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Satiety hormons

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531784/gut-microbiota-mediated-benefits-of-barley-kernel-products-on-metabolism-gut-hormones-and-inflammatory-markers-as-affected-by-co-ingestion-of-commercially-available-probiotics-a-randomized-controlled-study-in-healthy-subjects
#1
Anne Nilsson, Elin Johansson-Boll, Jonna Sandberg, Inger Björck
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Barley kernel based products have been shown to induce benefits on blood glucose regulation, cardio-metabolic risk markers and appetite regulating hormones in a time perspective of 11-16 h after intake. The mechanisms have been assigned to gut fermentation of indigestible carbohydrates. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate if the modulatory effects of barley on markers of metabolic- and appetite regulation are affected by a dietary background including a mixture of commercially available probiotics...
October 2016: Clinical Nutrition ESPEN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487141/a-randomized-cross-over-study-of-the-effects-of-macronutrient-composition-and-meal-frequency-on-glp-1-ghrelin-and-energy-expenditure-in-humans
#2
Simon Ingves, Nathalie Vilhelmsson, Edvin Ström, Mats Fredrikson, Hans Guldbrand, Fredrik H Nystrom
OBJECTIVE: Little is known about human postprandial increase of energy expenditure and satiety-associated hormones in relation to both meal frequency and macronutrient composition. DESIGN: Randomized cross-over study with four conditions for each participant. METHODS: Seven men and seven women (mean age 23±1.5years) were randomly assigned to the order of intake of a 750kcal drink with the same protein content while having either 20 energy-percent (E%) or 55 E% from carbohydrates and the remaining energy from fat...
May 6, 2017: Peptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28473259/the-central-effects-of-alpha-melanocyte-stimulating-hormone-%C3%AE-msh-in-chicks-involve-changes-in-gene-expression-of-neuropeptide-y-and-other-factors-in-distinct-hypothalamic-nuclei
#3
Meghan S Delp, Mark A Cline, Elizabeth R Gilbert
Alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH) is a satiety-inducing factor in birds and mammals although central mechanisms mediating its effects on appetite in birds are poorly understood. Thus, the objective of the present study was to determine effects of centrally-injected α-MSH on c-Fos and gene expression in chick appetite-associated hypothalamic nuclei. At 4days post-hatch, 3h-fasted chicks were intracerebroventricularly (ICV) injected with 0 (vehicle) or 0.12nmol α-MSH and 1h later, hypothalamus samples were collected for measuring c-Fos immunoreactivity and mRNA abundance of appetite-associated factors in hypothalamic nuclei...
May 1, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28463898/glucose-kinetics-an-update-and-novel-insights-into-its-regulation-by-glucagon-and-glp-1
#4
Amalia Gastaldelli, Melania Gaggini, Ralph DeFronzo
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Glucagon and GLP-1 share the same origin (i.e., proglucagon); primarily GLP-1 is generated from intestinal L-cells and glucagon from pancreatic α-cell, but intestinal glucagon and pancreatic GLP-1 secretion is likely. Glucose kinetics are tightly regulated by pancreatic hormones insulin and glucagon, but other hormones, including glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), also play an important role. The purpose of this review is to describe the recent findings on the mechanisms by which these two hormones regulate glucose kinetics...
April 29, 2017: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28460928/simulated-gi-digestion-of-dietary-protein-release-of-new-bioactive-peptides-involved-in-gut-hormone-secretion
#5
Juliette Caron, Benoit Cudennec, Dorothée Domenger, Yanath Belguesmia, Christophe Flahaut, Mostafa Kouach, Jean Lesage, Jean-François Goossens, Pascal Dhulster, Rozenn Ravallec
Dietary proteins have been reported to induce a strong feeling of satiety that has been partially explained by gut hormone level increase. Up to date, various protein hydrolysates have demonstrated in vitro and in vivo their potential to stimulate gut hormone secretion related to food intake decrease and their mechanisms of action have just started to be resolved. In this context, this study aimed at identifying new peptide sequences involved in gut hormone secretion released by protein in vitro gastrointestinal digestion...
