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Pancreatic insufficiency

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437538/effects-of-diagnosis-by-newborn-screening-for-cystic-fibrosis-on-weight-and-length-in-the-first-year-of-life
#1
Daniel H Leung, Sonya L Heltshe, Drucy Borowitz, Daniel Gelfond, Margaret Kloster, James E Heubi, Michael Stalvey, Bonnie W Ramsey
Importance: Since the implementation of universal newborn screening (NBS) for cystic fibrosis (CF), the timing and magnitude of growth deficiency or its association with correlates of disease among infants with CF who underwent NBS has not been well described. Objective: To examine incremental weight gain, linear growth, and clinical features in the first year of life among infants with CF who underwent NBS. Design, Setting, and Participants: The Baby Observational and Nutrition Study (BONUS), a multicenter, longitudinal, observational cohort study, was conducted during regular CF clinic visits in the first 12 months of life at 28 US Cystic Fibrosis Foundation-accredited Care Centers from January 7, 2012, through May 31, 2015...
April 24, 2017: JAMA Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436541/pdx1-mody-and-dorsal-pancreatic-agenesis-new-phenotype-of-a-rare-disease
#2
L A Caetano, L S Santana, A D Costa-Riquetto, A M Lerario, M Nery, G F Nogueira, C D Ortega, M S Rocha, Aal Jorge, M G Teles
Maturity-Onset Diabetes of the Young (MODY) type 4 or PDX1-MODY is a rare form of monogenic diabetes caused by heterozygous variants in PDX1. Pancreatic developmental anomalies related to PDX1 are reported only in neonatal diabetes cases. Here, we describe dorsal pancreatic agenesis in two patients with PDX1-MODY. The proband presented with diabetes since 14 years of age and maintained regular glycemic control with low doses of basal insulin and detectable C-peptide levels after 30 years with diabetes. A diagnosis of MODY was suspected...
April 24, 2017: Clinical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422118/nutrient-regulation-of-%C3%AE-cell-function-what-do-islet-cell-animal-studies-tell-us
#3
REVIEW
R Carlessi, K N Keane, C Mamotte, P Newsholme
Diabetes mellitus is widely recognised as one of the most serious metabolic diseases worldwide, and its incidence in Asian countries is growing at an alarming rate. Type 2 diabetes (T2DM) is closely associated with age, sedentary lifestyle and poor diet. In T2DM, β-cell dysfunction will occur before hyperglycaemia develops. Excessive levels of glucose, lipid and various inflammatory factors interact at the level of the pancreatic islet to promote β-cell dysfunction. Pancreatic β-cell lines have been widely utilised since the early 1980s and have contributed a large volume of important information regarding molecular, metabolic and genetic mechanisms that regulate insulin secretion...
April 19, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421348/the-basal-nutritional-state-of-pdac-patients-is-the-dominant-factor-for-completing-adjuvant-chemotherapy
#4
Daisaku Yamada, Hidetoshi Eguchi, Tadafumi Asaoka, Hideo Tomihara, Takehiro Noda, Hiroshi Wada, Koichi Kawamoto, Kunihito Gotoh, Yutaka Takeda, Masahiro Tanemura, Masaki Mori, Yuichiro Doki
PURPOSE: Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is highly lethal, and several clinical trials have shown that adjuvant chemotherapy after curative resection can improve the prognosis of these patients. However, the adjuvant chemotherapy completion rate is less than satisfactory. If this rate could be increased then the overall prognosis of PDAC might be improved; however, reports addressing this problem are insufficient. To elucidate the factors, we retrospectively investigated PDAC patients...
April 18, 2017: Surgery Today
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413626/non-infectious-chemotherapy-associated-acute-toxicities-during-childhood-acute-lymphoblastic-leukemia-therapy
#5
REVIEW
Kjeld Schmiegelow, Klaus Müller, Signe Sloth Mogensen, Pernille Rudebeck Mogensen, Benjamin Ole Wolthers, Ulrik Kristoffer Stoltze, Ruta Tuckuviene, Thomas Frandsen
During chemotherapy for childhood acute lymphoblastic leukemia, all organs can be affected by severe acute side effects, the most common being opportunistic infections, mucositis, central or peripheral neuropathy (or both), bone toxicities (including osteonecrosis), thromboembolism, sinusoidal obstruction syndrome, endocrinopathies (especially steroid-induced adrenal insufficiency and hyperglycemia), high-dose methotrexate-induced nephrotoxicity, asparaginase-associated hypersensitivity, pancreatitis, and hyperlipidemia...
