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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928419/the-histone-deacetylase-sirt6-blocks-myostatin-expression-and-development-of-muscle-atrophy
#1
Sadhana A Samant, Abhinav Kanwal, Vinodkumar B Pillai, Riyue Bao, Mahesh P Gupta
Muscle wasting, also known as cachexia, is associated with many chronic diseases, which worsens prognosis of primary illness leading to enhanced mortality. Molecular basis of this metabolic syndrome is not yet completely understood. SIRT6 is a chromatin-bound member of the sirtuin family, implicated in regulating many cellular processes, ranging from metabolism, DNA repair to aging. SIRT6 knockout (SIRT6-KO) mice display loss of muscle, fat and bone density, typical characteristics of cachexia. Here we report that SIRT6 depletion in cardiac as well as skeletal muscle cells promotes myostatin (Mstn) expression...
September 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926512/orthosiphon-stamineus-misai-kucing-ameliorated-postmenopausal-osteoporosis-in-rat-model
#2
Rubiatul Adawiyah Bokhari, Seng Fong Lau, Suhaila Mohamed
OBJECTIVE: Orthosiphon stamineus (OS) or Misai Kucing (Java tea) is a popular herbal supplement from Southeast Asia for various metabolic, age-related diseases. This study investigated the potential use of OS leaf extracts to ameliorate osteoporosis in ovariectomized rats. METHODS: Fifty-six female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly allocated into eight groups (n = 7): SHAM (healthy sham control); OVX (ovarietomized) nontreated rats (negative control); OVX + Remifemin (100 mg/kg body weight), and 2% green tea extract (positive controls); OVX + OS 50% ethanolic and aqueous extracts, both at either 150 or 300 mg/kg...
September 18, 2017: Menopause: the Journal of the North American Menopause Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926471/role-of-fat-soluble-vitamins-in-osteoarthritis-management
#3
Xiao-Yan Zheng, Jun Liang, Yu-Sheng Li, Min Tu
Osteoarthritis (OA) is a chronic degenerative joint disease, in which metabolic imbalance in bone is observed. The pathological mechanism of metabolic imbalance is not clear yet, but the nutritional factors, particularly the vitamins, might be intrinsic to the development and progression of OA. In this review article, we have explored databases such as PubMed, Scopus, and Google Scholar articles until the beginning of 2017 and reviewed the role of fat-soluble vitamins in pathological and therapeutic aspects of OA...
September 19, 2017: Journal of Clinical Rheumatology: Practical Reports on Rheumatic & Musculoskeletal Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926142/primary-osteoporosis-is-not-reflected-by-disease-specific-dna-methylation-or-accelerated-epigenetic-age-in-blood
#4
Eduardo Fernandez-Rebollo, Monika Eipel, Lothar Seefried, Per Hoffmann, Klaus Strathmann, Franz Jakob, Wolfgang Wagner
Osteoporosis is an age-related metabolic bone disease. Hence, osteoporotic patients might suffer from molecular features of accelerated aging, which is generally reflected by specific age-associated DNA methylation (DNAm) changes. In this study, we analyzed genome wide DNAm profiles of peripheral blood from patients with manifest primary osteoporosis and non-osteoporotic controls. Statistical analysis did not reveal any individual CG dinucleotides (CpG sites) with significant aberrant DNAm in osteoporosis. Subsequently, we analyzed if age-associated DNAm patterns are increased in OP...
September 19, 2017: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926112/chronic-kidney-disease-and-vitamin-d-metabolism-in-human-bone-marrow-derived-mscs
#5
REVIEW
Shuanhu Zhou, Julie Glowacki
Vitamin D that is synthesized in the skin or is ingested undergoes sequential steps of metabolic activation via a cascade of cytochrome P450 enzymatic hydroxylations in the liver and kidney to produce 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1α,25(OH)2 D). There are many tissues that are able to synthesize 1α,25(OH)2 D, but the biological significance of extrarenal hydroxylases is unresolved. Human marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (marrow stromal cells, hMSCs) give rise to osteoblasts, and their differentiation is stimulated by 1α,25(OH)2 D...
