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Satiety hormons

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29756380/metabolic-inhibitors-of-o-glcnac-transferase-ogt-that-act-in-vivo-implicate-decreased-o-glcnac-levels-in-leptin-mediated-nutrient-sensing
#1
Ta-Wei Liu, Wesley F Zandberg, Tracey M Gloster, Lehua Deng, Kelsey D Murray, Xiaoyang Shan, David Jaro Vocadlo
O-linked glycosylation of serine and threonine residues of nucleocytoplasmic proteins with N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) residues is catalyzed by O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT). O-GlcNAc is conserved within mammals and is implicated in a wide range of physiological processes. Here we describe metabolic precursor inhibitors of OGT suitable for use both in cells and in vivo in mice. These 5-thiosugar analogues of N-acetylglucosamine are assimilated through a convergent metabolic pathway, most likely involving N-acetylglucosamine-6-phosphate de-N-acetylase (NAGA) to generate a common OGT inhibitor within cells...
May 14, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29742429/diet-induced-growth-is-regulated-via-acquired-leptin-resistance-and-engages-a-pomc-somatostatin-growth-hormone-circuit
#2
Heiko Löhr, Simon Hess, Mafalda M A Pereira, Philip Reinoß, Sandra Leibold, Christel Schenkel, Claudia M Wunderlich, Peter Kloppenburg, Jens C Brüning, Matthias Hammerschmidt
Anorexigenic pro-opiomelanocortin (Pomc)/alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone (αMSH) neurons of the hypothalamic melanocortin system function as key regulators of energy homeostasis, also controlling somatic growth across different species. However, the mechanisms of melanocortin-dependent growth control still remain ill-defined. Here, we reveal a thus-far-unrecognized structural and functional connection between Pomc neurons and the somatotropic hypothalamo-pituitary axis. Excessive feeding of larval zebrafish causes leptin resistance and reduced levels of the hypothalamic satiety mediator pomca...
May 8, 2018: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29728598/glucagon-like-peptide-1-in-health-and-disease
#3
REVIEW
Andreas Andersen, Asger Lund, Filip K Knop, Tina Vilsbøll
In healthy individuals, the incretin hormone glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP1) potentiates insulin release and suppresses glucagon secretion in response to the ingestion of nutrients. GLP1 also delays gastric emptying and increases satiety. In patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), supraphysiological doses of GLP1 normalize the endogenous insulin response during a hyperglycaemic clamp. Owing to the short plasma half-life of native GLP1, several GLP1 receptor agonists (GLP1RAs) with longer half-lives have been developed for the treatment of T2DM...
May 4, 2018: Nature Reviews. Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29722834/effects-of-caloric-and-noncaloric-sweeteners-on-antroduodenal-motility-gastrointestinal-hormone-secretion-and-appetite-related-sensations-in-healthy-subjects
#4
Anne Christin Meyer-Gerspach, Jessica R Biesiekierski, Eveline Deloose, Egbert Clevers, Alessandra Rotondo, Jens F Rehfeld, Inge Depoortere, Lukas Van Oudenhove, Jan Tack
Background: Activation of gastrointestinal (GI) sweet taste receptors by caloric sweeteners triggers secretion of anorexigenic and inhibition of orexigenic GI hormones to regulate food intake. The effect of noncaloric sweeteners on these mechanisms is controversial. We have recently shown that motilin-induced gastric phase III contractions signal hunger feelings, thereby identifying GI motility, and its regulatory hormone motilin, as novel players in food intake regulation. Objective: The objective of the present study was to determine the effect of caloric and noncaloric sweeteners on GI motility, GI hormone secretion, and hunger in humans...
