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Toll Like Receptor(TLR)

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29458158/toll-like-receptor-tlr-9-promotor-polymorphisms-and-gene-expression-are-associated-with-persistent-staphylococcus-aureus-nasal-carriage
#1
Dennis Nurjadi, Klaus Heeg, Alexander N R Weber, Philipp Zanger
OBJECTIVES: Toll-like receptor (TLR) -9 could have importance in human S. aureus immunity, but population level evidence for this hypothesis is missing. METHODS: We phenotyped 603 volunteers for S. aureus nasal carriage using four consecutive swabs, genotyped TLR9 promotor variants in 106 persistent carriers and 219 non-carriers, measured TLR9-mRNA expression in whole blood after stimulation with viable S. aureus, and studied mutual associations of carriage, transcriptional activity, and single nucleotide polymorphisms while accounting for sex and hormonal contraceptive use (HCU+/- )...
February 16, 2018: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452403/mechanisms-controlling-nucleic-acid-sensing-toll-like-receptors
#2
Kensuke Miyake, Takuma Shibata, Umeharu Ohto, Toshiyuki Shimizu, Shin-Ichiroh Saitoh, Ryutaro Fukui, Yusuke Murakami
Nucleic acid (NA)-sensing Toll-like receptors (TLRs) respond to DNA/RNA derived from pathogens and dead cells. Structural studies have revealed a variety of molecular mechanisms by which TLRs sense NAs. Double-stranded RNA and single-stranded DNA directly bind to TLR3 and TLR9, respectively, whereas TLR7 and 8 bind to nucleosides and oligoribonucleotides derived from RNAs. Activation of ligand-bound TLRs is influenced by the functional status of TLRs. Proteolytic cleavage of NA-sensing TLRs enables ligand-dependent TLR dimerization...
February 14, 2018: International Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452288/repetitive-tlr-3-activation-in-the-lung-induces-skeletal-muscle-adaptations-and-cachexia
#3
Ted G Graber, Brandy L Rawls, Bing Tian, William J Durham, Camille R Brightwell, Allan R Brasier, Blake B Rasmussen, Christopher S Fry
Due to immunosenescence, older adults are particularly susceptible to lung-based viral infections, with increased severity of symptoms in those with underlying chronic lung disease. Repeated respiratory viral infections produce lung maladaptations, accelerating pulmonary dysfunction. Toll like 3 receptor (TLR3) is a membrane protein that senses exogenous double-stranded RNA to activate the innate immune response to a viral infection. Polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid [poly(I:C)] mimics double stranded RNA and has been shown to activate TLR3...
February 13, 2018: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452258/recent-findings-related-to-immune-responses-against-leptospirosis-and-novel-strategies-to-prevent-infection
#4
Frédérique Vernel-Pauillac, Catherine Werts
What are the new approaches and emerging ideas to prevent leptospirosis, a neglected bacterial re-emerging zoonotic disease? How do Leptospira interrogans escape the host defenses? We aim here to review and discuss the most recent literature that provides some answers to these questions, in particular data related to a better understanding of adaptive and innate immunity towards leptospires, and design of vaccines. This is an opinion paper, not a comprehensive review. We will try to highlight the new strategies and technologies boosting the search for drugs and vaccines...
February 13, 2018: Microbes and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452196/staphylococcus-aureus-induces-tgf-%C3%AE-1-and-bfgf-expression-through-the-activation-of-ap-1-and-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-transcription-factors-in-bovine-mammary-epithelial-cells
#5
Jianmei Wu, Yulin Ding, Jinling Wang, Fenglong Wang
Staphylococcus aureus is a common Gram-positive pathogen that causes bovine mastitis, a persistent infection of the bovine mammary gland. Bovine mammary epithelial cells (BMEC) are important parenchymal cells of the bovine mammary gland. To better understand the importance of BMEC and the roles of the TLR-NF-κBand TLR-AP-1 signaling pathways in the regulation of S. aureus-associated mastitis and mammary fibrosis, BMEC cultured in vitro were stimulated with different concentrations of heat-inactivated S. aureus to analyze the gene and protein expression and production of toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2), toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1), basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) as well as the protein expression of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) and activation protein-1 (AP-1) by means of quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and western blotting, respectively...