August 2017: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923463/hyperparathyroidism
#6
REVIEW
John P Bilezikian, Leonardo Bandeira, Aliya Khan, Natalie E Cusano
Primary hyperparathyroidism is a common endocrine disorder of calcium metabolism characterised by hypercalcaemia and elevated or inappropriately normal concentrations of parathyroid hormone. Almost always, primary hyperparathyroidism is due to a benign overgrowth of parathyroid tissue either as a single gland (80% of cases) or as a multiple gland disorder (15-20% of cases). Primary hyperparathyroidism is generally discovered when asymptomatic but the disease always has the potential to become symptomatic, resulting in bone loss and kidney stones...
September 15, 2017: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917829/a-chinese-boy-with-geleophysic-dysplasia-caused-by-compound-heterozygous-mutations-in-adamtsl2
#7
Li Dongxiao, Dong Hui, Zheng Hong, Song Jinqing, Li Xiyuan, Jin Ying, Liu Yupeng, Yang Yanling
Geleophysic dysplasia, belonging to the group of acromelic dysplasia, is a rare genetic disease. Two genes, FBN1 and ADAMTSL2, were known to be linked to this disorder. The disorder presents as extreme short stature, short limbs, small hands and feet, stubby fingers and toes, joint stiffness, toe walking, skin thickening, progressive cardiac valvular thickening and characteristic facial features, including a round face with full cheeks. Here, we report the first Chinese case with geleophysic dysplasia type 1 based on clinical and genetic features...
September 13, 2017: European Journal of Medical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915955/implications-of-bisphosphonate-calcium-ion-depletion-interfering-with-desmosome-epithelial-seal-in-osseointegrated-implants-and-pressure-ulcers
#8
Louis Z G Touyz, Kelvin I Afrashtehfar
Osteoporosis (OP) is a global bone disease prevalent in aging in humans, especially in older women. Bisphosphonates (BPs) are commonly used as therapy for OP as it influences hard and soft tissues calcium metabolism. Mucosal and dermal ulceration with exposure of underlying bone arises from incomplete epithelial recovery due to reduced desmosome formation deriving from lack of available calcium. Pathological situations such as bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw have been described. This hypothesis states other situations which demand intact functional desmosomes such as healing skin over chronic pressure points leading to pressure ulcers (as well-known as bedsores, pressure sores, pressure injuries, decubitus ulcers), and hemidesmosomes such as epithelial seals in contact with titanium surfaces will have a higher prevalence of breakdown among patients being treated with BPs...
September 2017: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914560/thiopurine-metabolite-levels-in-patients-with-atopic-dermatitis-and-or-chronic-hand-foot-eczema-treated-with-azathioprine
#9
F M Garritsen, J van der Schaft, C A F Bruijnzeel-Koomen, R H van Schaik, M de Graaf, M P H van den Broek, M S de Bruin-Weller
BACKGROUND: Azathioprine is frequently used in severe eczema. It is converted in the liver into active metabolites, including 6-thioguanine nucleotide (6-TGN) and methylated 6-methylmercaptopurine (6-MMP). In the past, the therapeutic potential of azathioprine may have not been fully utilized. Recent investigations on inflammatory bowel disease have led to a better understanding of azathioprine metabolism and optimizing treatment. OBJECTIVE: To investigate whether measuring thiopurine metabolites in circulation can improve the effectiveness and safety of azathioprine treatment in patients with atopic dermatitis and/or chronic hand/foot eczema...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Dermatological Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904872/treatment-of-renal-anemia-erythropoiesis-stimulating-agents-and-beyond
#10
REVIEW
Patrick Biggar, Gheun-Ho Kim
Anemia, complicating the course of chronic kidney disease, is a significant parameter, whether interpreted as subjective impairment or an objective prognostic marker. Renal anemia is predominantly due to relative erythropoietin (EPO) deficiency. EPO inhibits apoptosis of erythrocyte precursors. Studies using EPO substitution have shown that increasing hemoglobin (Hb) levels up to 10-11 g/dL is associated with clinical improvement. However, it has not been unequivocally proven that further intensification of erythropoiesis stimulating agent (ESA) therapy actually leads to a comprehensive benefit for the patient, especially as ESAs are potentially associated with increased cerebro-cardiovascular events...