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406793/population-level-incidence-and-predictors-of-surgically-induced-diabetes-and-exocrine-insufficiency-after-partial-pancreatic-resection
#6
Irmina A Elliott, Irene Epelboym, Megan Winner, John D Allendorf, Philip I Haigh
CONTEXT: Endocrine and exocrine insufficiency after partial pancreatectomy affect quality of life, cardiovascular health, and nutritional status. However, their incidence and predictors are unknown. OBJECTIVE: To identify the incidence and predictors of new-onset diabetes and exocrine insufficiency after partial pancreatectomy. DESIGN: We retrospectively reviewed 1165 cases of partial pancreatectomy, performed from 1998 to 2010, from a large population-based database...
2017: Permanente Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405150/comparing-acid-steatocrit-and-faecal-elastase-estimations-for-use-in-m-annheim-staging-for-pancreatitis
#7
M Ganesh Kamath, C Ganesh Pai, Asha Kamath, Annamma Kurien
AIM: To compare two tests for exocrine pancreatic function (EPF) for use in M-ANNHEIM staging for pancreatitis. METHODS: One hundred and ninety four consecutive patients with acute pancreatitis (AP; n = 13), recurrent acute pancreatitis (RAP; n = 65) and chronic pancreatitis (CP; n = 116) were enrolled. EPF was assessed by faecal elastase-1 (FE-1) estimation and stool fat excretion by the acid steatocrit method. Patients were classified as per M-ANNHEIM stages separately based on the results of the two tests for comparison...
March 28, 2017: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404513/correlation-of-diabetes-mellitus-and-body-weight-of-adults-above-the-age-of-30-years-in-a-medical-facility-in-ghana
#8
Frederick Vuvor, Godfred Egbi
BACKGROUND: Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a metabolic disorder characterized by insufficient insulin production or ineffective pancreatic secretions. In Ghana, the prevalence of DM was estimated to be 6.3% amongst men and women older than 30 years living in the Greater Accra region. The disease can be determined by various means including the use of the multistix that assesses the presence of glucose in urine. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this study, 100 subjects were sampled made up of 65% males and 35% females whose urine samples were verified using multistix...
April 4, 2017: Diabetes & Metabolic Syndrome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404017/dna-testing-of-pancreatic-cyst-fluid-is-it-ready-for-prime-time
#9
REVIEW
Aatur D Singhi, Marina N Nikiforova, Kevin McGrath
Pancreatic cysts are a clinical quandary in both diagnosis and management. Although many cysts, such as pseudocysts and serous cystadenomas, are benign and can be monitored clinically, mucinous cysts, such as intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms and mucinous cystic neoplasms, have the potential to progress to pancreatic cancer. Considering the poor prognosis of pancreatic cancer, the detection of a pancreatic cyst can be a source of anxiety for both the patient and physician. This diagnosis in turn can lead to expensive, invasive, and even harmful surveillance and treatment options...
January 2017: Lancet. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403885/lung-structure-and-function-similarities-between-primary-ciliary-dyskinesia-and-mild-cystic-fibrosis-a-pilot-study
#10
Marco Maglione, Silvia Montella, Carmine Mollica, Vincenzo Carnovale, Paola Iacotucci, Fabiola De Gregorio, Antonella Tosco, Mariarosaria Cervasio, Valeria Raia, Francesca Santamaria
BACKGROUND: Primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) and cystic fibrosis (CF) are increasingly compared. There are no chest magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) comparative studies of PCD and CF. We assessed clinical, functional, microbiological and MRI findings in PCD and mild CF patients in order to evaluate different expression of lung disease. METHODS: Twenty PCD (15.1 years) and 20 CF subjects with mild respiratory impairment (16 years, 70% with pancreatic insufficiency) underwent MRI, spirometry, and sputum cultures when clinically stable...
