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Metabolic bone disease

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148930/use-of-mixed-oil-fat-emulsion-to-improve-intestinal-failure-associated-liver-disease-in-long-term-home-parenteral-nutrition-a-case-report
#1
Ryan T Hurt, Manpreet S Mundi
Home parenteral nutrition (HPN) is a life-saving therapy for patients who are not able to use their gastrointestinal tract. There are a number of complications associated with HPN, including metabolic bone disease, intestinal failure-associated liver disease (IFALD), and catheter-related bloodstream infections. We present a case of a 32-year-old HPN patient who initially developed biopsy-proven IFALD (total bilirubin, 2.4 mg/dL) while on long-term HPN. His HPN was initiated due to myopathic intestinal dysmotility and pseudo-obstruction when he was 15 years old...
November 1, 2017: JPEN. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148034/role-of-p62-sqstm1-beyond-autophagy-a-lesson-learned-from-drug-induced-toxicity-in-vitro
#2
Fernando Alegre, Ángela B Moragrega, Miriam Polo, Alberto Marti-Rodrigo, Juan V Esplugues, Ana Blas-Garcia, Nadezda Apostolova
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: SQSTM1/p62 is a multifunctional, stress-induced, scaffold protein involved in multiple cellular processes including autophagic clearance, regulation of inflammatory responses and redox homeostasis. Alterations in its function have been associated with a long list of human pathologies such as neurodegenerative, metabolic and bone diseases (down-regulation), and cancerogenesis (up-regulation). However, its role in the off-target effects of clinically used drugs is still not understood...
November 17, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147860/18f-fdg-pet-ct-in-primary-brain-lymphoma
#3
Domenico Albano, Giovanni Bosio, Mattia Bertoli, Raffaele Giubbini, Francesco Bertagna
The actual role of 18F-FDG PET/CT in evaluating primary brain lymphoma is still an open issue. Brain lymphoma usually show elevated 18F-FDG uptake, often higher than other brain tumors or inflammatory processes, but the metabolic behavior of this lymphoma is not still understood. Our aim was to investigate the particular metabolic behavior of this lymphoma. Forty six patients (21 female, 25 male) with histologically-confirmed brain lymphoma who underwent 18F-FDG PET/CT from vertex to the mid-thigh for initial staging were retrospectively evaluated...
November 17, 2017: Journal of Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145330/pathologic-femoral-fracture-due-to-tenofovir-induced-fanconi-syndrome-in-patient-with-chronic-hepatitis-b-a-case-report
#4
You-Sung Suh, Dong-Il Chun, Sung-Woo Choi, Hwan-Woong Lee, Jae-Hwi Nho, Soon-Hyo Kwon, Jae-Ho Cho, Sung Hun Won
RATIONALE: We report a case of a hepatitis B virus (HBV)-positive patient with preexisting bone disease who developed tenofovir-induced Fanconi syndrome and subsequently sustained pathologic fracture. To our best knowledge, this is the first report in the English literature about pathologic femoral fracture due to tenofovir-induced Fanconi syndrome in patient with chronic hepatitis B (CHB). The present report describes detailed our experience with the diagnosis of pathologic femoral fracture due to tenofovir-induced Fanconi syndrome and treatment...
November 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145302/burkitt-lymphoma-and-cavernous-sinus-syndrome-with-breast-uptake-on-18f-fdg-pet-ct-a-case-report
#5
Florette Reyneke, Neo Mokgoro, Mariza Vorster, Mike Sathekge
RATIONALE: Burkitt lymphoma (BL) is a type of non-Hodgkin lymphoma that arises in the B-cells. Cavernous sinus involvement is rare, especially in adults. Here we report an unusual case of a 30-year-old HIV-positive woman with BL and cavernous sinus syndrome who also had intense bilateral breast uptake, related to menstrual cycle. Fluorine-18 2-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose (18F-FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) has been found to be useful in the management of BL. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 30-year old female patient presented with a history of diplopia and headache...
November 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145251/renal-osteodystrophy-presenting-as-a-metabolic-superscan-on-f-18-fdg-pet-ct-a-case-report
#6
Ismaheel Lawal, Alfred Ankrah, Kehinde Ololade, Moshe Modiselle, Mike Sathekge
RATIONALE: F-18 Fluoro Deoxyglucose positron emission tomography and computed tomography (F-18 FDG PET/CT) is a useful modality in the evaluation of patients with malignancies. Increased incidence of lympho-proliferative disorders has been reported in individuals with long-standing end-stage renal disorders treated with renal replacement therapy. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 30-year-old male on peritoneal dialysis on account of end-stage renal disease. He had acute rejection of an earlier transplanted renal allograft...
November 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29144803/endocrine-manifestations-of-primary-hyperoxaluria
#7
Shatha Murad, Yuval Eisenberg
OBJECTIVE: Primary hyperoxaluria type 1 (PH1) is a rare metabolic disorder of oxalate overproduction. It is associated with urolithiasis and nephrocalcinosis which progress to ESRD and systemic oxalosis. As oxalate deposits in tissues, non-parathyroid hormone (nonPTH) mediated hypercalcemia, oxalate osteopathy, primary hypothyroidism and primary hypogonadism develop. In this review, we will present a case of PH1 and provide an overview of this clinical entity and its endocrine manifestations...
