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Thyroid imaging

Franklin N Tessler, William D Middleton, Edward G Grant
In 2017, the Thyroid Imaging Reporting and Data System (TI-RADS) Committee of the American College of Radiology (ACR) published a white paper that presented a new risk-stratification system for classifying thyroid nodules on the basis of their appearance at ultrasonography (US). In ACR TI-RADS, points in five feature categories are summed to determine a risk level from TR1 to TR5. Recommendations for biopsy or US follow-up are based on the nodule's ACR TI-RADS level and its maximum diameter. The purpose of this article is to offer practical guidance on how to implement and apply ACR TI-RADS based on the authors' experience with the system...
April 2018: Radiology
Erik H Middlebrooks, Brian C Westbrook, Robert M Conry
Immune checkpoint blockade (CPB) utilizing such agents as ipilimumab, nivolumab, or pembrolizumab has revolutionized melanoma therapy and has seen continued utilization in numerous other malignancies in recent years. However, these agents come at the price of inflammatory immune-related adverse events. Despite the increasing recognition of biochemical thyroid dysfunction associated with CPB, information regarding potential imaging findings is sparse. We describe the first 2 cases of acute thyroiditis following CPB presenting as diffuse thyromegaly documented by computed tomography, ultrasound, and iodine uptake imaging...
February 2018: Radiology Case Reports
Jiao Liu, Baoping Liu, Yanxia Yu, Fangfang Chao, Yan Liu, Xingmin Han
OBJECTIVE: In the follow-up of patients with differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC), several patients had elevated serum levels of antithyroglobulin antibody (TgAb), undetectable serum thyroglobulin (Tg), and negative radioiodine whole body scan (131 I-WBS). We describe the use of neck ultrasonography (US) and fluorine-18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (18 F-FDG PET/CT) imaging in these patients to investigate this clinically challenging problem and propose treating...
March 20, 2018: Hellenic Journal of Nuclear Medicine
Marko Barjaktarović, Milica M Janković, Marija Jeremić, Milovan Matović
Radioiodine therapy in the treatment of differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC) is used in clinical practice for the ablation of thyroid residues and/or destruction of tumour tissue. Whole-body scintigraphy for visualization of the spatial 131I distribution performed by a gamma camera (GC) is a standard procedure in DTC patients after application of radioiodine therapy. A common problem is the precise topographic localization of regions where radioiodine is accumulated even in SPECT imaging. SPECT/CT can provide precise topographic localization of regions where radioiodine is accumulated, but it is often unavailable, especially in developing countries because of the high price of the equipment...
March 9, 2018: Computers in Biology and Medicine
Christina H Stuelten, Carole A Parent, Denise J Montell
Metastasis remains the greatest challenge in the clinical management of cancer. Cell motility is a fundamental and ancient cellular behaviour that contributes to metastasis and is conserved in simple organisms. In this Review, we evaluate insights relevant to human cancer that are derived from the study of cell motility in non-mammalian model organisms. Dictyostelium discoideum, Caenorhabditis elegans, Drosophila melanogaster and Danio rerio permit direct observation of cells moving in complex native environments and lend themselves to large-scale genetic and pharmacological screening...
March 16, 2018: Nature Reviews. Cancer
Anthony W Gannon, Jill E Langer, Richard Bellah, Sarah Ratcliffe, Jennifer Pizza, Sogol Mostoufi-Moab, Anne R Cappola, Andrew J Bauer
Context: Thyroid nodules are increasingly recognized in children and are associated with a greater risk for thyroid cancer compared to adults. Thyroid ultrasound is the favored tool for evaluation of thyroid nodules; however, there are limited data regarding the accuracy of thyroid ultrasound to confirm features associated with a low risk of thyroid cancer in children. Objectives: We examined whether thyroid ultrasound is capable of accurately identifying thyroid nodules at a low risk of malignancy in children...
March 12, 2018: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Ludmila S Almeida, Maidane C Araújo, Denise E Zantut-Wittmann, Lígia V Assumpção, Thiago F Souza, Cleide M Silva, Juliana L Argenton, Allan O Santos, Jair Mengatti, Celso D Ramos, Elba C Etchebehere
BACKGROUND: Radioiodine-refractory thyroid carcinomas (RAIRs) are characterized by reduced expression of sodium-iodine symporter, rising serum thyroglobulin levels, and negative whole-body radioiodine scans. Interestingly, RAIRs continue to express somatostatin receptors and can be identified with Ga-DOTATATE PET/CT imaging. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to compare lesion detectability in Ga-DOTATATE PET/CT performed with elevated thyroid-stimulating hormone (eTSH) levels with suppressed thyroid-stimulating hormone (sTSH) levels...
