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Satiety hormons

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898845/effect-of-sterilization-and-of-dietary-fat-and-carbohydrate-content-on-food-intake-activity-level-and-blood-satiety-related-hormones-in-female-dogs
#1
S Schauf, A Salas-Mani, C Torre, G Bosch, H Swarts, C Castrillo
Animal sterilization is suggested to promote food overconsumption, although it is unknown whether this effect is mediated by variations in satiety-related hormones, which are released in response to food intake. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of sterilization and of the main energy-delivery nutrients, fat and nonstructural carbohydrates, on food intake, blood concentration of satiety-related hormones, and activity level in dogs. In a 2-phase experiment (phase I [Ph.I], 74 d, and Ph.II, 84 d), 12 female Beagle dogs were assigned to a control group (intact in both phases) and a sterilization group (spayed 20 d before Ph...
October 2016: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890806/the-endocrine-disrupting-potential-of-monosodium-glutamate-msg-on-secretion-of-the-glucagon-like-peptide-1-glp-1-gut-hormone-and-glp-1-receptor-interaction
#2
Maeve Shannon, Brian Green, Gary Willars, Jodie Wilson, Natalie Matthews, Joanna Lamb, Anna Gillespie, Lisa Connolly
Monosodium glutamate (MSG) is a suspected obesogen with epidemiological evidence positively correlating consumption to increased body mass index and higher prevalence of metabolic syndrome. ELISA and high content analysis (HCA) were employed to examine the disruptive effects of MSG on the secretion of enteroendocrine hormone glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R), respectively. Following 3h MSG exposure of the enteroendocrine pGIP/neo: STC-1 cell line model (500μg/ml) significantly increased GLP-1 secretion (1...
November 24, 2016: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869800/a-rapidly-acting-glutamatergic-arc%C3%A2-pvh-satiety-circuit-postsynaptically-regulated-by-%C3%AE-msh
#3
Henning Fenselau, John N Campbell, Anne M J Verstegen, Joseph C Madara, Jie Xu, Bhavik P Shah, Jon M Resch, Zongfang Yang, Yael Mandelblat-Cerf, Yoav Livneh, Bradford B Lowell
Arcuate nucleus (ARC) neurons sense the fed or fasted state and regulate hunger. Agouti-related protein (AgRP) neurons in the ARC (ARC(AgRP) neurons) are stimulated by fasting and, once activated, they rapidly (within minutes) drive hunger. Pro-opiomelanocortin (ARC(POMC)) neurons are viewed as the counterpoint to ARC(AgRP) neurons. They are regulated in an opposite fashion and decrease hunger. However, unlike ARC(AgRP) neurons, ARC(POMC) neurons are extremely slow in affecting hunger (many hours). Thus, a temporally analogous, rapid ARC satiety pathway does not exist or is presently unidentified...
November 21, 2016: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863129/mechanisms-of-obesity-in-prader-willi-syndrome
#4
REVIEW
M J Khan, K Gerasimidis, C A Edwards, M G Shaikh
Obesity is the most common cause of metabolic complications and poor quality of life in Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS). Hyperphagia and obesity develop after an initial phase of poor feeding and failure to thrive. Several mechanisms for the aetiology of obesity in PWS are proposed, which include disruption in hypothalamic pathways of satiety control resulting in hyperphagia, aberration in hormones regulating food intake, reduced energy expenditure because of hypotonia and altered behaviour with features of autism spectrum disorder...
November 10, 2016: Pediatric Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27824596/effects-of-continuous-positive-airway-pressure-on-energy-balance-regulation-a-systematic-review
#5
REVIEW
Ari Shechter
Obesity is both a cause and a possible consequence of obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA), as OSA seems to affect parameters involved in energy balance regulation, including food intake, hormonal regulation of hunger/satiety, energy metabolism and physical activity. It is known that weight loss improves OSA, yet it remains unclear why continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) often results in weight gain.The goal of this systematic review is to explore if and how CPAP affects the behaviour and/or metabolism involved in regulating energy balance...
