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Status epilepticus in children

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28423465/febrile-status-epilepticus-due-to-respiratory-syncytial-virus-infection
#1
Kazuhiro Uda, Katsuhiko Kitazawa
BACKGROUND: Febrile status epilepticus can have neurological sequelae. The type of sequelae, however, may depend on the etiology, including infections by viral agents such as the influenza virus. Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection in childhood suggests a similar role for this pathogen. The aim of this study was to characterize febrile status epilepticus associated with RSV infection, and to determine whether this type of infection is a risk factor for neurological sequelae with febrile status epilepticus...
April 19, 2017: Pediatrics International: Official Journal of the Japan Pediatric Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416791/management-of-convulsive-status-epilepticus-in-children-an-adapted-clinical-practice-guideline-for-pediatricians-in-saudi-arabia
#2
Fahad A Bashiri, Muddathir H Hamad, Yasser S Amer, Manal M Abouelkheir, Sarar Mohamed, Amal Y Kentab, Mustafa A Salih, Mohammad N Al Nasser, Ayman A Al-Eyadhy, Mohammed A Al Othman, Tahani Al-Ahmadi, Shaikh M Iqbal, Ali M Somily, Hayfaa A Wahabi, Khalid J Hundallah, Ali H Alwadei, Raidah S Albaradie, Waleed A Al-Twaijri, Mohammed M Jan, Faisal Al-Otaibi, Abdulrahman M Alnemri, Lubna A Al-Ansary
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 2017: Neurosciences: the Official Journal of the Pan Arab Union of Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389055/primary-amebic-meningoencephalitis-in-children-a-report-of%C3%A2-two-fatal-cases-and-review-of-the-literature
#3
Robert C Stowe, Davut Pehlivan, Katie E Friederich, Michael A Lopez, Shannon M DiCarlo, Varina L Boerwinkle
BACKGROUND: Primary amebic meningoencephalitis is a rare, almost uniformly fatal disease of cerebral invasion by Naegleria fowleri, occurring most commonly after swimming in warm fresh water in summer months. Treatment using the experimental medication miltefosine demonstrated improved survival and favorable neurocognitive outcome in a 2013 North American patient. Little has been described regarding electrographic recordings of such patients, and little is known to compare known pediatric cases of survival...
February 22, 2017: Pediatric Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28379373/genetic-and-phenotypic-heterogeneity-suggest-therapeutic-implications-in-scn2a-related-disorders
#4
Markus Wolff, Katrine M Johannesen, Ulrike B S Hedrich, Silvia Masnada, Guido Rubboli, Elena Gardella, Gaetan Lesca, Dorothée Ville, Mathieu Milh, Laurent Villard, Alexandra Afenjar, Sandra Chantot-Bastaraud, Cyril Mignot, Caroline Lardennois, Caroline Nava, Niklas Schwarz, Marion Gérard, Laurence Perrin, Diane Doummar, Stéphane Auvin, Maria J Miranda, Maja Hempel, Eva Brilstra, Nine Knoers, Nienke Verbeek, Marjan van Kempen, Kees P Braun, Grazia Mancini, Saskia Biskup, Konstanze Hörtnagel, Miriam Döcker, Thomas Bast, Tobias Loddenkemper, Lily Wong-Kisiel, Friedrich M Baumeister, Walid Fazeli, Pasquale Striano, Robertino Dilena, Elena Fontana, Federico Zara, Gerhard Kurlemann, Joerg Klepper, Jess G Thoene, Daniel H Arndt, Nicolas Deconinck, Thomas Schmitt-Mechelke, Oliver Maier, Hiltrud Muhle, Beverly Wical, Claudio Finetti, Reinhard Brückner, Joachim Pietz, Günther Golla, Dinesh Jillella, Karen M Linnet, Perrine Charles, Ute Moog, Eve Õiglane-Shlik, John F Mantovani, Kristen Park, Marie Deprez, Damien Lederer, Sandrine Mary, Emmanuel Scalais, Laila Selim, Rudy Van Coster, Lieven Lagae, Marina Nikanorova, Helle Hjalgrim, G Christoph Korenke, Marina Trivisano, Nicola Specchio, Berten Ceulemans, Thomas Dorn, Katherine L Helbig, Katia Hardies, Hannah Stamberger, Peter de Jonghe, Sarah Weckhuysen, Johannes R Lemke, Ingeborg Krägeloh-Mann, Ingo Helbig, Gerhard Kluger, Holger Lerche, Rikke S Møller
Mutations in SCN2A, a gene encoding the voltage-gated sodium channel Nav1.2, have been associated with a spectrum of epilepsies and neurodevelopmental disorders. Here, we report the phenotypes of 71 patients and review 130 previously reported patients. We found that (i) encephalopathies with infantile/childhood onset epilepsies (≥3 months of age) occur almost as often as those with an early infantile onset (<3 months), and are thus more frequent than previously reported; (ii) distinct phenotypes can be seen within the late onset group, including myoclonic-atonic epilepsy (two patients), Lennox-Gastaut not emerging from West syndrome (two patients), and focal epilepsies with an electrical status epilepticus during slow sleep-like EEG pattern (six patients); and (iii) West syndrome constitutes a common phenotype with a major recurring mutation (p...