April 12, 2017: Italian Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28398044/development-of-a-series-of-kynurenine-3-monooxygenase-inhibitors-leading-to-a-clinical-candidate-for-the-treatment-of-acute-pancreatitis
#11
Ann L Walker, Nicolas Ancellin, Benjamin Beaufils, Marylise Bergeal, Margaret Binnie, Anne Bouillot, David Clapham, Alexis Denis, Carl P Haslam, Duncan S Holmes, Jonathan P Hutchinson, John Liddle, Andrew McBride, Olivier Mirguet, Christopher G Mowat, Paul Rowland, Nathalie Tiberghien, Lionel Trottet, Iain Uings, Scott P Webster, Xiaozhong Zheng, Damian J Mole
Recently, we reported a novel role for KMO in the pathogenesis of acute pancreatitis (AP). A number of inhibitors of kynurenine 3-monooxygenase (KMO) have previously been described as potential treatments for neurodegenerative conditions and particularly for Huntington's disease. However, the inhibitors reported to date have insufficient aqueous solubility relative to their cellular potency to be compatible with the intravenous (iv) dosing route required in AP. We have identified and optimized a novel series of high affinity KMO inhibitors with favorable physicochemical properties...
April 11, 2017: Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397308/improvement-of-isolated-caprine-islet-survival-and-functionality-in-vitro-by-enhancing-of-pdx1-gene-expression
#12
Homayoun Hani, Zeenathul Nazariah Allaudin, Mohd-Azmi Mohd-Lila, Kazhal Sarsaifi, Mina Rasouli, Yew Joon Tam, Tengku-Azmi Tengku-Ibrahim, Abas Mazni Othman
BACKGROUND: Dead islets replaced with viable islets are a promising offer to restore normal insulin production to a person with diabetes. The main reason for establishing a new islet source for transplantation is the insufficiency of human donor pancreas while using xenogeneic islets perhaps assists this problem. The expression of PDX1 is essential for the pancreas expansion. In mature β-cells, PDX1 has several critical roles such as glucose sensing, insulin synthesis, and insulin secretion...
April 11, 2017: Xenotransplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393988/-chronic-pancreatitis-retrospective-review-of-121-cases
#13
Zoltán Berger F, Carla Mancilla A
BACKGROUND: Chronic pancreatitis (CP) is a rare disease in Chile, without a clear explanation for this low prevalence. AIM: To analyze the characteristics of our patients with pancreatitis. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Retrospective analysis of a database of patients with pancreatitis of a clinical hospital. Morphological proof of diagnosis (calcifications/calculi, alterations of ducts, local complication or histology) was obtained for every patient...
December 2016: Revista Médica de Chile
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28393575/using-circulating-cell-free-dna-to-monitor-personalized-cancer-therapy
#14
Michael Oellerich, Ekkehard Schütz, Julia Beck, Philipp Kanzow, Piers N Plowman, Glen J Weiss, Philip D Walson
High-quality genomic analysis is critical for personalized pharmacotherapy in patients with cancer. Tumor-specific genomic alterations can be identified in cell-free DNA (cfDNA) from patient blood samples and can complement biopsies for real-time molecular monitoring of treatment, detection of recurrence, and tracking resistance. cfDNA can be especially useful when tumor tissue is unavailable or insufficient for testing. For blood-based genomic profiling, next-generation sequencing (NGS) and droplet digital PCR (ddPCR) have been successfully applied...
April 10, 2017: Critical Reviews in Clinical Laboratory Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384265/growth-deficits-in-cystic-fibrosis-mice-begin-in-utero-prior-to-igf-1-reduction
#15
Rebecca Darrah, Ilya Bederman, Megan Vitko, Dana M Valerio, Mitchell L Drumm, Craig A Hodges
Growth deficits are common in cystic fibrosis (CF), but their cause is complex, with contributions from exocrine pancreatic insufficiency, pulmonary complications, gastrointestinal obstructions, and endocrine abnormalities. The CF mouse model displays similar growth impairment despite exocrine pancreatic function and in the absence of chronic pulmonary infection. The high incidence of intestinal obstruction in the CF mouse has been suggested to significantly contribute to the observed growth deficits. Previous studies by our group have shown that restoration of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) in the intestinal epithelium prevents intestinal obstruction but does not improve growth...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28383487/molecular-drivers-of-pancreatic-cancer-pathogenesis-looking-inward-to-move-forward
#16
REVIEW
Mohammad Aslam Aslam Khan, Shafquat Azim, Haseeb Zubair, Arun Bhardwaj, Girijesh Kumar Patel, Moh'd Khushman, Seema Singh, Ajay Pratap Singh
Pancreatic cancer (PC) continues to rank among the most lethal cancers. The consistent increase in incidence and mortality has made it the seventh leading cause of cancer-associated deaths globally and the third in the United States. The biggest challenge in combating PC is our insufficient understanding of the molecular mechanism(s) underlying its complex biology. Studies during the last several years have helped identify several putative factors and events, both genetic and epigenetic, as well as some deregulated signaling pathways, with implications in PC onset and progression...