December 2016: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27818084/obstructive-sleep-apnea-and-energy-balance-regulation-a-systematic-review
#6
REVIEW
Ari Shechter
: Obesity and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) have a reciprocal relationship. Sleep disruptions characteristic of OSA may promote behavioral, metabolic, and/or hormonal changes favoring weight gain and/or difficulty losing weight. The regulation of energy balance (EB), i.e., the relationship between energy intake (EI) and energy expenditure (EE), is complex and multi-factorial, involving food intake, hormonal regulation of hunger/satiety/appetite, and EE via metabolism and physical activity (PA)...
July 15, 2016: Sleep Medicine Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27808040/endobarrier-gastrointestinal-liner-delineation-of-underlying-mechanisms-and-clinical-effects
#7
Ulrich Rohde
Bariatric surgery (e.g. Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB)) has proven the most effective way of achieving sustainable weight losses and remission of type 2 diabetes (T2D). Studies indicate that the effectiveness of RYGB is mediated by an altered gastrointestinal tract anatomy, which in particular favours release of the gut incretin hormone glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1). The EndoBarrier gastrointestinal liner or duodenal-jejunal bypass sleeve (DJBS) is an endoscopic deployable minimally invasive and fully reversible technique designed to mimic the bypass component of the RYGB...
November 2016: Danish Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798332/the-noncaloric-sweetener-rebaudioside-a-stimulates-glucagon-like-peptide-1-release-and-increases-enteroendocrine-cell-numbers-in-2-dimensional-mouse-organoids-derived-from-different-locations-of-the-intestine
#8
Nikkie van der Wielen, Jean Paul Ten Klooster, Susanne Muckenschnabl, Raymond Pieters, Henk Fj Hendriks, Renger F Witkamp, Jocelijn Meijerink
BACKGROUND: Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) contributes to satiety and plays a pivotal role in insulin secretion and glucose homeostasis. Similar to GLP-1, peptide YY (PYY) and cholecystokinin also influence food intake. The secretion of these hormones by enteroendocrine cells along the intestine is modulated by nutrients. Preparations from the Stevia rebaudiana plant, including rebaudioside A, are increasingly being used as noncaloric sweeteners. OBJECTIVE: We investigated the effects of rebaudioside A on enteroendocrine cells by assessing both cell numbers as well as their secretory capacity in an organoid model...
October 26, 2016: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27781333/plasticity-of-gastrointestinal-vagal-afferent-satiety-signals
#9
REVIEW
A J Page, S J Kentish
The vagal link between the gastrointestinal tract and the central nervous system (CNS) has numerous vital functions for maintaining homeostasis. The regulation of energy balance is one which is attracting more and more attention due to the potential for exploiting peripheral hormonal targets as treatments for conditions such as obesity. While physiologically, this system is well tuned and demonstrated to be effective in the regulation of both local function and promoting/terminating food intake the neural connection represents a susceptible pathway for disruption in various disease states...
October 25, 2016: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27777606/hormonal-responses-to-non-nutritive-sweeteners-in-water-and-diet-soda
#10
Allison C Sylvetsky, Rebecca J Brown, Jenny E Blau, Mary Walter, Kristina I Rother
BACKGROUND: Non-nutritive sweeteners (NNS), especially in form of diet soda, have been linked to metabolic derangements (e.g. obesity and diabetes) in epidemiologic studies. We aimed to test acute metabolic effects of NNS in isolation (water or seltzer) and in diet sodas. METHODS: We conducted a four-period, cross-over study at the National Institutes of Health Clinical Center (Bethesda, Maryland). Thirty healthy adults consumed 355 mL water with 0 mg, 68 mg, 170 mg, and 250 mg sucralose, and 31 individuals consumed 355 mL caffeine-free Diet Rite Cola™, Diet Mountain Dew™ (18 mg sucralose, 18 mg acesulfame-potassium, 57 mg aspartame), and seltzer water with NNS (68 mg sucralose and 41 mg acesulfame-potassium, equivalent to Diet Rite Cola™) in randomized order, prior to oral glucose tolerance tests...