March 14, 2018: Nuclear Medicine Communications
V Campbell, R Beckett, N Abid, S Hoey
Infantile hepatic hemangiomas (IHH), particularly of the diffuse subtype, can in severe cases be associated with hepatic and cardiac failure, compartment syndrome, and consumptive hypothyroidism. Early recognition and treatment of these pathologies is paramount in order to minimise the risk of longterm sequelae. We report an interesting case of a female infant who presented with systemic compromise, in the absence of large or obvious cutaneous infantile hemangiomas (IH). Imaging identified innumerable hepatic hemangiomas, consistent with diffuse infantile hepatic hemangiomatosis...
February 28, 2018: Journal of Clinical Research in Pediatric Endocrinology
Hongkai Wang, Ziyu Tan, Qiang Zheng, Jing Yu
PURPOSE: Recent researches have demonstrated the value of using 2-deoxy-2-[18 F]fluoro-D-glucose ([18 F]FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) imaging to reveal the hypothyroidism-related damages in local brain regions. However, the influence of hypothyroidism on the entire brain network is barely studied. This study focuses on the application of graph theory on analyzing functional brain networks of the hypothyroidism symptom. PROCEDURES: For both the hypothyroidism and the control groups of Wistar rats, the functional brain networks were constructed by thresholding the glucose metabolism correlation matrices of 58 brain regions...
March 12, 2018: Molecular Imaging and Biology: MIB: the Official Publication of the Academy of Molecular Imaging
Dong Wook Kim, Yoo Jin Lee, Hye Shin Ahn, Hye Jin Baek, Ji Hwa Ryu, Taewoo Kang
PURPOSE: To compare the diagnostic performance of ultrasonography (US) and computed tomography (CT) for diagnosing incidentally detected diffuse thyroid disease (DTD) in patients who underwent thyroid surgery using multicenter data. METHODS: Between July and December 2016, a total of 177 patients who underwent preoperative thyroid US and neck CT, and subsequent thyroid surgery at 4 participating institutions, were reviewed. US and CT images in each case were retrospectively reviewed by a radiologist at each institution, and classified into one of the following four categories based on US and CT features: no DTD; indeterminate; suspicious for DTD; and DTD...
March 10, 2018: La Radiologia Medica
Pedro Arriola-Villalobos, Blanca Benito-Pascual, David Díaz-Valle, José M Benítez-Del-Castillo
PURPOSE: To report 2 cases of cornea verticillata (CV) after vandetanib treatment for medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC). METHODS: In this retrospective interventional, case-report study, 2 patients who under vandetanib treatment for MTC were referred to our ophthalmology department because of vision complaints. Both subjects underwent a complete ophthalmologic examination, including confocal microscopy (CM) using the Heidelberg Retina Tomograph and Rostock Cornea Module...
March 6, 2018: Cornea
Emily Kay-Rivest, Marco A Mascarella, Pramod Puligandla, Sherif Emil, Christine Saint-Martin, Lily H P Nguyen, Sam J Daniel, Robert Baird
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Intrathyroidal thymic tissue may be misinterpreted as a thyroid lesion in children, leading to invasive tests or resection. We sought to describe the characteristic imaging features of these lesions and to evaluate the safety of non-operative management. METHODS: A retrospective review of all patients less than 18years old with intrathyroidal thymic tissue from 2000 to 2016 was performed. Data collection included patient demographics, imaging results, interventions, and outcomes...
February 8, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
Giorgio Treglia, Adriana Tamburello, Luca Giovanella
PURPOSE: Several articles have demonstrated the high diagnostic performance of somatostatin receptor positron emission tomography (PET) in patients with neuroendocrine tumours (NETs). On the other hand, only a few studies have evaluated the detection rate (DR) of this imaging method in recurrent medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC). We aimed to perform a systematic review and a meta-analysis of the DR of somatostatin receptor PET or PET/CT in patients with recurrent MTC to add evidence-based data to this setting...