March 4, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28365092/cardiac-injury-after-convulsive-status-epilepticus-in-children
#5
Doaa El Amrousy, Maher Abd El-Hafez, Mohamed Nashat, Hossam Hodeib
OBJECTIVE: Convulsive status epilepticus (CSE) is a medical emergency with high mortality that usually occurs within 30 days following the seizure activity. One of the potential mechanisms contributing to mortality in this period following CSE is cardiac injury. The aim of the present study was to evaluate cardiac injury after CSE in children. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Sixty children presented with CSE were enrolled in this study. Thirty healthy children with matched age and sex were taken as a control...
March 22, 2017: European Journal of Paediatric Neurology: EJPN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28362667/implementation-strategies-in-pediatric-neurocritical-care
#6
Christopher Markham, Enola K Proctor, Jose A Pineda
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Brain-directed critical care for children is a relatively new area of subspecialization in pediatric critical care. Pediatric neurocritical care teams combine the expertise of neurology, neurosurgery, and critical care medicine. The positive impact of delivering specialized care to pediatric patients with acute neurological illness is becoming more apparent, but the optimum way to implement and sustain the delivery of this is complicated and poorly understood. We aim to provide emerging evidence supporting that effective implementation of pediatric neurocritical care pathways can improve patient survival and outcomes...
March 30, 2017: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28350722/buccal-midazolam-compared-with-rectal-diazepam-reduces-seizure-duration-in-children-in-the-outpatient-setting
#7
Raffaella Moretti, Sebastien Julliand, Victoria Elisa Rinaldi, Luigi Titomanlio
BACKGROUND: Seizures are very common in children. They frequently happen in outpatient settings, in the presence of caregivers who are not always trained in their management. First-line rescue therapy is based on benzodiazepine, historically diazepam. Recent studies have investigated the use of other benzodiazepines in the treatment of acute seizures. OBJECTIVES: The aims of this study were to evaluate the management of pediatric seizures carried out by parents or caregivers in an outpatient setting and to evaluate the differences in terms of immediate management and subsequent outcome when comparing the use of rectal diazepam versus buccal midazolam...
March 27, 2017: Pediatric Emergency Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28349774/increasing-ketamine-use-for-refractory-status-epilepticus-in-us-pediatric-hospitals
#8
Sotirios Keros, Ersida Buraniqi, Byron Alex, Annalee Antonetty, Hugo Fialho, Baria Hafeez, Michele C Jackson, Rachel Jawahar, Stephanie Kjelleren, Elizabeth Stewart, Lindsey A Morgan, Mark S Wainwright, Yoshimi Sogawa, Anup D Patel, Tobias Loddenkemper, Zachary M Grinspan
Ketamine is an emerging therapy for pediatric refractory status epilepticus. The circumstances of its use, however, are understudied. The authors described pediatric refractory status epilepticus treated with ketamine from 2010 to 2014 at 45 centers using the Pediatric Hospital Inpatient System database. For comparison, they described children treated with pentobarbital. The authors estimated that 48 children received ketamine and pentobarbital for refractory status epilepticus, and 630 pentobarbital without ketamine...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Child Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28343008/electroclinical-features-of-epilepsy-in-patients-with-invdup-15
#9
REVIEW
Alberto Verrotti, Fiammetta Sertorio, Sara Matricardi, Pietro Ferrara, Pasquale Striano
PURPOSE: InvDup(15) syndrome is one of the most common chromosomal abnormalities associated with epilepsy. Here we review the seizure types described in InvDup(15) patients and the main electroclinical, therapeutic, and prognostic aspects of the syndrome. METHODS: A literature search of PubMed, MEDLINE, and EMBASE was performed to identify papers examining InvDup(15) syndrome and epilepsy. RESULTS: About 65% of the InvDup(15) patients described in the literature had multiple seizure types with a predominance (40...