2016: Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27777602/dietary-green-plant-thylakoids-decrease-gastric-emptying-and-gut-transit-promote-changes-in-the-gut-microbial-flora-but-does-not-cause-steatorrhea
#11
Eva-Lena Stenblom, Björn Weström, Caroline Linninge, Peter Bonn, Mary Farrell, Jens F Rehfeld, Caroline Montelius
Green-plant thylakoids increase satiety by affecting appetite hormones such as ghrelin, cholecystokinin (CCK) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1). The objective of this study was to investigate if thylakoids also affect gastrointestinal (GI) passage and microbial composition. To analyse the effects on GI passage, 16 rats were gavage-fed a control or thylakoid-supplemented high-fat diet (HFD) 30 min before receiving Evans blue. Another 16 rats were fed a control HFD or thylakoid HFD for two weeks prior to the intragastric challenge with Evans blue...
2016: Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27756691/endocannabinoids-and-sleep
#12
REVIEW
Oscar Prospéro-García, Octavio Amancio-Belmont, Alline L Becerril Meléndez, Alejandra E Ruiz-Contreras, Mónica Méndez-Díaz
Sleep is regulated by several brain structures, neurotransmitters and neuromodulators. Endocannabinoids (eCBs) are a group of lipids with modulatory activity in the brain and bind mainly to cannabinoid receptors CB1R and CB2R, thereby modulating several brain functions, (memory, mood, food intake, pain perception). Oleoylethanolamide and palmitoylethanolamide belong to the N-acylethanolamides (NAEs) family, another type of active endogenous lipids. They bind to the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α but not to CB1R, thereby modulating food satiety, inflammation and pain...
October 15, 2016: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27696668/the-impact-of-endobarrier-gastrointestinal-liner-in-obese-patients-with-normal-glucose-tolerance-and-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes
#13
Ulrich Rohde, Cecilie A Federspiel, Peter Vilmann, Ebbe Langholz, Steffen U Friis, Martin Krakauer, Jens F Rehfeld, Jens J Holst, Tina Vilsbøll, Filip K Knop
AIMS: The duodenal-jejunal bypass sleeve ((DJBS) or EndoBarrier Gastrointestinal Liner) induces weight loss in obese subjects and may improve glucose homeostasis in patients with type 2 diabetes (T2D). To explore the underlying mechanisms, we evaluated postprandial physiology including glucose metabolism, gut hormone secretion, gallbladder emptying, appetite and food intake in patients undergoing DJBS treatment. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A total of 10 normal glucose-tolerant (NGT) obese subjects and 9 age-, body weight- and body mass index-matched metformin-treated T2D patients underwent a liquid mixed meal test and a subsequent ad libitum meal test before implantation with DJBS and 1 week (1w) and 26 weeks (26w) after implantation...
October 3, 2016: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27695036/differential-effects-of-dietary-fat-content-and-protein-source-on-bone-phenotype-and-fatty-acid-oxidation-in-female-c57bl-6-mice
#14
Emily A Sawin, Bridget M Stroup, Sangita G Murali, Lucas M O'Neill, James M Ntambi, Denise M Ney
BACKGROUND: Glycomacropeptide (GMP) is a 64-amino acid glycophosphopeptide released from κ-casein during cheesemaking that promotes satiety, reduces body fat, increases bone mass and infers prebiotic and anti-inflammatory effects. The impact of adiposity and gender on bone health is unclear. OBJECTIVE: To determine how feeding female mice diets providing 60% Fat Kcal (high-fat) or 13% Fat Kcal (control) with either GMP or casein as the protein source impacts: body composition, ex vivo fatty acid oxidation, bone (femoral) biomechanical performance, and the relationship between body composition and bone...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27681427/direct-sensing-of-nutrients-via-a-lat1-like-transporter-in-drosophila-insulin-producing-cells
#15
Gérard Manière, Anna B Ziegler, Flore Geillon, David E Featherstone, Yael Grosjean
Dietary leucine has been suspected to play an important role in insulin release, a hormone that controls satiety and metabolism. The mechanism by which insulin-producing cells (IPCs) sense leucine and regulate insulin secretion is still poorly understood. In Drosophila, insulin-like peptides (DILP2 and DILP5) are produced by brain IPCs and are released in the hemolymph after leucine ingestion. Using Ca(2+)-imaging and ex vivo cultured larval brains, we demonstrate that IPCs can directly sense extracellular leucine levels via minidiscs (MND), a leucine transporter...