November 2016: Food Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28450850/cholecystokinin-from-local-gut-hormone-to-ubiquitous-messenger
#6
REVIEW
Jens F Rehfeld
Cholecystokinin (CCK) was discovered in 1928 in jejunal extracts as a gallbladder contraction factor. It was later shown to be member of a peptide family, which are all ligands for the CCK1 and CCK2 receptors. CCK peptides are known to be synthetized in small intestinal endocrine I-cells and cerebral neurons. But in addition, CCK is expressed in several endocrine glands (pituitary cells, thyroid C-cells, pancreatic islets, the adrenals, and the testes); in peripheral nerves; in cortical and medullary kidney cells; in cardial myocytes; and in cells of the immune system...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447374/effect-of-feeding-a-high-carbohydrate-or-a-high-fat-diet-on-subsequent-food-intake-and-blood-concentration-of-satiety-related-hormones-in-dogs
#7
S Schauf, A Salas-Mani, C Torre, E Jimenez, M A Latorre, C Castrillo
Although studies in rodents and humans have evidenced a weaker effect of fat in comparison to carbohydrates on the suppression of food intake, very few studies have been carried out in this field in dogs. This study investigates the effects of a high-carbohydrate (HC) and a high-fat (HF) diets on subsequent food intake and blood satiety-related hormones in dogs. Diets differed mainly in their starch (442 vs. 271 g/kg dry matter) and fat (99.3 vs. 214 g/kg dry matter) contents. Twelve Beagle dogs received the experimental diets at maintenance energy requirements in two experimental periods, following a cross-over arrangement...
April 26, 2017: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28443785/acute-and-long-term-impact-of-high-protein-diets-on-endocrine-and-metabolic-function-body-composition-and-exercise-induced-adaptations
#8
Flor E Morales, Grant M Tinsley, Paul M Gordon
BACKGROUND: High-protein diets have been shown to improve body composition through alterations in satiety, muscle protein synthesis, and the thermic effect of food. AIM: Given these findings, the purpose of this review is to discuss the integration of the specific hormonal and metabolic effects of high-protein diets following both acute and long-term usage, especially with regard to body composition. METHODS: Full-text articles were obtained through PubMed by using the terms "high-protein diet and body composition," "high-protein diet and exercise," "high-protein diet risk," "high-protein diet side effects," "protein quality PDCAAS," "RDA for protein," and "daily protein recommendation...
April 26, 2017: Journal of the American College of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439092/timeline-of-changes-in-appetite-during-weight-loss-with-a-ketogenic-diet
#9
S Nymo, S R Coutinho, J Jørgensen, J F Rehfeld, H Truby, B Kulseng, C Martins
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: Diet-induced weight loss (WL) leads to increased hunger and reduced fullness feelings, increased ghrelin and reduced satiety peptides concentration (glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), cholecystokinin (CCK) and peptide YY (PYY)). Ketogenic diets seem to minimise or supress some of these responses. The aim of this study was to determine the timeline over which changes in appetite occur during progressive WL with a ketogenic very-low energy diet (VLED). SUBJECTS/METHODS: Thirty-one sedentary adults (18 men), with obesity (BMI: 37±4...
April 25, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431559/effects-of-whole-grain-rye-with-and-without-resistant-starch-type-2-supplementation-on-glucose-tolerance-gut-hormones-inflammation-and-appetite-regulation-in-an-11-14-5%C3%A2-hour-perspective-a-randomized-controlled-study-in-healthy-subjects
#10
Jonna C Sandberg, Inger M E Björck, Anne C Nilsson
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of obesity is increasing worldwide and prevention is needed. Whole grain has shown potential to lower the risk of obesity, cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. One possible mechanism behind the benefits of whole grain is the gut fermentation of dietary fiber (DF), e.g. non-starch polysaccharides and resistant starch (RS), in whole grain. The purpose of the study is to investigate the effect of whole grain rye-based products on glucose- and appetite regulation...
April 21, 2017: Nutrition Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430981/central-nervous-system-glp-1-receptors-regulate-islet-hormone-secretion-and-glucose-homeostasis-in-male-rats
#11
Lene Jessen, Eric P Smith, Yvonne Ulrich-Lai, James P Herman, Randy J Seeley, Darleen Sandoval, David D'Alessio
The glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) system plays an important role in blood glucose regulation, in great part through coordinate control of insulin and glucagon secretion. These effects are generally attributed to GLP-1 produced in peripheral sites, principally the intestine. GLP-1 is also produced in hindbrain neurons that signal through GLP-1 receptors (GLP-1r) expressed in brain regions involved in metabolic regulation. GLP-1 in the central nervous system (CNS) induces satiety, visceral illness, and stress responses...