May 1, 2018: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29698465/barley-%C3%AE-glucan-improves-metabolic-condition-via-short-chain-fatty-acids-produced-by-gut-microbial-fermentation-in-high-fat-diet-fed-mice
#5
Junki Miyamoto, Keita Watanabe, Satsuki Taira, Mayu Kasubuchi, Xuan Li, Junichiro Irie, Hiroshi Itoh, Ikuo Kimura
Dietary intake of barley β-glucan (BG) is known to affect energy metabolism. However, its underlying mechanism remains poorly understood because studies have presented inconsistent results, with both positive and negative effects reported in terms of satiety, energy intake, weight loss, and glycemic control. The objective of this study was to clarify the physiological role underlying the metabolic benefits of barley BG using a mouse model of high fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity. Male 4-wk-old C57BL/6J mice were fed an HFD with 20% barley flour containing either high BG (HBG; 2% BG) or low BG (LBG; 0...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691526/black-pepper-based-beverage-induced-appetite-suppressing-effects-without-altering-postprandial-glycaemia-gut-and-thyroid-hormones-or-gastrointestinal-well-being-a-randomized-crossover-study-in-healthy-subjects
#6
Yoghatama Cindya Zanzer, Merichel Plaza, Anestis Dougkas, Charlotta Turner, Elin Östman
Pleiotropic effects of spices on health, particularly on glucose metabolism and energy regulation, deserve further clinical investigation into their efficacy. The aim of the current study was to evaluate whether consumption of a black pepper-based beverage (BPB) preload containing 20 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE) would exert any effect on postprandial glycaemia, appetite sensations, gut hormones, thyroid function, and gastrointestinal well-being after a white wheat bread (WWB) challenge meal containing 50 g available carbohydrates (CHO) compared to a control beverage...
April 25, 2018: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29689362/anorectic-response-to-the-trichothecene-t-2-toxin-correspond-to-plasma-elevations-of-the-satiety-hormone-glucose-dependent-insulinotropic-polypeptide-and-peptide-yy-3-36
#7
Kun Sheng, Hua Zhang, Jianming Yue, Wei Gu, Chao Gu, Haibin Zhang, Wenda Wu
T-2 toxin, a potent type A trichothecene mycotoxin, is produced by various Fusarium species and can negatively impact animal and human health. Although anorexia induction is a common hallmark of T-2 toxin-induced toxicity, the underlying mechanisms for this adverse effect are not fully understood. The goal of this study was to determine the roles of two gut satiety hormones, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) and Peptide YY3-36 (PYY3-36 ) in anorexia induction by T-2 toxin. Elevations of plasma GIP and PYY3-36 markedly corresponded to anorexia induction following oral exposure to T-2 toxin using a nocturnal mouse anorexia model...
April 21, 2018: Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29687649/neural-food-reward-processing-in-successful-and-unsuccessful-weight-maintenance
#8
Joe J Simon, Alexandra Becker, Maria Hamze Sinno, Mandy Skunde, Martin Bendszus, Hubert Preissl, Paul Enck, Wolfgang Herzog, Hans-Christoph Friederich
OBJECTIVE: Weight loss maintenance is one of the biggest challenges in behavioral weight loss programs. The present study aimed to examine metabolic influences on the mesolimbic reward system in people with successful and unsuccessful long-term weight loss maintenance. METHODS: Thirty-three women with obesity at least 6 months after the completion of a diet were recruited: seventeen women were able to maintain their weight loss, whereas sixteen showed weight regain...
May 2018: Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681516/super-obese-patient-derived-ipsc-hypothalamic-neurons-exhibit-obesogenic-signatures-and-hormone-responses
#9
Uthra Rajamani, Andrew R Gross, Brooke E Hjelm, Adolfo Sequeira, Marquis P Vawter, Jie Tang, Vineela Gangalapudi, Yizhou Wang, Allen M Andres, Roberta A Gottlieb, Dhruv Sareen
The hypothalamus contains neurons that integrate hunger and satiety endocrine signals from the periphery and are implicated in the pathophysiology of obesity. The limited availability of human hypothalamic neurons hampers our understanding of obesity disease mechanisms. To address this, we generated human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) from multiple normal body mass index (BMI; BMI ≤ 25) subjects and super-obese (OBS) donors (BMI ≥ 50) with polygenic coding variants in obesity-associated genes...
