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Status epilepticus in children

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29320603/drug-management-for-acute-tonic-clonic-convulsions-including-convulsive-status-epilepticus-in-children
#1
REVIEW
Amy McTague, Timothy Martland, Richard Appleton
BACKGROUND: Tonic-clonic convulsions and convulsive status epilepticus (currently defined as a tonic-clonic convulsion lasting at least 30 minutes) are medical emergencies and require urgent and appropriate anticonvulsant treatment. International consensus is that an anticonvulsant drug should be administered for any tonic-clonic convulsion that has been continuing for at least five minutes. Benzodiazepines (diazepam, lorazepam, midazolam) are traditionally regarded as first-line drugs and phenobarbital, phenytoin and paraldehyde as second-line drugs...
January 10, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306558/high-dose-phenobarbitone-coma-in-pediatric-refractory-status-epilepticus-a-retrospective-case-record-analysis-a-proposed-protocol-and-review-of-literature
#2
Sheffali Gulati, Vishal Sondhi, Biswaroop Chakrabarty, Prashant Jauhari, Rakesh Lodha, Jhuma Sankar
BACKGROUND: Ongoing refractory status epilepticus is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Therapeutic coma induction with midazolam, thiopentone, phenobarbitone or propofol is indicated when conventional antiepileptics fail to abort seizure. Of these, the most extensively studied is midazolam. Amongst the remaining three, phenobarbitone has the most favourable pharmacological profile, but has not been studied adequately, more so in the pediatric age group. The current retrospective case records analysis is an attempt to describe use of phenobarbitone coma in pediatric refractory status epilepticus...
January 3, 2018: Brain & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29303866/pet-and-ictal-spect-can-be-helpful-for-localizing-epileptic-foci
#3
Tim J von Oertzen
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Functional neuroimaging with PET and SPECT is a commonly used tool in presurgical evaluation. The following article reviews the literature of PET and SPECT in presurgical assessment of epilepsies published in the last year. RECENT FINDINGS: FDG-PET adds concomitant information in temporal and extratemporal lobe epilepsy in adults and children. The pattern of hypometabolism in FDG-PET is a good additional predictor or seizure outcome in TLE with mesial temporal sclerosis or negative MRI...
January 4, 2018: Current Opinion in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29296085/epilepsy-in-patients-with-autism-links-risks-and-treatment-challenges
#4
REVIEW
Frank Mc Besag
Autism is more common in people with epilepsy, approximately 20%, and epilepsy is more common in people with autism with reported rates of approximately 20%. However, these figures are likely to be affected by the current broader criteria for autism spectrum disorder (ASD), which have contributed to an increased prevalence of autism, with the result that the rate for ASD in epilepsy is likely to be higher and the figure for epilepsy in ASD is likely to be lower. Some evidence suggests that there are two peaks of epilepsy onset in autism, in infancy and adolescence...
2018: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29229894/retrospective-review-of-pediatric-status-epilepticus-in-116-saudi-patients-predictors-of-outcome
#5
Raid Harb Hommady, Muhammad Talal Alrifai, Osama Khaled Mubayrik, Ruba Salem Alayed, Muhannad Abdulrahman Alsemari, Ahmed Arumayyan, Waleed Altuwaijri, Duaa Baarmah
BACKGROUND: Status epilepticus (SE) is a common, life-threatening condition. Multiple factors are used to predict its outcome and evaluate its risks, and there have been only a few studies in Saudi Arabia. OBJECTIVES: Investigate predictors of SE outcome. DESIGN: Retrospective chart review study. SETTING: Tertiary center, Riyadh. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We reviewed all pediatric cases (age 14 years or younger) of SE admitted between January 2005 and December 2015, collecting data on age, sex, date of birth, developmental status, pre-existing neurological diseases, SE etiology, Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS) scores, and electroencephalogram (EEG) findings...
November 2017: Annals of Saudi Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226310/long-term-behavioural-outcomes-after-paediatric-convulsive-status-epilepticus-a-population-based-cohort-study
#6
Marina M Martinos, Suresh Pujar, Christopher Gillberg, Mario Cortina-Borja, Brian G R Neville, Michelle De Haan, Rod C Scott, Richard F M Chin
AIM: To describe behavioural and psychiatric outcomes of children within 10 years of convulsive status epilepticus (CSE). METHOD: Children originally identified by the population-based North London Convulsive Status Epilepticus in Childhood Surveillance Study were followed-up between July 2009 and February 2013. They were grouped into epilepsy- and non-epilepsy-related CSE, and compared with population norms and healthy controls using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire; the Autism Spectrum Screening Questionnaire; and the Swanson, Nolan, and Pelham questionnaire...
December 10, 2017: Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224250/multiple-autologous-bone-marrow-derived-cd271-mesenchymal-stem-cell-transplantation-overcomes-drug-resistant-epilepsy-in-children
#7
Olga Milczarek, Danuta Jarocha, Anna Starowicz-Filip, Stanislaw Kwiatkowski, Bogna Badyra, Marcin Majka
There is a need among patients suffering from drug-resistant epilepsy (DRE) for more efficient and less toxic treatments. The objective of the present study was to assess the safety, feasibility, and potential efficacy of autologous bone marrow cell transplantation in pediatric patients with DRE. Two females and two males (11 months to 6 years) were enrolled and underwent a combined therapy consisting of autologous bone marrow nucleated cells (BMNCs) transplantation (intrathecal: 0.5 × 109 ; intravenous: 0...