April 18, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427902/effects-of-different-green-light-intensities-on-the-growth-performance-and-endocrine-properties-of-barfin-flounder-verasper-moseri
#12
Akiyoshi Takahashi, Satoshi Kasagi, Naoto Murakami, Sumihisa Furufuji, Shigeto Kikuchi, Kanta Mizusawa, Tadashi Andoh
We previously reported that the somatic growth of barfin flounder, Verasper moseri, was effectively stimulated by the green light compared to the blue and red lights. Herein, we report the effects of different green light intensities on the growth and endocrine system of the fish. Fish were reared in a dark room with light from a light-emitting diode (LED) at a peak wavelength of 518nm under controlled photoperiod (10.5:13.5h, light:dark cycle; 06:00-16:30, light) with three levels of photon flux density (PFD)-2 (low), 7 (medium), or 21 (high) μmol·m(-2)·s(-1) at the water surface...
April 17, 2017: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422122/infant-milk-fat-droplet-size-and-coating-affect-postprandial-responses-in-healthy-adult-men-a-proof-of-concept-study
#13
S Baumgartner, B J M van de Heijning, D Acton, R P Mensink
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Fat droplets in human milk (HM) are larger and surrounded by a phospholipid membrane compared with infant milk formulas (IMF). Since the physical structure of fat droplets might affect digestion and postprandial metabolism, an IMF was developed more mimicking HM lipid structure than current IMF. SUBJECTS/METHODS: A randomised, double-blind, crossover study was performed in 29 fasted healthy men (aged 18-25 years, BMI: 18-25 kg/m(2)) to compare 5-hour postprandial responses after consumption of an experimental IMF (Concept, Nuturis) with a current IMF (Control)...
April 19, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396144/supplementation-of-diet-with-galacto-oligosaccharides-increases-bifidobacteria-but-not-insulin-sensitivity-in%C3%A2-obese%C3%A2-prediabetic-individuals
#14
Emanuel E Canfora, Christina M van der Beek, Gerben D A Hermes, Gijs H Goossens, Johan W E Jocken, Jens J Holst, Hans M van Eijk, Koen Venema, Hauke Smidt, Erwin G Zoetendal, Cornelis H C Dejong, Kaatje Lenaerts, Ellen E Blaak
BACKGROUND & AIMS: The gut microbiota affects host lipid and glucose metabolism, satiety, and chronic low-grade inflammation to contribute to obesity and type 2 diabetes. Fermentation end products, in particular the short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) acetate, are believed to be involved in these processes. We investigated the long-term effects of supplementation with galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS), an acetogenic fiber, on the composition of the human gut microbiota and human metabolism. METHODS: We performed a double-blinded, placebo-controlled, parallel intervention study of 44 overweight or obese (body mass index, 28-40 kg/m(2)) prediabetic men and women (ages, 45-70 y) from October 2014 through October 2015 in Maastricht, The Netherlands...
April 8, 2017: Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392300/glucagon-like-peptide-1-receptor-agonists-a-class-update-for-treating-type-2-diabetes
#15
REVIEW
Julie A Lovshin
Current management options for treating type 2 diabetes are diverse. Many different classes of antidiabetes therapies are used in clinic, and several new candidates are in late-phase clinical trial. This therapeutic abundance is a windfall for patients because it facilitates individualized patient care. Evidence-based positioning of these agents is challenging, however, requiring comprehensive and balanced familiarity with each drug class. In this review, I provide a clinical update of glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1RAs), a class of incretin-based, injectable antidiabetes therapies which improve fasting and postprandial blood glucose control through glucose-dependent pancreatic islet cell hormone secretion without significant risks for hypoglycemia...