September 2017: Kidney Research and Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901194/acute-renal-graft-versus-host-disease-in-a-murine-model-of-allogeneic-bone-marrow-transplantation
#11
Peter M Schmid, Abdellatif Bouazzaoui, Karin Schmid, Christoph Birner, Christian Schach, Lars S Maier, Ernst Holler, Dierk H Endemann
Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a very common complication after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT) and is associated with a poor prognosis. Generally, the kidneys are assumed to not be no direct targets of graft-versus-host disease (GvHD), and renal impairment is often attributed to several other factors occurring in the early phase after BMT. Our study aimed to prove the existence of renal GvHD in a fully major histocompatibility complex (MHC)-mismatched model of BALB/c mice conditioned and transplanted according to 2 different intensity protocols...
August 2017: Cell Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28900675/bone-disease-in-connective-tissue%C3%A2-disease-systemic-lupus-erythematosus
#12
REVIEW
Irene E M Bultink
This article reviews recent advances in the research of the mechanisms of bone loss, as well as clinical features, economic impact and therapeutic implications of osteoporosis and fractures in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) as an illustration of bone disease in a complex systemic autoimmune connective tissue disease. Recent studies demonstrated an increased incidence of osteoporosis and peripheral and vertebral fractures in patients with SLE. The aetiology of bone loss in SLE is multifactorial, including clinical osteoporosis risk factors, systemic inflammation, serological factors, metabolic factors, hormonal factors, possibly genetic factors and medication-induced adverse effects...
September 12, 2017: Calcified Tissue International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899908/activation-of-the-splenocardiac-axis-by-electronic-and-tobacco-cigarettes-in-otherwise-healthy-young-adults
#13
Zachary Boas, Pawan Gupta, Roya S Moheimani, May Bhetraratana, Fen Yin, Kacey M Peters, Jeffrey Gornbein, Jesus A Araujo, Johannes Czernin, Holly R Middlekauff
The "Splenocardiac Axis" describes an inflammatory signaling network underlying acute cardiac ischemia, characterized by sympathetic nerve stimulation of hematopoietic tissues, such as the bone marrow and spleen, which then release proinflammatory monocytes that populate atherosclerotic plaques, thereby promoting ischemic heart disease. Electronic (e) cigarettes, like tobacco cigarettes trigger sympathetic nerve activation, but virtually nothing is known about their influence on hematopoietic and vascular tissues and cardiovascular risks...
September 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899800/bone-mineral-density-and-vitamin-d-status-in-systemic-lupus-erythematosus-sle-a-systematic-review
#14
REVIEW
Tarek Carlos Salman-Monte, Vicenç Torrente-Segarra, Ana Leticia Vega Vidal, Patricia Corzo, F Castro-Dominguez, F Ojeda, Jordi Carbonell Abelló
Despite the improvement in the quality of life of patients with SLE due to scientific and technological advances, SLE remains a disease that over the years may produce irreversible damage to patients. Osteoporosis and secondary bone fractures are two of the major causes of irreparable injury in patients with SLE. Vitamin D insufficiency may play a vital role both in reduced Bone Mineral Density (BMD) and in the appearance of fractures, although its mechanisms of action are still unclear. We performed a systematic review of the literature in order to determine the prevalence and predictors of reduced vitamin D plasma levels, bone loss and the presence of fractures in SLE patients...
September 9, 2017: Autoimmunity Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898316/-risk-factors-and-biochemical-markers-in-metabolic-bone-disease-of-premature-newborns
#15
Alicia Montaner Ramón, Cristina Fernández Espuelas, Pilar Calmarza Calmarza, Segundo Rite Gracia, María Jesús Oliván Del Cacho
BACKGROUND: Metabolic bone disease (MBD) of prematurity is a complication of multifactorial aetiology, which has been increasing, due to progressive decrease in mortality of preterm newborns. The aim of the study was to analyze risk factors of severe MBD and its analytical markers. PATIENTS AND METHOD: Retrospective study involving preterm infants less than 32 weeks gestational age and/or weight less tan 1,500 g born between january 2012 and december 2014. Comparison was made according to the presence of severe MBD...
