocarnitine in treating elderly patients with chronic heart failure and to explore its impact on cardiac function and endocrine. METHODS: 120 elderly patients with chronic heart failure were randomly divided into observation and control groups, with 60 cases of each. Patients in the control group were given conventional anti-heart failure drugs, and those in the observation group were given 3 g levocarnitine within 250 ml normal saline for intravenous infusion added to what had been given to the control group...
June 2013: Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Liuxingbingxue Zazhi
Giuseppe Bersani, Giuseppe Meco, Alessandro Denaro, Damien Liberati, Chiara Colletti, Raffaella Nicolai, Francesco Saverio Bersani, Aleardo Koverech
INTRODUCTION: L-Acetylcarnitine (LAC), the acetyl ester of carnitine naturally present in the central nervous system and involved in several neural pathways, has been demonstrated to be active in various animal experimental models resembling some features of human depression. The aim of the study is to verify whether LAC can have an antidepressant action in a population of elderly patients with dysthymic disorder in comparison with a traditional antidepressant such as fluoxetine. METHODS: Multicentric, double-blind, double-dummy, controlled, randomized study based on a observation period of 7 weeks...
October 2013: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Clara Ibáñez, Carolina Simó, Pedro J Martín-Álvarez, Miia Kivipelto, Bengt Winblad, Angel Cedazo-Mínguez, Alejandro Cifuentes
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most prevalent form of dementia with an estimated worldwide prevalence of over 30 million people, and its incidence is expected to increase dramatically with an increasing elderly population. Up until now, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) has been the preferred sample to investigate central nervous system (CNS) disorders since its composition is directly related to metabolite production in the brain. In this work, a nontargeted metabolomic approach based on capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry (CE-MS) is developed to examine metabolic differences in CSF samples from subjects with different cognitive status related to AD progression...
October 16, 2012: Analytical Chemistry
Michael Lever, Malina K Storer, John G Lewis, Peter M George, Stephen T Chambers
BACKGROUND: Low plasma betaine concentrations are a feature of seriously ill patients. Increased dietary betaine intake has been associated with lowered systemic inflammation. We aimed to compare plasma cortisol (a stress marker) and C-reactive protein (an inflammation marker) as statistical predictors of plasma betaine concentrations. METHODS: Plasma carnitine, cortisol and C-reactive protein concentrations, other biochemical measures and urine betaine excretion, were compared with plasma betaine concentration by correlation and in multiple regression models, using morning blood and urine samples from 64 ambulant elderly subjects and from 55 patients admitted to hospital with hip fractures...
2012: Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine: CCLM
Yosef Dror, Shlomo Almashanu, Emilia Lubart, Ben-Ami Sela, Liron Shimoni, Refael Segal
BACKGROUND: Refeeding of elderly frail patients after food deprivation is commonly associated with a high mortality rate. Objective: To evaluate the effect of refeeding on metabolite fluctuation of blood carnitine fatty acids (15 compounds) and free amino acids (14 compounds). METHODS: Metabolite fluctuation was followed up in an exploratory, cohort, and noninterventional study in elderly and frail patients (84.5 ± 5 years) after a long period of food deprivation...
January 2013: JPEN. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
Mariano Malaguarnera
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Carnitine and its derivatives are natural substances involved in both carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. This review summarizes the recent progress in the field in relation to the molecular mechanisms. RECENT FINDINGS: The pool of different carnitine derivatives is formed by acetyl-L-carnitine (ALC), propionyl-L-carnitine (PLC), and isovaleryl-carnitine. ALC may have a preferential effect on the brain tissue. ALC represents a compound of great interest for its wide clinical application in various neurological disorders: it may be of benefit in treating Alzheimer's dementia, depression in the elderly, HIV infection, chronic fatigue syndrome, peripheral neuropathies, ischemia and reperfusion of the brain, and cognitive impairment associated with various conditions...
March 2012: Current Opinion in Gastroenterology
Raúl Bescós, Antoni Sureda, Josep A Tur, Antoni Pons
Nitric oxide (NO) has led a revolution in physiology and pharmacology research during the last two decades. This labile molecule plays an important role in many functions in the body regulating vasodilatation, blood flow, mitochondrial respiration and platelet function. Currently, it is known that NO synthesis occurs via at least two physiological pathways: NO synthase (NOS) dependent and NOS independent. In the former, L-arginine is the main precursor. It is widely recognized that this amino acid is oxidized to NO by the action of the NOS enzymes...
February 1, 2012: Sports Medicine
E Paul Cherniack
Ergogenic dietary aids might be useful adjunctive therapy to enhance the effects of exercise in the elderly, who lose physical function with age. Many such aids have been tested in athletes and untrained younger persons in laboratory and athletic performance settings, with positive results, although not all studies have demonstrated benefit. Some substances have been tested in the elderly, including creatine, caffeine, β-hydroxy-β-methylbutyrate, ubiquinone, and carnitine. The published medical evidence for the use of these substances is considered in this review article...
March 2012: Nutrition
Helen Lum, Richard Sloane, Kim M Huffman, Virginia B Kraus, Dana K Thompson, William E Kraus, James R Bain, Robert Stevens, Carl F Pieper, Gregory A Taylor, Christopher B Newgard, Harvey J Cohen, Miriam C Morey
BACKGROUND: Metabolic profiling might provide insight into the biologic underpinnings of disability in older adults. METHODS: A targeted mass spectrometry-based platform was used to identify and quantify 45 plasma acylcarnitines in 77 older men with a mean age of 79 years and average body mass index of 28.4 kg/m(2). To control for type I error inherent in a test of multiple analytes, principal components analysis was employed to reduce the acylcarnitines from 45 separate metabolites, into a single "acylcarnitine factor...
May 2011: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
Victor Crentsil
Frailty is a geriatric syndrome characterized by muscle weakness, sarcopenia, and fatigue, and is associated with several adverse health outcomes, including disability. Design of therapeutic interventions for geriatric frailty has been challenging and may be because of inadequate understanding of its biological underpinnings. Carnitine is important for energy production in skeletal muscles and there seems to be a negative correlation between advancing age and muscle carnitine levels. Carnitine deficiency may therefore contribute to geriatric frailty...
July 2010: Ageing Research Reviews
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