October 2017: Hormones: International Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism
Min Chen, Weibin Zhou, Zhe Zhang, Yuting Zou, Chengjiang Li
RATIONALE: The incidence of severe hyperandrogenism associated with masculinity in women is very low. While rare and difficult to diagnose, androgen secreting tumors should be suspected in women with hyperandrogenism and hirsutism, especially in the postmenopausal population. Herein we present one case of ovarian Leydig cell tumor (LCT) with markedly elevated serum testosterone levels and frank hirsutism. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 60-year-old woman, presented with increased hair growth and androgenic alopecia and the hormonal laboratory examination showed that she had elevated serum testosterone level and normal dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEAS), androstenedione, 17- hydroxyprogesterone, cortisol and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH)...
March 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Mahdi Haghighatafshar, Mehrnaz Ghaedian, Zahra Etemadi, Seyed M Entezarmahdi, Tahereh Ghaedian
OBJECTIVE: Although different methods have been suggested on reducing salivary gland radiation after radioiodine administration, an effective preventive or therapeutic measure is still up for debate. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of pilocarpine, as a sialagogue drug on the radioiodine content of the salivary gland, and radioiodine-induced symptoms of salivary gland dysfunction. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients who were referred for radioiodine therapy were randomized into pilocarpine and placebo groups...
March 6, 2018: Nuclear Medicine Communications
Hui Jin, Huanhuan Yan, Huamei Tang, Miao Zheng, Chaojie Wu, Jun Liu
An 18-year-old female diagnosed finally as PTC with intrathyroid spread was reported, and the diagnosis and surgical treatment of internal spreading of PTC were discussed. One lump was found on the thyroid isthmus by physical examination and B ultrasound, and multiple nodular shadows were found by CT. This patient finally underwent total thyroidectomy with bilateral central node dissection due to multifocal papillary thyroid carcinoma except PTC in the isthmus found in right lobe by intraoperative frozen section...
2018: Case Reports in Endocrinology
Birthe Heitkötter, Konrad Steinestel, Marcel Trautmann, Inga Grünewald, Peter Barth, Heidrun Gevensleben, Martin Bögemann, Eva Wardelmann, Wolfgang Hartmann, Kambiz Rahbar, Sebastian Huss
Aim: PSMA (prostate-specific membrane antigen) is physiologically expressed in normal prostate tissue and over expressed in prostate cancer cells, therefore constituting a potential target for antibody-based radioligand therapy. Very recent imaging findings reported PSMA-PET/CT uptake in various thyroid lesions. We were therefore encouraged to systematically analyse PSMA expression in different benign and malignant thyroid lesions. Methods: Immunohistochemistry was used to detect PSMA expression in 101 thyroid lesions, while neovasculature was identified by CD34 immunostaining...
February 9, 2018: Oncotarget
Masaya Ikuno, Takayuki Yamada, Yasumoto Shinjo, Tsuyoshi Morimoto, Reiko Kumano, Kunihiro Yagihashi, Takuyuki Katabami, Yasuo Nakajima
Background: Selective venous sampling (SVS) is an invasive localization study for persistent or recurrent hyperparathyroidism. Purpose: To assess the role of SVS in addition to non-invasive imaging for primary hyperparathyroidism (pHPT). Material and Methods: This study was approved by the institutional review board and included 14 patients who underwent SVS and subsequent parathyroidectomy between January 2014 and April 2017 following a clinical diagnosis of pHPT...
February 2018: Acta Radiologica Open
Cosimo Durante, Giorgio Grani, Livia Lamartina, Sebastiano Filetti, Susan J Mandel, David S Cooper
Importance: Thyroid nodules are common, being detected in up to 65% of the general population. This is likely due to the increased use of diagnostic imaging for purposes unrelated to the thyroid. Most thyroid nodules are benign, clinically insignificant, and safely managed with a surveillance program. The main goal of initial and long-term follow-up is identification of the small subgroup of nodules that harbor a clinically significant cancer (≈10%), cause compressive symptoms (≈5%), or progress to functional disease (≈5%)...
March 6, 2018: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
Lester D R Thompson, David N Poller, Kennichi Kakudo, Raoul Burchette, Yuri E Nikiforov, Raja R Seethala
The aim of the study was to assess interobserver variation in reporting nuclear features of encapsulated follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma, newly reclassified as noninvasive follicular thyroid neoplasm with papillary-like nuclear features (NIFTP), based on a proposed standardized scoring system. An education module was individually reviewed as a pre-evaluation teaching guide of the specific features of classical papillary carcinoma, the specific inclusion and exclusion features for the diagnosis of NIFTP, and a catalog of the standardized scoring system of the nuclear features of papillary carcinoma used to reach this diagnosis...
March 6, 2018: Endocrine Pathology
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