April 5, 2017: Canadian Journal of Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28374855/fibroblast-growth-factor-21-assisted-by-elevated-glucose-activates-paraventricular-nucleus-nucb2-nesfatin-1-neurons-to-produce-satiety-under-fed-states
#16
Putra Santoso, Masanori Nakata, Kazuhiro Shiizaki, Zhang Boyang, Kumari Parmila, Zesemdorj Otgon-Uul, Koshi Hashimoto, Tetsurou Satoh, Masatomo Mori, Makoto Kuro-O, Toshihiko Yada
Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21), liver-derived hormone, exerts diverse metabolic effects, being considered for clinical application to treat obesity and diabetes. However, its anorexigenic effect is debatable and whether it involves the central mechanism remains unclarified. Moreover, the neuron mediating FGF21's anorexigenic effect and the systemic energy state supporting it are unclear. We explored the target neuron and fed/fasted state dependence of FGF21's anorexigenic action. Intracerebroventricular (ICV) injection of FGF21 markedly suppressed food intake in fed mice with elevated blood glucose...
April 4, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369078/the-effect-of-meal-frequency-in-a-reduced-energy-regimen-on-the-gastrointestinal-and-appetite-hormones-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-a-randomised-crossover-study
#17
Lenka Belinova, Hana Kahleova, Hana Malinska, Ondrej Topolcan, Jindra Windrichova, Olena Oliyarnyk, Ludmila Kazdova, Martin Hill, Terezie Pelikanova
BACKGROUND: Appetite and gastrointestinal hormones (GIHs) participate in energy homeostasis, feeding behavior and regulation of body weight. We demonstrated previously the superior effect of a hypocaloric diet regimen with lower meal frequency (B2) on body weight, hepatic fat content, insulin sensitivity and feelings of hunger compared to the same diet divided into six smaller meals a day (A6). Studies with isoenergetic diet regimens indicate that lower meal frequency should also have an effect on fasting and postprandial responses of GIHs...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28351157/synthetic-and-phytocompounds-based-dipeptidyl-peptidase-iv-dpp-iv-inhibitors-for-therapeutics-of-diabetes
#18
Anand-Krishna Singh, Rameshwar Jatwa, Ashok Purohit, Heera Ram
Currently antidiabetic therapeutic strategies are mainly based on synthetic hypoglycemic agent. Antidiabetic drugs are associated with significant adverse effects of hypoglycemia, dysfunction of insulin and weight gain. Nowadays, the novel Dipeptidyl peptidase-IV (DPP-IV) inhibitors unique approach for the management of diabetes has been considered to be safe, as DPP-IV inhibitors reduce blood glucose level by monitoring hyperglycemia including positive effects on body weight as it remains neutral, improves glycated hemoglobin levels and do not induce hypoglycemia...
March 29, 2017: Journal of Asian Natural Products Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343167/the-unappreciated-roles-of-the-cholecystokinin-receptor-cck-1-in-brain-functioning
#19
Santiago Ballaz
The CCK(1) receptor is a G-protein-coupled receptor activated by the sulfated forms of cholecystokinin (CCK), a gastrin-like peptide released in the gastrointestinal tract and mammal brain. A substantial body of research supports the hypothesis that CCK(1)r stimulates gallbladder contraction and pancreatic secretion in the gut, as well as satiety in brain. However, this receptor may also fulfill relevant roles in behavior, thanks to its widespread distribution in the brain. The strategic location of CCK(1)r in mesolimbic structures and specific hypothalamic and brainstem nuclei lead to complex interactions with neurotransmitters like dopamine, serotonin, and glutamate, as well as hypothalamic hormones and neuropeptides...
March 25, 2017: Reviews in the Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28342765/hippocampal-insulin-resistance-and-altered-food-decision-making-as-players-on-obesity-risk
#20
REVIEW
Amanda Brondani Mucellini, Natasha Kim de Oliveira da Fonseca, Gisele Gus Manfro, Patrícia Pelufo Silveira
There are increasing evidences that hippocampus can modulate the decision of what, when and how much to eat, in addition to its already recognized role in learning and memory processes. Insulin also has been linked to brain functions such as feeding behavior and the imbalance of its mechanism of action on hippocampus is being related to cognitive dysfunction. The discussion here is whether changes in insulin action could contribute to intake dysregulation and obesogenic behavior as a primary consequence of impairing hippocampal functioning, aside from the role of this hormone on obesity development through peripheral metabolic pathways...
March 22, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
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