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Satiety hormons

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28102207/drosophila-fit-is-a-protein-specific-satiety-hormone-essential-for-feeding-control
#1
Jinghan Sun, Chang Liu, Xiaobing Bai, Xiaoting Li, Jingyun Li, Zhiping Zhang, Yunpeng Zhang, Jing Guo, Yan Li
Protein homeostasis is critical for health and lifespan of animals. However, the mechanisms for controlling protein feeding remain poorly understood. Here we report that in Drosophila, protein intake-induced feeding inhibition (PIFI) is specific to protein-containing food, and this effect is mediated by a fat body (FB) peptide named female-specific independent of transformer (FIT). Upon consumption of protein food, FIT expression is greatly elevated. Secreted FIT peptide in the fly haemolymph conveys this metabolic message to the brain, thereby promoting the release of Drosophila insulin-like peptide 2 (DILP2) and suppressing further protein intake...
January 19, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098139/appetite-responses-to-high-fat-meals-or-diets-of-varying-fatty-acid-composition-a-comprehensive-review
#2
REVIEW
S Kaviani, J A Cooper
Dietary fatty acids (FA) act as signaling molecules with diverse effects on physiologic function. The aim of this article is to review and summarize the clinical human studies in the literature on how dietary FA composition in meals and diets affects hunger and satiety signaling in the body. Studies examining FA saturation (monounsaturated (MUFA), saturated or polyunsaturated (PUFA) FAs) or FA chain length from high-fat meals/diets were included. Measures of appetite included visual analog scale (VAS) questionnaires, appetite hormones (Cholecystokinin (CCK), glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), peptide YY (PYY), gastric insulinotropic polypeptide gastric inhibitory peptide (GIP), ghrelin, leptin, insulin) and/or energy intake (EI) data...
January 18, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097839/nutritional-assessment-of-a-population-with-a-history-of-childhood-craniopharyngioma-seen-at-hospital-prof-dr-juan-p-garrahan
#3
Carolina Caminiti, Carola Saure, Ilanit Bomer, Mercedes Brea, Javier González Ramos
INTRODUCTION: Craniopharyngiomas are histologically benign malformations located between the pituitary and hypothalamus that may affect key hormone secretion for endocrine regulation and satiety modulation. Although this is a relatively benign disease, the combination of severe hypothalamic obesity and associated comorbidities results in a reduced quality of life. OBJECTIVE: To assess the nutritional status of patients after craniopharyngioma surgery. POPULATION AND METHODS: Patients younger than 21 years old at the time of the study who required craniopharyngioma surgery at Hospital de Pediatr...
1, 2017: Archivos Argentinos de Pediatría
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089080/salba-chia-salvia-hispanica-l-in-the-treatment-of-overweight-and-obese-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-a-double-blind-randomized-controlled-trial
#4
V Vuksan, A L Jenkins, C Brissette, L Choleva, E Jovanovski, A L Gibbs, R P Bazinet, F Au-Yeung, A Zurbau, H V T Ho, L Duvnjak, J L Sievenpiper, R G Josse, A Hanna
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Preliminary findings indicate that consumption of Salba-chia (Salvia hispanica L.), an ancient seed, improves management of type 2 diabetes and suppresses appetite. The aim of this study was to assesse the effect of Salba-chia on body weight, visceral obesity and obesity-related risk factors in overweight and obese adults with type 2 diabetes. METHODS: A double-blind, randomized, controlled trial with two parallel groups involved 77 overweight or obese patients with type 2 diabetes (HbA1c: 6...
December 9, 2016: Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases: NMCD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076762/a-leptin-analog-locally-produced-in-the-brain-acts-via-a-conserved-neural-circuit-to-modulate-obesity-linked-behaviors-in-drosophila
#5
Jennifer Beshel, Josh Dubnau, Yi Zhong
Leptin, a typically adipose-derived "satiety hormone," has a well-established role in weight regulation. Here we describe a functionally conserved model of genetically induced obesity in Drosophila by manipulating the fly leptin analog unpaired 1 (upd1). Unexpectedly, cell-type-specific knockdown reveals upd1 in the brain, not the adipose tissue, mediates obesity-related traits. Disrupting brain-derived upd1 in flies leads to all the hallmarks of mammalian obesity: increased attraction to food cues, increased food intake, and increased weight...