December 10, 2017: Stem Cells Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223007/examining-health-service-utilization-hospital-treatment-cost-and-mortality-of-individuals-with-epilepsy-and-status-epilepticus-in-new-south-wales-australia-2012-2016
#8
Rebecca J Mitchell, Geoffrey Herkes, Armin Nikpour, Andrew Bleasel, Patti Shih, Sanjyot Vagholkar, Frances Rapport
This study examined the health service utilization and hospital treatment cost of individuals with epilepsy by age group, mortality within 30days, and surgical outcomes for individuals with refractory epilepsy in New South Wales (NSW), Australia. A retrospective examination of linked hospitalization and mortality data for individuals hospitalized with a diagnosis of epilepsy during 2012-2016. Hospitalized incidence rates per 1000 population were calculated, and negative binomial regression was used to examine temporal trends...
December 6, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203193/fructose-1-6-bisphosphatase-deficiency-as-a%C3%A2-cause-of-recurrent-hypoglycemia-and-metabolic-acidosis-clinical-and-molecular-findings-in-malaysian-patients
#9
Lip Hen Moey, Nor Azimah Abdul Azize, Yusnita Yakob, Huey Yin Leong, Wee Teik Keng, Bee Chin Chen, Lock Hock Ngu
BACKGROUND: Fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase (FBPase) deficiency is a rare autosomal recessive inborn error of gluconeogenesis. We reported the clinical findings and molecular genetic data in seven Malaysian patients with FBPase deficiency. METHODS: All patients diagnosed with FBPase deficiency from 2010 to 2015 were included in this study. Their clinical and laboratory data were collected retrospectively. RESULTS: All the patients presented with recurrent episodes of hypoglycemia, metabolic acidosis, hyperlactacidemia and hepatomegaly...
November 13, 2017: Pediatrics and Neonatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29184380/ketogenic-diet-in-super-refractory-status-epilepticus
#10
COMMENT
Garnett Smith, Craig A Press
Researchers from the Children's National Health System in Washington, D.C. studied the feasibility, rate of complications, and effect on seizures of initiating the Ketogenic Diet (KD) in pediatric patients with Super-Refractory Status Epilepticus (SRSE).
November 2017: Pediatric Neurology Briefs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152280/mycoplasma-pneumoniae-associated-encephalitis-complicated-by-cerebral-salt-wasting-syndrome
#11
Ya-Lan Lin, Kun-Long Hung, Chiao-Wei Lo
Cerebral salt wasting syndrome can occur in children with encephalitis. Clinicians should be aware of hyponatremia in patients who develop polyuria with the signs of dehydration and deteriorated consciousness. Furthermore, patients who present with status epilepticus or who are suspected to have high intracranial pressure may have an increased risk of cerebral salt wasting syndrome.
November 2017: Clinical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128194/treatment-of-electrical-status-epilepticus-in-sleep-clinical-and-eeg-characteristics-and-response-to-147-treatments-in-47-patients
#12
Bart van den Munckhof, Christian Alderweireld, Susanne Davelaar, Heleen C van Teeseling, Stavros Nikolakopoulos, Kees P J Braun, Floor E Jansen
OBJECTIVE: Electrical status epilepticus in sleep (ESES) syndrome is characterized by near-continuous sleep-induced epileptiform activity and acquired cognitive deficits. Treatment is assumed mandatory to improve cognitive outcome. We aimed to compare EEG characteristics, subjective evaluation and objective neuropsychological assessment as measures to evaluate treatment efficacy, and to analyze possible predictors. METHODS: We retrospectively included patients with ESES syndrome treated in our center...
October 26, 2017: European Journal of Paediatric Neurology: EJPN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29063291/predictive-factors-of-drug-resistant-epilepsy-in-children-presenting-under-2-years-of-age-experience-of-a-tertiary-center-in-turkey
#13
Edibe Pembegul Yildiz, Dilek Gunes, Gonca Bektas, Tugce Aksu Uzunhan, Burak Tatli, Mine Caliskan, Nur Aydinli, Meral Ozmen
Population-based studies report that children with epilepsy have relatively better prognosis than those with an onset at infancy, though studies about this period are limited. We aimed to evaluate the etiology in infant epilepsy less than 2 years of age and foreseeable risk factors for anti-epileptic drug resistance. We evaluated the patients who were presented to the division of pediatric neurology in our university hospital with seizures when they were between 1 and 24 months of age and diagnosed as epilepsy...