November 16, 2017: Endocrine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141319/-homozygous-ectonucleotide-pyrophosphatase-phosphodiesterase-1-variants-in-a-girl-with-hypophosphatemic-rickets-and-literature-review
#8
Z Q Liu, X B Chen, F Y Song, K Gao, M F Qiu, Y Qian, M Du
Objective: To investigate the clinical features and genetic characteristics of patients with ectonucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase 1 (ENPP1) gene variants. Method: The clinical data of a patient with ENPP1 homozygous variants from Capital Institute of Pediatrics was collected, the related literature was searched from China National Knowledge Infrastructure, Wanfang Data Knowledge Service Platform, National Center from Biotechnology Information and PubMed by using search term "ENPP1" , "hypophosphatemic rickets" ...
November 2, 2017: Zhonghua Er Ke za Zhi. Chinese Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137304/monocarboxylate-transporter-1-mct1-a-tool-to-stratify-acute-myeloid-leukemia-aml-patients-and-a-vehicle-to-kill-cancer-cells
#9
Filipa Lopes-Coelho, Carolina Nunes, Sofia Gouveia-Fernandes, Rita Rosas, Fernanda Silva, Paula Gameiro, Tânia Carvalho, Maria Gomes da Silva, José Cabeçadas, Sérgio Dias, Luís G Gonçalves, Jacinta Serpa
Dysregulation of glucose/lactate dynamics plays a role in cancer progression, and MCTs are key elements in metabolic remodeling. VEGF is a relevant growth factor in the maintenance of bone marrow microenvironment and it is also important in hematological diseases. Our aim was to investigate the role of VEGF in the metabolic adaptation of Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells by evaluating the metabolic profiles and cell features according to the AML lineage and testing lactate as a metabolic coin. Our in vitro results showed that AML promyelocytic (HL60) and monocytic (THP1) (but not erythroid- HEL) lineages are well adapted to VEGF and lactate rich environment...
October 10, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136954/vaccaria-hypaphorine-impairs-rankl-induced-osteoclastogenesis-by-inhibition-of-erk-p38-jnk-and-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-pathway-and-prevents-inflammatory-bone-loss-in-mice
#10
Hongxi Chen, Tongya Guo, Dianrong Wang, Rujie Qin
Osteoclasts are sole bone-resorbing cells which exert a profound effect on skeletal metabolism. The search for medicines that affect the differentiation and function of osteoclasts is crucial in developing therapies for osteoclast-based diseases. Vaccaria hypaphorine, the main active compound of the traditionally used Chinese herb Vaccaria segetalis, has anti-inflammatory activity. The present study demonstrated for the first time that vaccaria hypaphorine could significantly inhibit the receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B ligand (RANKL)-induced osteoclastic differentiation in vitro and alleviate lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced bone loss in vivo...
November 10, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135297/-vitamin-d-and-calcium-supplementation-in-elderly-patients-with-hip-fracture
#11
Antal Salamon, Erzsébet Toldy, Csaba Biró, Ákos Mátrai, Tibor Balassa, Zoltán Lőcsei
Vitamin D plays an important role in maintaining calcium and bone metabolism, a risk factor of osteoporosis, fall and fracture in old age. Reduction in D-vitamin levels associated with compensatory increased level of parathyroid hormone causes significant loss of bone matrix, so substitutions of vitamin D and calcium are very important. Many authors publish their recommended doses used for prevention of hip fracture during the last years. Some authors are satisfied only with vitamin D supplementation while others have better experiences with vitamin D and calcium substitution...
October 2017: Orvosi Hetilap
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135157/-calciuria-as-a-metabolic-marker-for-various-conditions-and-diseases
#12
L V Egshatyan, N G Mokrysheva
The article analyzes the literature on the features of human calcium homeostasis. The authors describe the etiopathogenetic role of calcitropic hormones, the plasma and urine acid-base status, various ions, lifestyle and nutrition and other factors contributing to hypercalciuria due to increased intestinal absorption, bone resorption, impairment of tubular calcium reabsorption, etc. They discuss the role of calciuria as a factor in forming urinary calculi and present their own observations.
October 2017: Urologii︠a︡
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29133259/loss-of-pit-2-results-in-abnormal-bone-development-and-decreased-bone-mineral-density-and-length-in-mice
#13
Shunsuke Yamada, Mary C Wallingford, Suhaib Borgeia, Timothy C Cox, Cecilia M Giachelli
Normal bone mineralization requires phosphate oversaturation in bone matrix vesicles, as well as normal regulation of phosphate metabolism via the interplay among bone, intestine, and kidney. In turn, derangement of phosphate metabolism greatly affects bone function and structure. The type III sodium-dependent phosphate transporters, PiT-1 and PiT-2, are believed to be important in tissue phosphate metabolism and physiological bone formation, but their requirement and molecular roles in bone remain poorly investigated...