January 10, 2017: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076485/glp-2-a-poorly-understood-mediator-enrolled-in-various-bariatric-metabolic-surgery-related-pathophysiologic-mechanisms
#6
Everton Cazzo, Martinho Antonio Gestic, Murillo Pimentel Utrini, Felipe David Mendonça Chaim, Bruno Geloneze, José Carlos Pareja, Elinton Adami Chaim, Daniéla Oliveira Magro
Introduction: Glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2) is a gastrointestinal hormone whose effects are predominantly trophic on the intestinal mucosa. Aim: Critically evaluate the current literature on the influence of bariatric/metabolic surgery on the levels of GLP-2 and its potential clinical implications. Method: s: Narrative review through online research on the databases Medline and Lilacs. There were six prospective human studies, two cross-sectional human studies, and three experimental animal studies selected...
November 2016: Arquivos Brasileiros de Cirurgia Digestiva: ABCD, Brazilian Archives of Digestive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076453/ferulic-acid-lowers-body-weight-and-visceral-fat-accumulation-via-modulation-of-enzymatic-hormonal-and-inflammatory-changes-in-a-mouse-model-of-high-fat-diet-induced-obesity
#7
T S de Melo, P R Lima, K M M B Carvalho, T M Fontenele, F R N Solon, A R Tomé, T L G de Lemos, S G da Cruz Fonseca, F A Santos, V S Rao, M G R de Queiroz
Previous studies have reported on the glucose and lipid-lowering effects of ferulic acid (FA) but its anti-obesity potential has not yet been firmly established. This study investigated the possible anti-obesitogenic effects of FA in mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD) for 15 weeks. To assess the antiobesity potential of FA, 32 male Swiss mice, weighing 20-25 g (n=6-8 per group) were fed a normal diet (ND) or HFD, treated orally or not with either FA (10 mg/kg) or sibutramine (10 mg/kg) for 15 weeks and at the end of this period, the body weights of animals, visceral fat accumulation, plasma levels of glucose and insulin hormone, amylase and lipase activities, the satiety hormones ghrelin and leptin, and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCH-1) were analyzed...
January 5, 2017: Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, Revista Brasileira de Pesquisas Médicas e Biológicas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040488/systemic-administration-of-anorexic-gut-peptide-hormones-impairs-hedonic-driven-sucrose-consumption-in-mice
#8
Erina Yamaguchi, Yasunobu Yasoshima, Tsuyoshi Shimura
A number of reports suggest that gut hormones such as cholecystokinin (CCK), glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1), and peptide YY(3-36) (PYY3-36), which are released postprandially, suppress homeostatic food intake and result in satiety and the termination of feeding. However, it remains unclear whether these peptide hormones also suppress non-homeostatic consumption of palatable foods or fluids. To examine whether gut hormones reduce hedonically motivated sugar consumption, we assessed the effects of intraperitoneal administration of these gut hormones on the consumption of a highly palatable sucrose solution, using a mouse model we previously established for binge-like sucrose overconsumption (Yasoshima and Shimura, 2015)...
December 28, 2016: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28007490/gut-brain-nutrient-sensing-in-food-reward
#9
Ari Shechter, Gary J Schwartz
For the past several decades, vagal and hormonal gut-brain negative feedback signaling mechanisms that promote satiety and subsequent suppression of food intake have been explored. In addition, a separate positive feedback process termed "appetition," involving postoral signaling from the gut to the brain, has been shown to promote food intake and produce flavor-nutrient preference conditioning. Afferent fibers emerging from the vagus nerve form the main pathway by which information is relayed from the abdominal viscera to the hindbrain and eventually other higher brain regions involved in food intake...
