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Federica Iavarone, Claudia Desiderio, Alberto Vitali, Irene Messana, Claudia Martelli, Massimo Castagnola, Tiziana Cabras
Proteomic surveys with top-down platforms are today revealing thousands of naturally occurring fragments of bigger proteins. Some of them have not functional meaning because they derive from pathways responsible for protein degradation, but many have specific functions, often completely different from that one of the parent proteins. These peptides encrypted in the protein sequence are nowadays called cryptides. They are frequent in the animal and plant kingdoms and represent a new interesting -omic field of investigation...
March 22, 2018: Critical Reviews in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Tatiana V Beketova, Mikhail Y Volkov, Evgeniy A Naryshkin, Tatiana M Novoselova, Evgeniy L Nasonov
Recent advances in pharmacology have greatly expanded the drug repertoire for treatment of anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA)-associated vasculitis. Eosinophilic granulomatosis with polyangiitis (EGPA) is a rare multisystemic disorder, a type of the ANCA-associated vasculitis. Important features of this disease are eosinophilia and anti-myeloperoxidase ANCA presence in around 30-70% of patients. Primary therapy of EGPA includes steroids and cytotoxic drugs, e.g., cyclophosphamide, azathioprine, or methotrexate...
March 21, 2018: Clinical Rheumatology
P Martijn den Reijer, Mehri Tavakol, Nicole Lemmens-den Toom, Dikra Allouch, Sheila Thomas, Vannakambadi K Ganesh, Ya-Ping Ko, Henri A Verbrugh, Willem J B van Wamel
The fibronectin-binding protein A (FnBPA) is a cell surface-associated protein of Staphylococcus aureus which mediates adherence to the host extracellular matrix and is important for bacterial virulence. Previously, substantial sequence diversity was found among strains in the fibrinogen-binding A domain of this protein, and 7 different isotypes were described. The effect of this sequence diversity on the human antibody response, in terms of both antibody production and antibody function, remains unclear. In this study, we identify five different FnBPA A domain isotypes based on the sequence results of 22 clinical S...
March 2018: MSphere
Hala S Hamza, Wessam A Raouf, Asmaa Z Zaher, Hala M Agha
Background: Echocardiographic features of acute Kawasaki disease (KD) have not been well characterized in Egyptian children. This study aimed to provide insight into the pattern of cardiac involvement in Egyptian children with Kawasaki disease, focusing on echocardiographic coronary abnormalities and their associated risk predictors. Methods and Results: Medical records of 64 KD patients from 2012 to 2016 were retrospectively analyzed with recalculation of coronary artery z-scores during the first eight weeks after fever onset...
October 31, 2017: Global Cardiology Science & Practice
Ming-Tai Lin, Mei-Hwan Wu
Kawasaki disease (KD) is one of the most common childhood vasculitides and may lead to coronary arterial complications. KD has been reported in more than 60 countries over five continents. Previous publications have provided a comprehensive description of the epidemiologic features of KD including incidence, age of onset, seasonal trends, and rates of cardiac lesions. However, the interactions among the KD patients, time (seasons) and place have been less well studied. We review the current global epidemiology of KD and focus on the longitudinal changes in incidence, seasonality and response to intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) therapy...
October 31, 2017: Global Cardiology Science & Practice
Jong Han Kim, Hye Ree Kang, Su Yeong Kim, Ji-Eun Ban
Purpose: Human adenovirus infection mimics Kawasaki disease (KD) but can be detected in KD patients. The aim of this study was to determine the clinical differences between KD with adenovirus infection and only adenoviral infection and to identify biomarkers for prediction of adenovirus-positive KD from isolated adenoviral infection. Methods: A total of 147 patients with isolated adenovirus were identified by quantitative polymerase chain reaction. In addition, 11 patients having KD with adenovirus, who were treated with intravenous immunoglobulin therapy during the acute phase of KD were also evaluated...
February 2018: Korean Journal of Pediatrics
Nirav Ramesh Dava, Alok Upadhyaya, Neha Agarwal, Amarjeet Mehta, Vijaypal Choudhary, Gourav Goyal
We are reporting a rare case of hemolytic disease of newborn with weak D antigen in child. A 3rd order male child of G3 P3 A0 mother was admitted at 8th h of life with jaundice. Blood group of both mother and child were A Rh D negative. Baby's direct coombs test was positive. Weak D antigen was positive in baby. Hematological parameters showed all the signs of ongoing hemolysis, and the bilirubin level was in the zone of exchange transfusion. Exchange transfusion was done. An intravenous immunoglobulin was given to child after that...