September 27, 2016: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27667315/calcium-sensing-receptor-and-transient-receptor-ankyrin-1-mediate-emesis-induction-by-deoxynivalenol-vomitoxin
#16
Wenda Wu, Hui-Ren Zhou, Steven J Bursian, Jane E Link, James J Pestka
The common foodborne mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON, vomitoxin) can negatively impact animal and human health by causing food refusal and vomiting. Gut enteroendocrine cells (EECs) secrete hormones that mediate DON's anorectic and emetic effects. In prior work utilizing a cloned EEC model, our laboratory discovered that DON-induced activation of calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR), a G-coupled protein receptor (GPCR), and transient receptor ankyrin-1 (TRPA1), a transient receptor potential (TRP) channel, drives Ca(2+)-mediated hormone secretion...
September 25, 2016: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27634341/electrophysiological-approaches-to-unravel-the-neurobiological-basis-of-appetite-and-satiety-use-of-the-multielectrode-array-as-a-screening-strategy
#17
Hamdy Shaban, Rory O'Connor, Saak V Ovsepian, Timothy G Dinan, John F Cryan, Harriët Schellekens
Hypothalamic neural circuits are recognised as primary sites of the neuromodulator effect of homeostatic food intake, whereas changes in ventral tegmental area (VTA), hippocampus and amygdala have been implicated in the hedonic, cognitive and emotional aspects of eating. Here, we discuss synaptic transmission and plasticity within brain circuits governing appetite and food intake behaviour, focusing on the metabolic hormones ghrelin and leptin. We discuss functional changes within these circuitries and critically assess the applicability of electrophysiological measurements using in vitro multielectrode array (MEA) systems to identify novel appetite modulators...
September 12, 2016: Drug Discovery Today
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27629286/glucagon-in-artificial-pancreas-systems-potential-benefits-and-safety-profile-of-future-chronic-use
#18
REVIEW
Nadine Taleb, Ahmad Haidar, Virginie Messier, Véronique Gingras, Laurent Legault, Rémi Rabasa-Lhoret
The role of glucagon in the pathophysiology of diabetes has long been recognized, although its approved clinical use has so far been limited to the emergency treatment of severe hypoglycaemia. A novel use of glucagon as intermittent mini-boluses is proposed in the dual-hormone version (insulin and glucagon) of the external artificial pancreas. Short-term studies suggest that the incorporation of glucagon into artificial pancreas systems has the potential to further decrease hypoglycaemic risk and improve overall glucose control; however, the potential long-term safety and benefits also need to be investigated given the recognized systemic effects of glucagon...
September 15, 2016: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27623562/central-leptin-effects-on-glucose-homeostasis-are-modified-during-pregnancy-in-the-rat
#19
S R Ladyman, D R Grattan
Despite increased leptin concentrations during pregnancy, fat mass and food intake are increased. The satiety response to central leptin is suppressed indicating a state of leptin insensitivity in the hypothalamus. While the regulation of food intake is a major function of leptin, this hormone also influences a while range of functions within the body. These actions include regulation of glucose homeostasis, which undergoes major adaptation in the maternal body to generate optimal conditions for fetal development and growth...
September 13, 2016: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27620647/failure-of-sucrose-replacement-with-the-non-nutritive-sweetener-erythritol-to-alter-glp-1-or-pyy-release-or-test-meal-size-in-lean-or-obese-people
#20
Joost Overduin, Tinh-Hai Collet, Nenad Medic, Elana Henning, Julia M Keogh, Faye Forsyth, Cheryl Stephenson, Marja W Kanning, Rianne M A J Ruijschop, I Sadaf Farooqi, Agatha A van der Klaauw
There is considerable interest in the effect of foods containing high intensity sweeteners on satiation. However, less is known about low-calorie bulk sweeteners such as erythritol. In this randomized three-way crossover study, we studied 10 lean and 10 obese volunteers who consumed three test meals on separate occasions: (a) control sucrose meal; (b) isovolumic meal with partial replacement of sucrose by erythritol; (c) isocaloric meal which contained more erythritol but equivalent calories to the control meal...
December 1, 2016: Appetite
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