December 20, 2016: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27994518/signal-transduction-mechanism-for-glucagon-induced-leptin-gene-expression-in-goldfish-liver
#10
Ai-Fen Yan, Ting Chen, Shuang Chen, Dong-Sheng Tang, Fang Liu, Xiao Jiang, Wen Huang, Chun-Hua Ren, Chao-Qun Hu
Leptin is a peripheral satiety hormone that also plays important roles in energy homeostasis in vertebrates ranging from fish to mammals. In teleost fish, however, the regulatory mechanism for leptin gene expression still remains unclear. In this study, we found that glucagon, a key hormone in glucose homeostasis, was effective at elevating the leptin-AI and leptin-AII transcript levels in goldfish liver via both in vivo intraperitoneal injection and in vitro cells incubation approaches. The responses of leptin-AI and leptin-AII mRNA to glucagon treatment were highly comparable...
2016: International Journal of Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27991713/roles-of-the-gut-in-the-metabolic-syndrome-an-overview
#11
REVIEW
L Fändriks
The metabolic syndrome is a cluster of risk factors (central obesity, hyperglycaemia, dyslipidaemia and arterial hypertension), indicating an increased risk of diabetes, cardiovascular disease and premature mortality. The gastrointestinal tract is seldom discussed as an organ system of principal importance for metabolic diseases. The present overview connects various metabolic research lines into an integrative physiological context in which the gastrointestinal tract is included. Strong evidence for the involvement of the gut in the metabolic syndrome derives from the powerful effects of weight-reducing (bariatric) gastrointestinal surgery...
December 19, 2016: Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917799/effect-of-one-unit-blood-donation-on-appetite-related-biomarkers
#12
Husamettin Erdamar, Muzaffer Cakmak
PURPOSE: It is commonly reported that blood donation (BD) leads to an increase in appetite. To investigate this claim, a questionnaire was offered to 306 people who had a history of BD at least once in their life. Following a positive outcome from the questionnaire, we further investigated the impact of BD on appetite. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The questionnaire study consists of a 5-question survey with VAS was performed on 399 volunteers. Later, 108 volunteers were enrolled in a laboratory study...
December 1, 2016: Clinical and Investigative Medicine. Médecine Clinique et Experimentale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898845/effect-of-sterilization-and-of-dietary-fat-and-carbohydrate-content-on-food-intake-activity-level-and-blood-satiety-related-hormones-in-female-dogs
#13
S Schauf, A Salas-Mani, C Torre, G Bosch, H Swarts, C Castrillo
Animal sterilization is suggested to promote food overconsumption, although it is unknown whether this effect is mediated by variations in satiety-related hormones, which are released in response to food intake. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of sterilization and of the main energy-delivery nutrients, fat and nonstructural carbohydrates, on food intake, blood concentration of satiety-related hormones, and activity level in dogs. In a 2-phase experiment (phase I [Ph.I], 74 d, and Ph.II, 84 d), 12 female Beagle dogs were assigned to a control group (intact in both phases) and a sterilization group (spayed 20 d before Ph...
October 2016: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890806/the-endocrine-disrupting-potential-of-monosodium-glutamate-msg-on-secretion-of-the-glucagon-like-peptide-1-glp-1-gut-hormone-and-glp-1-receptor-interaction
#14
Maeve Shannon, Brian Green, Gary Willars, Jodie Wilson, Natalie Matthews, Joanna Lamb, Anna Gillespie, Lisa Connolly
Monosodium glutamate (MSG) is a suspected obesogen with epidemiological evidence positively correlating consumption to increased body mass index and higher prevalence of metabolic syndrome. ELISA and high content analysis (HCA) were employed to examine the disruptive effects of MSG on the secretion of enteroendocrine hormone glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R), respectively. Following 3h MSG exposure of the enteroendocrine pGIP/neo: STC-1 cell line model (500μg/ml) significantly increased GLP-1 secretion (1...