November 10, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131244/a-review-on-irisin-a-new-protagonist-that-mediates-muscle-adipose-bone-neuron-connectivity
#14
B Grygiel-Górniak, M Puszczewicz
Physical activity improves the quality of life and decreases the risk of several diseases (i.e. stroke, hypertension, myocardial infarction, obesity, and malignancies). Skeletal muscles are considered as an endocrine organ that produces myokines characterized by a paracrine or endocrine activity. Irisin is a circulating hormone-like myokine and is secreted as a product of fibronectin type III domain-containing protein 5 from skeletal muscle in response to exercise. This molecule regulates the energy metabolism and acts in adipose tissue, bones, and nervous system...
October 2017: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129406/neuropeptide-y-y2-antagonist-treated-ovariectomized-mice-exhibit-greater-bone-mineral-density
#15
K L Seldeen, P G Halley, C H Volmar, M A Rodríguez, M Hernandez, M Pang, S K Carlsson, L J Suva, C Wahlestedt, B R Troen, S P Brothers
Osteoporosis, a disease characterized by progressive bone loss and increased risk of fracture, often results from menopausal loss of estrogen in women. Neuropeptide Y has been shown to negatively regulate bone formation, with amygdala specific deletion of the Y2 receptor resulting in increased bone mass in mice. In this study, ovariectomized (OVX) mice were injected once daily with JNJ-31020028, a brain penetrant Y2 receptor small molecule antagonist to determine the effects on bone formation. Antagonist treated mice had reduced weight and showed increased whole-body bone mineral density compared to vehicle-injected mice...
November 7, 2017: Neuropeptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124877/sporadic-primary-hyperparathyroidism-and-stone-disease-a-comprehensive-metabolic-evaluation-before-and-after-parathyroidectomy
#16
Giovanni S Marchini, Kauy V M Faria, Fábio C M Torricelli, Manoj Monga, Miguel Srougi, William C Nahas, Eduardo Mazzucchi
OBJECTIVES: to characterize the stone risk and the impact of parathyroidectomy on the metabolic profile of patients with primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) and urolithiasis. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: We analyzed the prospectively collected charts of patients treated at our stone clinic from Jan/2001-Jan/2016 searching for patients with PHPT and urolithiasis. Imaging evaluation of the kidneys, bones and parathyroid glands were assessed. We analyzed the demographic data, serum and urinary parameters before and after parathyroidectomy...
November 10, 2017: BJU International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121823/effect-of-tumor-necrosis-factor-alpha-dose-and-exposure-time-on-tumor-necrosis-factor-induced-gene-6-activation-by-neonatal-and-adult-mesenchymal-stromal-cells
#17
Shiva Hamidian Jahromi, Yunqing Li, John E Davies
Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-stimulated gene 6 (TSG-6) is a major anti-inflammatory mediator released by activated mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs). Neonatal MSCs are considered more metabolically active than cells derived from adult tissues, and potentially less heterogeneous. We hypothesized that a TNF-α activated neonatal MSC population (human umbilical cord perivascular cells-HUCPVCs) would show an enhanced level of TSG-6 activation compared to adult bone marrow MSCs (BMMSCs). Thus, we stimulated HUCPVCs, and both human and mouse BMMSCs with 1, 10, 50, and 100ng/mL of recombinant TNF-α over various exposure times...
November 9, 2017: Stem Cells and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120925/noonan-syndrome-an-update-on-growth-and-development
#18
Armelle Yart, Thomas Edouard
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To provide an update on recent developments on Noonan syndrome with a special focus on endocrinology, bone, and metabolism aspects. The key issues still to be resolved and the future therapeutic perspectives will be discussed. RECENT FINDINGS: The discovery of the molecular genetic causes of Noonan syndrome and Noonan-syndrome-related disorders has permitted us to better understand the mechanisms underlying the different symptoms of these diseases and to establish genotype-phenotype correlations (in growth patterns for example)...
November 7, 2017: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120660/-adenosine-a-mediator-with-multisystemic-effects-or-a-hormone
#19
Zora Lazúrová, Peter Mitro
Adenosine is a nucleoside regulating many physiological and pathological processes in human organism. It is produced by almost all cells and is metabolised by adenosinedeaminase enzyme. Effect of adenosine is mediated by three types of adenosine receptors. Adenosinergic system significantly influences function of cardiovascular system, furthemore it plays a key role in sleep homeostasis, in regulation of bone metabolism and activation of immune system. Adenosine mediates effect of various hormones, but also adenosine itself has its own autocrine, paracrine and systemic effects...
2017: Vnitr̆ní Lékar̆ství
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120659/-antidiabetic-drugs-and-their-effect-on-bone
#20
Peter Jackuliak, Martin Kužma, Juraj Payer
It is well established that osteoporosis and diabetes are prevalent diseases with significant associated morbidity and mortality. Patients with diabetes mellitus are at an increased risk of bone fractures. Today we have several groups of effective and save antidiabetic drugs, which are very given often in combination. Although diabetes-related complications are important in the etiology, the effects of medications on bone metabolism and fracture risk should not be neglected, because the diabetes medication may affect also bone health and fracture risk...
2017: Vnitr̆ní Lékar̆ství
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