April 6, 2018: Cell Stem Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29644957/a-carbohydrate-reduced-high-protein-diet-acutely-decreases-postprandial-and-diurnal-glucose-excursions-in-type-2-diabetes-patients
#10
Amirsalar Samkani, Mads J Skytte, Daniel Kandel, Stine Kjaer, Arne Astrup, Carolyn F Deacon, Jens J Holst, Sten Madsbad, Jens F Rehfeld, Steen B Haugaard, Thure Krarup
The aim of the study was to assess whether a simple substitution of carbohydrate in the conventionally recommended diet with protein and fat would result in a clinically meaningful reduction in postprandial hyperglycaemia in subjects with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). In all, sixteen subjects with T2DM treated with metformin only, fourteen male, with a median age of 65 (43-70) years, HbA1c of 6·5 % (47 mmol/l) (5·5-8·3 % (37-67 mmol/l)) and a BMI of 30 (sd 4·4) kg/m2 participated in the randomised, cross-over study...
April 2018: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29582381/the-effect-of-chronic-exercise-training-on-leptin-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-randomized-controlled-trials
#11
REVIEW
Michael V Fedewa, Elizabeth D Hathaway, Christie L Ward-Ritacco, Tyler D Williams, Ward C Dobbs
BACKGROUND: Leptin is a hormone associated with satiety, lipid oxidation, energy expenditure, and energy homeostasis. To date, the current body of research examining the effect of chronic exercise training on leptin has yielded inconsistent results. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this meta-analysis was to provide a quantitative estimate of the magnitude of change in leptin levels following participation in exercise interventions lasting ≥ 2 weeks. METHODS: All studies included were peer-reviewed and published in English...
June 2018: Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29580839/the-now-and-then-of-gut-brain-signaling
#12
Melanie M Kaelberer, Diego V Bohórquez
Since their very beginnings, animals had gut sensory epithelial cells. In one of the first multicellular animals, Trichoplax - a literal wandering gut - food sensing and feeding was coordinated by specialized ventral sensor cells. In mammals, including humans, gut epithelial sensor cells (a.k.a enteroendocrine cells) have been recognized for an array of neuropeptides, like ghrelin and cholecystokinin, that modulate hunger or satiety. Indeed, since first described as "clear cells" by Rudfolf Heidenhain (1868), research efforts increasingly focused on their hormone neuropeptides leading to the alphabetical classification of one cell-one hormone (e...
March 23, 2018: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29563885/interplay-between-peripheral-and-central-inflammation-in-autism-spectrum-disorders-possible-nutritional-and-therapeutic-strategies
#13
REVIEW
Claudia Cristiano, Adriano Lama, Francesca Lembo, Maria P Mollica, Antonio Calignano, Giuseppina Mattace Raso
Pre- and post-natal factors can affect brain development and function, impacting health outcomes with particular relevance to neurodevelopmental diseases, such as autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Maternal obesity and its associated complications have been related to the increased risk of ASDs in offspring. Indeed, animals exposed to maternal obesity or high fat diets are prone to social communication impairment and repetitive behavior, the hallmarks of autism. During development, fatty acids and sugars, as well as satiety hormones, like insulin and leptin, and inflammatory factors related to obesity-induced low grade inflammation, could play a role in the impairment of neuroendocrine system and brain neuronal circuits regulating behavior in offspring...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29563822/protein-induced-satiation-and-the-calcium-sensing-receptor
#14
REVIEW
Utkarsh Ojha
Obesity is a major global health issue. High-protein diets have been shown to be associated with weight loss and satiety. The precise mechanism by which protein-rich diets promote weight loss remains unclear. Evidence suggests amino acids, formed as a consequence of protein digestion, are sensed by specific receptors on L-cells in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. These L-cells respond by secreting gut hormones that subsequently induce satiety. In recent years, the calcium-sensing receptor has been identified in several cells of the GI tract, including L-cells, and suggested to sense specific amino acids...
2018: Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity: Targets and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29561568/-food-reward-circuitry-in-obese-patients
#15
Géraldine Coppin, David Sander, Alain Golay, Zoltan Pataky
Besides hormonal regulation of appetite and satiety, food intake depends on the activity of certain brain systems. Functional imaging studies are useful to better understand this central regulation of energy intake. Obesity is associated with increased brain responses to food stimuli at the level of the reward system. More specifically, studies have shown in obese individuals an increased motivation to obtain food reward as well as a decrease in pleasure during its actual consumption. Food consumption may be, in some instances, comparable to addiction, and be reflected by irresistible cravings for certain foods...