April 2017: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28331645/propylene-glycol-toxicity-in-adolescent-with-refractory-myoclonic-status-epilepticus
#10
Kara A Bjur, Bryan C Cannon, Anthony L Fine, Matthew J Ritter, Kerry E Schueler, Michael E Nemergut
Propylene glycol (PG) is a solvent commonly used in medications that, while benign at low doses, may cause toxicity in adults and children at high doses. We describe a case and the physiologic sequelae of propylene glycol toxicity manifested in a critically ill adolescent male with refractory myoclonic status epilepticus aggressively treated with multiple PG-containing medications (lorazepam, phenobarbital, and pentobarbital)-all within accepted dosing guidelines and a total daily PG exposure previously recognized to be safe...
2017: Case Reports in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330972/fatal-cerebral-edema-with-status-epilepticus-in-children-with-dravet-syndrome-report-of-5-cases
#11
Kenneth A Myers, Jacinta M McMahon, Simone A Mandelstam, Mark T Mackay, Renate M Kalnins, Richard J Leventer, Ingrid E Scheffer
Dravet syndrome (DS) is a well-recognized developmental and epileptic encephalopathy associated with SCN1A mutations and 15% mortality by 20 years. Although over half of cases succumb to sudden unexpected death in epilepsy, the cause of death in the remainder is poorly defined. We describe the clinical, radiologic, and pathologic characteristics of a cohort of children with DS and SCN1A mutations who developed fatal cerebral edema causing mass effect after fever-associated status epilepticus. Cases were identified from a review of children with DS enrolled in the Epilepsy Genetics Research Program at The University of Melbourne, Austin Health, who died after fever-associated status epilepticus...
March 22, 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303609/pathological-analysis-of-children-with-childhood-central-nervous-system-infection-based-on-changes-in-chemokines-and-interleukin-17-family-cytokines-in-cerebrospinal-fluid
#12
Shinichiro Morichi, Tomomi Urabe, Natsumi Morishita, Mika Takeshita, Yu Ishida, Shingo Oana, Gaku Yamanaka, Yasuyo Kashiwagi, Hisashi Kawashima
BACKGROUND: In this study, the pathologies of acute meningitis and encephalopathy were investigated, and biomarkers useful as prognostic indices were searched for. METHODS: The subjects were 31 children with meningitis, 30 with encephalopathy, and 12 with convulsions following gastroenteritis. Control group consisted of 24 children with non-central nervous system infection. Cerebrospinal fluid cytokine analysis was performed. RESULTS: Chemokines significantly increased in the bacterial meningitis group compared with those in viral meningitis and encephalopathy groups...
March 17, 2017: Journal of Clinical Laboratory Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295226/lacosamide-in-status-epilepticus-systematic-review-of-current-evidence
#13
REVIEW
Adam Strzelczyk, Johann Philipp Zöllner, Laurent M Willems, Julie Jost, Esther Paule, Susanne Schubert-Bast, Felix Rosenow, Sebastian Bauer
OBJECTIVE: The intravenous formulation of lacosamide (LCM) and its good overall tolerability and safety favor the use in status epilepticus (SE). The aim of this systematic review was to identify and evaluate studies reporting on the use of LCM in SE. METHODS: We performed a systematic literature search of electronic databases using a combined search strategy from 2008 until October 2016. Using a standardized assessment form, information on the study design, methodologic framework, data sources, efficacy, and adverse events attributed to LCM were extracted from each publication and systematically reported...
March 11, 2017: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284397/optimizing-the-diagnosis-and-management-of-dravet-syndrome-recommendations-from-a-north-american-consensus-panel
#14
Elaine C Wirrell, Linda Laux, Elizabeth Donner, Nathalie Jette, Kelly Knupp, Mary Anne Meskis, Ian Miller, Joseph Sullivan, Michelle Welborn, Anne T Berg
OBJECTIVES: To establish standards for early, cost-effective, and accurate diagnosis; optimal therapies for seizures; and recommendations for evaluation and management of comorbidities for children and adults with Dravet syndrome, using a modified Delphi process. METHODS: An expert panel was convened comprising epileptologists with nationally recognized expertise in Dravet syndrome and parents of children with Dravet syndrome, whose experience and understanding was enhanced by their active roles in Dravet syndrome associations...