January 2018: Asian Journal of Transfusion Science
Xue-Juan Bai, You-Rong Yang, Jian-Qin Liang, Hui-Ru An, Jie Wang, Yan-Bo Ling, Zhong-Yuan Wang, Xue-Qiong Wu
BACKGROUND: The diagnosis of bacterium-negative pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) and extra-pulmonary TB is challenging clinically. The detection of the anti-TB antibody has an important, auxiliary, clinical diagnostic value. Therefore, TB antibody detection kits should be screened and evaluated, and the reagents with the highest sensitivity and specificity should be chosen and used clinically. METHODS: The diagnostic performance of 7 commercially available TB antibody detection kits (kits A, B, C, D, E, F and G) based on the gold immunoassay detection of immunoglobulin (Ig) G or IgM antibodies were simultaneously evaluated and compared in 62 TB cases and 56 non-TB cases in a laboratory...
March 22, 2018: Military Medical Research
M Chen, J L Zhuang, M H Duan, W Zhang, J Li, T N Zhu, H C Cai, X X Cao, J Feng, C Yang, Y Zhang, L Zhang, D B Zhou, B Han
Objective: To Evaluate the efficacy and safety of posaconazole as primary prevention of invasive fungal disease (IFD) in patients with severe aplastic anemia (SAA) treated with anti-thymus/lymphocyte immunoglobulin (ATG/ALG) combined with cyclosporine intensive immunosuppressive therapy (IST). Methods: A retrospective analysis of clinical data of 58 SAA patients who received IST of anti-thymocyte immunoglobulin combining cyclosporine and antifungal prophylaxis during April 2013 to May 2017 in Peking Union Medical College Hospital was performed...
February 14, 2018: Zhonghua Xue Ye Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Xueyexue Zazhi
Kei Nakashima, Masahiro Aoshima, Satoko Ohfuji, Satoshi Yamawaki, Masahiro Nemoto, Shinya Hasegawa, Satoshi Noma, Masafumi Misawa, Naoto Hosokawa, Makito Yaegashi, Yoshihito Otsuka
It is unclear whether simultaneous administration of a 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PPSV23) and a quadrivalent influenza vaccine (QIV) produces immunogenicity in older individuals. This study tested the hypothesis that the pneumococcal antibody response elicited by simultaneous administration of PPSV23 and QIV in older individuals is not inferior to that elicited by sequential administration of PPSV23 and QIV. We performed a single-center, randomized, open-label, non-inferiority trial comprising 162 adults aged ≥65 years randomly assigned to either the simultaneous (simultaneous injections of PPSV23 and QIV) or sequential (control; PPSV23 injected 2 weeks after QIV vaccination) groups...
March 21, 2018: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
Yuan Yue, Lone Hymøller, Søren Krogh Jensen, Charlotte Lauridsen
The objective of this study was to investigate the possible beneficial effect of vitamin D repletion on certain immune parameters of vitamin D insufficient dairy cows. Twenty dairy cows in late lactation were treated daily with vitamin D in five different ways: sunlight exposure (SUN), D2 supplementation combined with sunlight exposure (D2SUN), D2 supplementation (D2), D3 supplementation (D3), and D2 and D3 supplementation combined (D2D3). The cows had very low vitamin D levels at d 0 because of the vitamin D deprivation before the study...
March 21, 2018: Archives of Animal Nutrition
Tomas Lorant, Mats Bengtsson, Torsten Eich, Britt-Marie Eriksson, Lena Winstedt, Sofia Järnum, Yvonne Stenberg, Anna-Karin Robertson, Kristina Mosén, Lars Björck, Lars Bäckman, Erik Larsson, Kathryn Wood, Gunnar Tufveson, Christian Kjellman
Safety, immunogenicity, pharmacokinetics and efficacy of the immunoglobulin G-degrading enzyme of Streptococcus pyogenes (IdeS, Imlifidase) was assessed in a single centre, open label ascending dose study in highly sensitised chronic kidney disease patients. Eight patients with cytotoxic panel-reactive antibodies (median cytotoxic PRA of 64%) at enrolment received 1 or 2 intravenous infusions of IdeS on consecutive days (0.12 mg/kg body weight x2 (n=3); 0.25 mg/kg x1 (n=3) or 0.25 mg/kg x2 (n=2)). IgG degradation was observed in all subjects after IdeS treatment, with <1% plasma IgG remaining within 48 hours and remaining low up to 7 days...
March 21, 2018: American Journal of Transplantation
Damir Klepac, Hana Kostková, Svetlana Petrova, Petr Chytil, Tomáš Etrych, Sami Kereïche, Ivan Raška, David A Weitz, Sergey K Filippov
In this paper, we revised the current understanding of the protein corona that is created on the surface of nanoparticles in blood plasma after an intravenous injection. We have focused on nanoparticles that have a proven therapeutic outcome. These nanoparticles are based on two types of biocompatible amphiphilic copolymers based on N-(2-hydroxypropyl)methacrylamide (HPMA): a block copolymer, poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL)-b-poly(HPMA), and a statistical HPMA copolymer bearing cholesterol moieties, which have been tested both in vitro and in vivo...