March 21, 2018: Revue Médicale Suisse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29555194/associative-mechanisms-underlying-the-function-of-satiety-cues-in-the-control-of-energy-intake-and-appetitive-behavior
#16
Sabrina Jones, Camille H Sample, Sara L Hargrave, Terry L Davidson
While previous research has identified a number of metabolic, neural, and hormonal events that could serve as potential satiety signals, the mechanisms that enable satiety signals to suppress food-seeking and eating behavior remain poorly specified. Here we investigate the idea that the inhibitory power of satiety signals is derived, at least in part, from their ability to signal that foods and food-related stimuli will not be followed by reinforcing postingestive consequences. Viewed in this way, the signaling relationship in which satiety cues are embedded defines what is known in Pavlovian conditioning as a "serial feature negative" (sFN) discrimination problem...
March 17, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29537411/bariatric-surgery-as-a-treatment-for-metabolic-syndrome
#17
P Cordero, J Li, J A Oben
Obesity is the pandemic of the 21st century. Obesity comorbidities, including hypertension, dyslipidaemia and glucose intolerance define metabolic syndrome, which increases mortality risk and decreases the quality of life. Compared with lifestyles (diet and physical activity) and pharmacological interventions, bariatric surgery is by far the most effective treatment for obesity and its comorbidities. This minimally invasive surgical treatment is based on an increase of satiety (by hormonal regulation and decreasing stomach volume) or a decrease in nutrient retention (gastric and/or intestinal resection)...
December 2017: Journal of the Royal College of Physicians of Edinburgh
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29529147/fto-genotype-impacts-food-intake-and-corticolimbic-activation
#18
Susan J Melhorn, Mary K Askren, Wendy K Chung, Mario Kratz, Tyler A Bosch, Vidhi Tyagi, Mary F Webb, Mary Rosalynn B De Leon, Thomas J Grabowski, Rudolph L Leibel, Ellen A Schur
Background: Variants in the first intron of the fat mass and obesity-associated (FTO) gene increase obesity risk. People with "high-risk" FTO genotypes exhibit preference for high-fat foods, reduced satiety responsiveness, and greater food intake consistent with impaired satiety. Objective: We sought central nervous system mechanisms that might underlie impaired satiety perception in people with a higher risk of obesity based on their FTO genotype. Design: We performed a cross-sectional study in a sample that was enriched for obesity and included 20 higher-risk participants with the AA (risk) genotype at the rs9939609 locus of FTO and 94 lower-risk participants with either the AT or TT genotype...
February 1, 2018: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29522772/impaired-brain-energy-gain-upon-a-glucose-load-in-obesity
#19
Ewelina K Wardzinski, Alina Kistenmacher, Uwe H Melchert, Kamila Jauch-Chara, Kerstin M Oltmanns
BACKGROUND: There is evidence that the brain's energy status is lowered in obesity despite of chronic hypercaloric nutrition. The underlying mechanisms are unknown. We hypothesized that the brain of obese people does not appropriately generate energy in response to a hypercaloric supply. METHODS: Glucose was intravenously infused in 17 normal weights and 13 obese participants until blood glucose concentrations reached the postprandial levels of 7 mmol/L and 10 mmol/L...
March 6, 2018: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29510179/sleep-influences-on-obesity-insulin-resistance-and-risk-of-type-2-diabetes
#20
REVIEW
Sirimon Reutrakul, Eve Van Cauter
A large body of epidemiologic evidence has linked insufficient sleep duration and quality to the risk of obesity, insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. To address putative causal mechanisms, this review focuses on laboratory interventions involving several nights of experimental sleep restriction, fragmentation or extension and examining metabolically relevant outcomes. Sleep restriction has been consistently shown to increase hunger, appetite and food intake, with the increase in caloric intake in excess of the energy requirements of extended wakefulness...
March 3, 2018: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
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