January 4, 2017: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869800/a-rapidly-acting-glutamatergic-arc%C3%A2-pvh-satiety-circuit-postsynaptically-regulated-by-%C3%AE-msh
#15
Henning Fenselau, John N Campbell, Anne M J Verstegen, Joseph C Madara, Jie Xu, Bhavik P Shah, Jon M Resch, Zongfang Yang, Yael Mandelblat-Cerf, Yoav Livneh, Bradford B Lowell
Arcuate nucleus (ARC) neurons sense the fed or fasted state and regulate hunger. Agouti-related protein (AgRP) neurons in the ARC (ARC(AgRP) neurons) are stimulated by fasting and, once activated, they rapidly (within minutes) drive hunger. Pro-opiomelanocortin (ARC(POMC)) neurons are viewed as the counterpoint to ARC(AgRP) neurons. They are regulated in an opposite fashion and decrease hunger. However, unlike ARC(AgRP) neurons, ARC(POMC) neurons are extremely slow in affecting hunger (many hours). Thus, a temporally analogous, rapid ARC satiety pathway does not exist or is presently unidentified...
January 2017: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863129/mechanisms-of-obesity-in-prader-willi-syndrome
#16
REVIEW
M J Khan, K Gerasimidis, C A Edwards, M G Shaikh
Obesity is the most common cause of metabolic complications and poor quality of life in Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS). Hyperphagia and obesity develop after an initial phase of poor feeding and failure to thrive. Several mechanisms for the aetiology of obesity in PWS are proposed, which include disruption in hypothalamic pathways of satiety control resulting in hyperphagia, aberration in hormones regulating food intake, reduced energy expenditure because of hypotonia and altered behaviour with features of autism spectrum disorder...
November 10, 2016: Pediatric Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27824596/effects-of-continuous-positive-airway-pressure-on-energy-balance-regulation-a-systematic-review
#17
REVIEW
Ari Shechter
Obesity is both a cause and a possible consequence of obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA), as OSA seems to affect parameters involved in energy balance regulation, including food intake, hormonal regulation of hunger/satiety, energy metabolism and physical activity. It is known that weight loss improves OSA, yet it remains unclear why continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) often results in weight gain.The goal of this systematic review is to explore if and how CPAP affects the behaviour and/or metabolism involved in regulating energy balance...
December 2016: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27818084/obstructive-sleep-apnea-and-energy-balance-regulation-a-systematic-review
#18
REVIEW
Ari Shechter
: Obesity and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) have a reciprocal relationship. Sleep disruptions characteristic of OSA may promote behavioral, metabolic, and/or hormonal changes favoring weight gain and/or difficulty losing weight. The regulation of energy balance (EB), i.e., the relationship between energy intake (EI) and energy expenditure (EE), is complex and multi-factorial, involving food intake, hormonal regulation of hunger/satiety/appetite, and EE via metabolism and physical activity (PA)...
July 15, 2016: Sleep Medicine Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27808040/endobarrier-gastrointestinal-liner-delineation-of-underlying-mechanisms-and-clinical-effects
#19
Ulrich Rohde
Bariatric surgery (e.g. Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB)) has proven the most effective way of achieving sustainable weight losses and remission of type 2 diabetes (T2D). Studies indicate that the effectiveness of RYGB is mediated by an altered gastrointestinal tract anatomy, which in particular favours release of the gut incretin hormone glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1). The EndoBarrier gastrointestinal liner or duodenal-jejunal bypass sleeve (DJBS) is an endoscopic deployable minimally invasive and fully reversible technique designed to mimic the bypass component of the RYGB...
November 2016: Danish Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798332/the-noncaloric-sweetener-rebaudioside-a-stimulates-glucagon-like-peptide-1-release-and-increases-enteroendocrine-cell-numbers-in-2-dimensional-mouse-organoids-derived-from-different-locations-of-the-intestine
#20
Nikkie van der Wielen, Jean Paul Ten Klooster, Susanne Muckenschnabl, Raymond Pieters, Henk Fj Hendriks, Renger F Witkamp, Jocelijn Meijerink
BACKGROUND: Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) contributes to satiety and plays a pivotal role in insulin secretion and glucose homeostasis. Similar to GLP-1, peptide YY (PYY) and cholecystokinin also influence food intake. The secretion of these hormones by enteroendocrine cells along the intestine is modulated by nutrients. Preparations from the Stevia rebaudiana plant, including rebaudioside A, are increasingly being used as noncaloric sweeteners. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the effects of rebaudioside A on enteroendocrine cells by assessing both cell numbers as well as their secretory capacity in an organoid model...
December 2016: Journal of Nutrition
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