October 23, 2017: Acta Neurologica Belgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042874/serum-neuron-specific-enolase-is-increased-in-pediatric-acute-encephalitis-syndrome
#14
Dian Pratamastuti, Prastiya Indra Gunawan, Darto Saharso
PURPOSE: This study aimed to investigate whether serum neuron-specific enolase (NSE) was expressed in acute encephalitis syndrome (AES) that causes neuronal damage in children. METHODS: This prospective observational study was conducted in the pediatric neurology ward of Soetomo Hospital. Cases of AES with ages ranging from 1 month to 12 years were included. Cases that were categorized as simple and complex febrile seizures constituted the non-AES group. Blood was collected for the measurement of NSE within 24 hours of hemodynamic stabilization...
September 2017: Korean Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017081/safety-of-intravenous-lacosamide-in-critically-ill-children
#15
Sarah S Welsh, Nan Lin, Alexis A Topjian, Nicholas S Abend
PURPOSE: Acute seizures are common in critically ill children. These patients would benefit from intravenous anti-seizure medications with few adverse effects. We reviewed the usage and effects of intravenous lacosamide in critically ill children with seizures or status epilepticus. METHODS: This retrospective series included consecutive patients who received at least one dose of intravenous lacosamide from April 2011 to February 2016 in the pediatric intensive care unit of a quaternary care children's hospital, including patients with new lacosamide initiation and continuation of outpatient oral lacosamide...
November 2017: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28969235/super-refractory-status-epilepticus-a-therapeutic-challenge-in-paediatrics
#16
Shrikiran Aroor, Kanaparthi Shravan, Suneel C Mundkur, C Jayakrishnan, Sai Sripad Rao
A status epilepticus which persists for 24 hours or more after starting treatment with anaesthesia or has recurred inspite of general anaesthesia is known as Super-Refractory Status Epilepticus (SRSE). It includes cases where status epilepticus recurs on reduction or withdrawal of anaesthesia. SRSE, though infrequently seen, constitutes a medical emergency due to the associated high morbidity and mortality. No clear cut guidelines are available till date for the management of SRSE. Most of the published literature was case reports and expert opinion...
August 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28965695/-evaluating-a-child-after-a-febrile-seizure-insights-on-three-important-issues
#17
S Auvin, M Antonios, G Benoist, M-A Dommergues, F Corrard, V Gajdos, C Gras Leguen, E Launay, A Salaün, L Titomanlio, L Vallée, M Milh
Febrile seizures (FS) are the most common seizures seen in the paediatric population in the out-of-hospital and emergency department settings, and they account for the majority of seizures seen in children younger than 5 years old. An FS is a seizure accompanied by fever, without central nervous system infection, occurring in children between 6 months and 5 years old. Five criteria have been used and taught to classify any FS as simple or complex FS. These factors do not bear the same significance for clinical practice, in particular, the decision to perform a lumbar puncture for cerebrospinal fluid analysis to rule out an intracranial infection...
November 2017: Archives de Pédiatrie: Organe Officiel de la Sociéte Française de Pédiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28960278/remission-of-encephalopathy-with-status-epilepticus-eses-during-sleep-renormalizes-regulation-of-slow-wave-sleep
#18
Bigna K Bölsterli, Elena Gardella, Elena Pavlidis, Flavia M Wehrle, Carlo A Tassinari, Reto Huber, Guido Rubboli
OBJECTIVE: In previous studies, we showed an altered overnight decrease of non-rapid-eye-movement (NREM) sleep slow waves in children with encephalopathy related to status epilepticus during sleep (ESES). Here, we test the hypothesis that these alterations renormalize after remission of ESES. Because overnight decrease of slow waves has been linked to brain recovery and cognition, we investigate whether cognitive outcome is related to overnight changes of slow waves. METHODS: We performed a retrospective analysis of longitudinal overnight electroencephalography (EEG) in 10 patients with idiopathic ESES...
November 2017: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28898171/febrile-infection-related-epilepsy-syndrome-fires-a-literature-review-and-case-study
#19
Kristy Fox, Mary Ellen Wells, Michael Tennison, Bradley Vaughn
Febrile infection-related epilepsy syndrome (FIRES) is a catastrophic epileptic syndrome that strikes previously healthy children aged 3-15 years and has an unknown pathogenesis and few treatments. These children experience a nonspecific febrile illness that is followed by prolonged refractory status epilepticus. Although the etiology is unknown, FIRES has a biphasic presentation, with the acute phase beginning as seizure activity lasting 1-12 weeks, then followed by the chronic phase, which is characterized by refractory seizures that cluster every 2-4 weeks, and may continue to be multifocal and independent...
2017: Neurodiagnostic Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28891483/emergency-surgery-for-refractory-status-epilepticus
#20
Abhijeet Botre, Vrajesh Udani, Neelu Desai, Spoorthy Jagadish, Milind Sankhe
BACKGROUND: Management of refractory status epilepticus in children is extremely challenging. CASE CHARACTERISTICS: Two children with medically refractory status epilepticus, both of whom had lesional pathology on MRI and concordant data on EEG and PET scan. INTERVENTION: Emergency hemispherotomy performed in both patients. A complete, sustained seizure freedom obtained postoperatively. MESSAGE: Emergency surgery is a treatment option in selected cases of drug refractory status epilepticus with lesional pathology and concordant data...
August 15, 2017: Indian Pediatrics
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