April 6, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28356309/arginase-ii-promotes-tumor-necrosis-factor-%C3%AE-release-from-pancreatic-acinar-cells-causing-%C3%AE-cell-apoptosis-in-aging
#17
Yuyan Xiong, Gautham Yepuri, Sevil Necetin, Jean-Pierre Montani, Xiu-Fen Ming, Zhihong Yang
Aging is associated with glucose intolerance. Arginase-II (Arg-II), the type-II L-arginine-ureahydrolase, is highly expressed in pancreas. However, its role in regulation of pancreatic β-cell function is not known. Here we show that female (not male) mice deficient in Arg-II (Arg-II(-/-)) are protected from age-associated glucose intolerance and reveal greater glucose induced-insulin release, larger islet size and β-cell mass, more proliferative and less apoptotic β-cells as compared to the age-matched wild type (WT) controls...
March 29, 2017: Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346853/high-prevalence-of-vitamin-d-deficiency-and-correlation-of-serum-vitamin-d-with-cardiovascular-risk-in-patients-with-metabolic-syndrome
#18
Mohammad J Alkhatatbeh, Khalid K Abdul-Razzak, Lubna Q Khasawneh, Nesreen A Saadeh
BACKGROUND: Metabolic syndrome (MetS) identifies subjects with increased risk of cardiovascular disease when they have a combination of insulin resistance, obesity, hypertension, hyperglycemia, low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and elevated triglycerides (TGs). Increasing evidence suggests that vitamin D deficiency could be associated with diabetes and MetS. The aim is to assess if 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25-OHD) is correlated with cardiovascular risk components of MetS. METHODS: A cross-sectional study involved 124 diabetic patients with MetS according to International Diabetes Federation definition...
March 27, 2017: Metabolic Syndrome and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344786/united-european-gastroenterology-evidence-based-guidelines-for-the-diagnosis-and-therapy-of-chronic-pancreatitis-hapaneu
#19
REVIEW
J Matthias Löhr, Enrique Dominguez-Munoz, Jonas Rosendahl, Marc Besselink, Julia Mayerle, Markus M Lerch, Stephan Haas, Fatih Akisik, Nikolaos Kartalis, Julio Iglesias-Garcia, Jutta Keller, Marja Boermeester, Jens Werner, Jean-Marc Dumonceau, Paul Fockens, Asbjorn Drewes, Gürlap Ceyhan, Björn Lindkvist, Joost Drenth, Nils Ewald, Philip Hardt, Enrique de Madaria, Heiko Witt, Alexander Schneider, Riccardo Manfredi, Frøkjer J Brøndum, Sasa Rudolf, Thomas Bollen, Marco Bruno
BACKGROUND: There have been substantial improvements in the management of chronic pancreatitis, leading to the publication of several national guidelines during recent years. In collaboration with United European Gastroenterology, the working group on 'Harmonizing diagnosis and treatment of chronic pancreatitis across Europe' (HaPanEU) developed these European guidelines using an evidence-based approach. METHODS: Twelve multidisciplinary review groups performed systematic literature reviews to answer 101 predefined clinical questions...
March 2017: United European Gastroenterology Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344112/efficacy-and-safety-of-once-weekly-semaglutide-versus-once-daily-insulin-glargine-as-add-on-to-metformin-with-or-without-sulfonylureas-in-insulin-naive-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-sustain-4-a-randomised-open-label-parallel-group-multicentre-multinational
#20
Vanita R Aroda, Stephen C Bain, Bertrand Cariou, Milivoj Piletič, Ludger Rose, Mads Axelsen, Everton Rowe, J Hans DeVries
BACKGROUND: Several pharmacological treatment options are available for type 2 diabetes; however, many patients do not achieve optimum glycaemic control and therefore new therapies are necessary. We assessed the efficacy and safety of semaglutide, a glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) analogue in clinical development, compared with insulin glargine in patients with type 2 diabetes who were inadequately controlled with metformin (with or without sulfonylureas). METHODS: We did a randomised, open-label, non-inferiority, parallel-group, multicentre, multinational, phase 3a trial (SUSTAIN 4) at 196 sites in 14 countries...
May 2017: Lancet Diabetes & Endocrinology
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