March 21, 2018: Nanoscale
Shaimaa Elkholy, Sherif Mogawer, Ali Farag
Nodular lymphoid hyperplasia (NLH) is a rare benign condition that is characterized by diffuse hyperplasia of the lymphoid follicles of the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). During endoscopy, NLH appears as multiple or occasionally innumerable nodules measuring a few millimeters in diameter. NLH occurs mainly in the small intestine, less commonly in the large intestine and rarely involves the stomach. There are multiple associated diseases such as immunoglobulin deficiency syndromes, giardiasis, Helicobacter pylori (H...
July 2017: Acta Gastro-enterologica Belgica
Hana Ayed, Mohammed W Chaudhary, Raidah AlBaradie, Ali Mir
Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis is an immune-mediated inflammatory demyelinating disorder of the central nervous system. The first-line treatment is usually high-dose intravenous methylprednisolone. Intravenous immunoglobulin and plasmapheresis have also shown to be beneficial. Immunosuppressive agents like cyclophosphamide have been used in adults with fulminant acute disseminated encephalomyelitis. We report a case of a 3-year-old boy with fulminant acute disseminated encephalomyelitis. Minimal improvement was seen with high-dose intravenous methylprednisolone, intravenous immunoglobulin, and plasmapheresis...
2018: Child neurology open
Hridesh Banerjee, Lawrence P Kane
T-cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain 3 (Tim-3) is a transmembrane protein that in both mice and humans has been shown to possess various functions in a context-dependent manner. Thus, Tim-3 has been associated with both inhibitory and co-stimulatory function, depending in part on the specific cell type and immune response course. Though originally described on T cells, Tim-3 is now known to be expressed by both lymphoid and non-lymphoid cells within the immune system and even by non-immune cells. In addition, though widely thought of as a negative regulator of immunity, Tim-3 has been shown in more recent studies to have a positive function on both myeloid and lymphoid cells, including T cells...
2018: F1000Research
Ahmad Piroozmand, Babak Soltani, Mohsen Razavizadeh, Amir Hasan Matini, Hamid Reza Gilasi, Abbas Nassaji Zavareh, Siamak Soltani
Background and aim: Helicobacter pylori ( H. pylori ) is an important and common contagious human pathogen which may cause peptic ulcer and also gastric cancer. The definite diagnosis of it is made through invasive tests. Recently, non-invasive tests including serologic tests of serum and saliva have been conducted for diagnosis of H. pylori infection. In this research, the diagnostic values of serum and salivary serology were compared together to use salivary anti- H. pylori test as an alternative method in the future...
December 2017: Electronic Physician
Raghad Mubarak Aljuhaysh, Nagah Mohamed Abo El-Fetoh, Malak Ibrahim Alanazi, Afaf Shuaib Albaqawi, Wafa Mohammed Alanazi, Najah Salah Alanazi, Reham Muqbil Alanazi, Atheer Mutab Alanazi, Eiman Mohammad Alnemer, Rahma Abdulhadi Alenezi, Tasleem Khoudier Alabdullatif, Rehab Abdallah Alanazi, Samiyah Sarhan Alanazi, Kawthar Saeed Alsultan, Ibtisam Matan Alanazi, Duaa Sami Alsunayni
Background and aim: Rh isoimmunization still contributes to the neonatal morbidity and mortality due to non-immunization, under-immunization, and in rare cases, false Rh typing. The main objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of Rh incompatibility, mothers' knowledge about Rh incompatibility, mothers' knowledge about anti-D immunoglobulin and to show the pregnancy outcome of Rh negative mothers. Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out at the Maternity and Children Hospital in Arar city from November 2016 to May 2017...
December 2017: Electronic Physician
Hao Chan, Hsuan-Shun Huang, Der-Shan Sun, Chung-Jen Lee, Te-Sheng Lien, Hsin-Hou Chang
Mechanisms underlying cold-induced immunosuppression remain unclear. Here we found that cold exposure leads to transient receptor potential melastatin 8 (TRPM8)-dependent, renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS)-mediated hypertension, which subsequently induces small molecule and fluid extravasation, increases plasma Ig levels, and elicits immunosuppression. An effect is similar to the clinically-used immunosuppressive treatments of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) against various inflammatory diseases, such as immune thrombocytopenia (ITP)...
February 27, 2018: Oncotarget
Meixian Xiang, Li Wu, Hanwen Su, Bing Han, Huanxiang Liu, Xincai Xiao, Xian Yin, Ya Fan, Lang Zhang, Yuying Huang, Lei Zhao, Guangzhong Yang
Allergic rhinitis (AR), one of the common diseases of the upper respiratory system, is associated with high risk of nasopharyngeal carcinoma. Biyuanling Granules (BLG), a formulated preparation of traditional Chinese medicine, has been used in China for treatment of AR for more than a decade; however, its exact action against allergic rhinitis and the mechanism involved remain unclear. In this study, we studied the effects of BLG on allergic rhinitis induced by toluene-2, 4- diisocyanate (TDI) in guinea pigs...
February 27, 2018: Oncotarget
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