2017: Revista Chilena de Pediatría
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28895880/the-role-of-vitamin-d-in-thyroid-diseases
#16
REVIEW
Dohee Kim
The main role of vitamin D is regulating bone metabolism and calcium and phosphorus homeostasis. Over the past few decades, the importance of vitamin D in non-skeletal actions has been studied, including the role of vitamin D in autoimmune diseases, metabolic syndromes, cardiovascular disease, cancers, and all-cause mortality. Recent evidence has demonstrated an association between low vitamin D status and autoimmune thyroid diseases such as Hashimoto's thyroiditis and Graves' disease, and impaired vitamin D signaling has been reported in thyroid cancers...
September 12, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894358/therapy-with-pamidronate-in-children-with-osteogenesis-imperfecta
#17
Otilia Marginean, Raluca Corina Tamasanu, Niculina Mang, Ioana Mozos, Giorgiana Flavia Brad
Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a genetic disease characterized by excessive bone fragility with fractures consecutive to minor trauma. Considering lack of standardization of therapy with pamidronate in children, it was our aim to present our experience over a period of 10 years regarding evolution and treatment in patients diagnosed with osteoporosis and OI. Nine patients diagnosed with OI were admitted to the First Pediatric Clinic, Timisoara. They were investigated (clinical, biomarkers of bone metabolism and imaging studies), and a quality-of-life questionnaire was used to evaluate the impact of OI...
2017: Drug Design, Development and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893306/monitored-supplementation-of-vitamin-d-in-preterm-infants-mosvid-trial-study-protocol-for-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#18
Alicja Kołodziejczyk, Maria K Borszewska-Kornacka, Joanna Seliga-Siwecka
BACKGROUND: The pivotal role of vitamin D (vit D) in skeletal health is well known. Neonatal vit D storage at birth is dependent on maternal levels, and newborns receive 50-70% of their mother's 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D]. Deficiency of vit D can lead to prematurity bone disease, with an incidence of up to 55% in infants weighing < 1000 g. The aim of this study is to assess the effectiveness of monitored supplementation of vit D in a population of preterm infants. METHODS/DESIGN: Preterm infants born at 24-32 weeks of gestation will be recruited within the first 7 days of life...
September 11, 2017: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893184/the-canadian-hiv-and-aging-cohort-study-determinants-of-increased-risk-of-cardio-vascular-diseases-in-hiv-infected-individuals-rationale-and-study-protocol
#19
Madeleine Durand, Carl Chartrand-Lefebvre, Jean-Guy Baril, Sylvie Trottier, Benoit Trottier, Marianne Harris, Sharon Walmsley, Brian Conway, Alexander Wong, Jean-Pierre Routy, Colin Kovacs, Paul A MacPherson, Kenneth Marc Monteith, Samer Mansour, George Thanassoulis, Michal Abrahamowicz, Zhitong Zhu, Christos Tsoukas, Petronela Ancuta, Nicole Bernard, Cécile L Tremblay
BACKGROUND: With potent antiretroviral drugs, HIV infection is becoming a chronic disease. Emergence of comorbidities, particularly cardiovascular disease (CVD) has become a leading concern for patients living with the infection. We hypothesized that the chronic and persistent inflammation and immune activation associated with HIV disease leads to accelerated aging, characterized by CVD. This will translate into higher incidence rates of CVD in HIV infected participants, when compared to HIV negative participants, after adjustment for traditional CVD risk factors...
September 11, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889268/aluminum-and-alzheimer-s-disease
#20
Maria Teresa Colomina, Fiona Peris-Sampedro
Aluminum (Al) is one of the most extended metals in the Earth's crust. Its abundance, together with the widespread use by humans, makes Al-related toxicity particularly relevant for human health.Despite some factors influence individual bioavailability to this metal after oral, dermal, or inhalation exposures, humans are considered to be protected against Al toxicity because of its low absorption and efficient renal excretion. However, several factors can modify Al absorption and distribution through the body, which may in turn progressively contribute to the development of silent chronic exposures that may lately trigger undesirable consequences to health...
2017: Advances in Neurobiology
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