March 2017: Pediatric Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275159/enduring-memory-impairments-provoked-by-developmental-febrile-seizures-are-mediated-by-functional-and-structural-effects-of-neuronal-restrictive-silencing-factor
#15
Katelin P Patterson, Jeremy M Barry, Megan M Curran, Akanksha Singh-Taylor, Gary Brennan, Neggy Rismanchi, Matias Page, Yoav Noam, Gregory L Holmes, Tallie Z Baram
In a subset of children experiencing prolonged febrile seizures (FSs), the most common type of childhood seizures, cognitive outcomes are compromised. However, the underlying mechanisms are unknown. Here we identified significant, enduring spatial memory problems in male rats following experimental prolonged FS (febrile status epilepticus; eFSE). Remarkably, these deficits were abolished by transient, post hoc interference with the chromatin binding of the transcriptional repressor neuron restrictive silencing factor (NRSF or REST)...
April 5, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28238390/electro-clinical-etiological-associations-of-epilepsia-partialis-continua-in-57-chinese-children
#16
Hui Li, Jiao Xue, Ping Qian, Yuehua Zhang, Xinhua Bao, Xiaoyan Liu, Zhixian Yang
OBJECTIVE: Epilepsia partialis continua (EPC) was one type of focal status epilepticus. The aim of this study was to analyze the clinical and electroencephalography (EEG) characteristics, and outcome of 57 child-onset patients with EPC according to different etiologies, and further explore the electro-clinical-etiological associations. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed 57 children diagnosed with EPC in our department over last ten years. Etiology, clinical and EEG data, and outcome were categorized and analyzed...
February 18, 2017: Brain & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236729/parental-stress-pediatric-quality-of-life-and-behavior-at-baseline-and-one-year-follow-up-results-from-the-febstat-study
#17
Ruth C Shinnar, Shlomo Shinnar, Dale C Hesdorffer, Kathryn O'Hara, Terrie Conklin, Karen Mohler Cornett, Diana Miazga, Shumei Sun
Febrile status epilepticus is a serious and frightening event in the life of the child and parent. It is regarded as a medical emergency with potential long lasting consequences. The purpose of this study was to look at the immediate and long term effects of such an event on parental stress and parents' perception of their child's physical and psychosocial wellbeing. METHODS: From 2003 to 2010, 199 subjects, age 1 month to 5 years, were recruited as part of a prospective, multicenter study (FEBSTAT) of consequences of febrile status epilepticus (FSE)...
February 22, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28235653/surgical-outcome-in-adolescents-with-mesial-temporal-sclerosis-is-it-different
#18
Pue Farooque, Lawrence Hirsch, Susan Levy, Francine Testa, Richard Mattson, Dennis Spencer
There are extensive studies evaluating mesial temporal sclerosis (MTS) in adults and limited studies in children, with adolescents being included within both patient populations. Our aim was to evaluate predictors of surgical outcome solely in adolescent patients with MRI- and pathology -proven MTS. The Yale Epilepsy Surgery Database was reviewed from 1987 to 2012 for adolescent patients with confirmed MTS on MRI and pathology who underwent temporal lobectomy and had greater than two-year postsurgical follow-up...
February 18, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211248/anesthetic-considerations-for-pediatric-electroconvulsive-therapy
#19
REVIEW
Andrew D Franklin, Jenna H Sobey, Eric T Stickles
Electroconvulsive therapy is being used more frequently in the treatment of many chronic and acute psychiatric illnesses in children. The most common psychiatric indications for pediatric electroconvulsive therapy are refractory depression, bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, catatonia, and autism. In addition, a relatively new indication is the treatment of pediatric refractory status epilepticus. The anesthesiologist may be called upon to assist in the care of this challenging and vulnerable patient population...
May 2017: Paediatric Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207570/international-survey-of-critically-ill-children-with-acute-neurologic-insults-the-prevalence-of-acute-critical-neurological-disease-in-children-a-global-epidemiological-assessment-study
#20
Ericka L Fink, Patrick M Kochanek, Robert C Tasker, John Beca, Michael J Bell, Robert S B Clark, Jamie Hutchison, Monica S Vavilala, Anthony Fabio, Derek C Angus, R Scott Watson
OBJECTIVE: The international scope of critical neurologic insults in children is unknown. Our objective was to assess the prevalence and outcomes of children admitted to PICUs with acute neurologic insults. DESIGN: Prospective study. SETTING: Multicenter (n = 107 PICUs) and multinational (23 countries, 79% in North America and Europe). PATIENTS: Children 7 days to 17 years old admitted to the ICU with new traumatic brain injury, stroke, cardiac arrest, CNS infection or inflammation, status epilepticus, spinal cord injury, hydrocephalus, or brain mass...
April 2017: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
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