February 13, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452169/expression-patterns-of-toll-like-receptor-tlr-2-tlr-4-and-myeloid-differentiation-primary-response-gene-88-myd88-in-renal-transplant-patients-developing-allograft-dysfunction-a-cohort-study
#6
Morteza Hosseinzadeh, Pedram Ahmadpoor, Mir Saeed Yekaninejad, Fatemeh Pourrezagholi, Farshad Foroughi, Mina Ghorbanpour, Mehri Barabadi, Sanaz K Shahbaz, Ghasem Solgi, Aliakbar Amirzargar
This cohort intends to determine the sequential dynamic changes in Toll-like receptor (TLR)-4, TLR-2, and myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88 (MYD88) mRNA expressions in PBMCs and biopsy samples from kidney allograft recipients in relation to graft function. This study enrolled 52 renal transplant patients, 27 with well functioning graft (WFG) and 25 graft dysfunction (GD). Peripheral blood samples pre- and post-transplantation (days 2, 90 and 180) were collected to analyze mRNA expression levels of TLR-2, TLR-4, and MYD88 genes in relation to allograft function during one-year follow up...
February 13, 2018: Transplant Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450541/induction-of-ocular-complement-activation-by-inflammatory-stimuli-and-intraocular-inhibition-of-complement-factor-d-in-animal-models
#7
Maura A Crowley, Omar Delgado, Adrian Will-Orrego, Natasha M Buchanan, Karen Anderson, Bruce D Jaffee, Thaddeus P Dryja, Sha-Mei Liao
Purpose: Genome-wide association studies suggest a role for the complement system in age-related macular degeneration (AMD). We characterized ocular complement activation and evaluated a complement factor D (FD) neutralizing antibody. Methods: Mice were treated with toll-like receptor (TLR) ligands, intravitreal injection (IVT), or corneal debridement. Levels of complement proteins and mRNA were measured. A FD neutralizing antibody was administered IVT into eyes of rabbits that were challenged with LPS (lipopolysaccharide) administered intravenously...
February 1, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29448819/identifying-the-inhibition-of-tir-proteins-involved-in-tlr-signalling-as-an-anti-inflammatory-strategy
#8
U Saqib, M S Baig
Toll/IL1 receptor (TIR) adaptor proteins continue to be an integral part of Toll-like receptors' (TLR) signalling involved in inflammation. Signalling is likely to be initiated by these TIR adaptors when they are recruited to a TIR-TIR interface formed by TLR dimerization. Among these, myeloid differentiation factor-88 (MyD88), MyD88 adapter-like protein (Mal), TIR domain-containing adaptor protein inducing interferon-β (TRIF) and TRIF-related adaptor molecule (TRAM) play pivotal roles at many steps in the signalling events leading to inflammation...
February 15, 2018: SAR and QSAR in Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29447283/gp96-deficiency-affects-tlr4-functionality-and-impairs-erk-and-p38-phosphorylation
#9
Jesus Cosin-Roger, Marianne R Spalinger, Pedro A Ruiz, Claudia Stanzel, Anne Terhalle, Lutz Wolfram, Hassan Melhem, Kirstin Atrott, Silvia Lang, Isabelle Frey-Wagner, Michael Fried, Michael Scharl, Martin Hausmann, Gerhard Rogler
Gp96 is an endoplasmic reticulum chaperone for multiple protein substrates. Its lack in intestinal macrophages of Crohn's disease (CD) patients is correlated with loss of tolerance against the host gut flora. Gp96 has been stablished to be an essential chaperone for Toll-like receptors (TLRs). We studied the impact of gp96-knockdown on TLR-function in macrophages. TLR2 and TLR4 expression was only decreased but not abolished when gp96 was knocked-down in cell lines, whereas in a monocyte/macrophage specific knock-out mouse model (LysMCre) TLR4 was abolished, while TLR2 was still present...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29441063/toll-like-receptors-and-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#10
REVIEW
Yue Lu, Xinrui Li, Shanshan Liu, Yifan Zhang, Dekai Zhang
Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is one relapsing and lifelong disease that affects millions of patients worldwide. Increasing evidence has recently highlighted immune-system dysfunction, especially toll-like receptors (TLRs)-mediated innate immune dysfunction, as central players in the pathogenesis of IBD. TLRs and TLR-activated signaling pathways are involved not only in the pathogenesis but also in the efficacy of treatment of IBD. By understanding these molecular mechanisms, we might develop a strategy for relieving the experience of long-lasting suffering of those patients and improving their quality of life...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29437288/staphylococcus-aureus-induced-complement-activation-promotes-tissue-factor-mediated-coagulation
#11
E W Skjeflo, D Christiansen, H Fure, J K Ludviksen, T M Woodruff, Terje Espevik, E W Nielsen, O L Brekke, T E Mollnes
BACKGROUND: There is extensive cross-talk between the complement system, the Toll-like receptors (TLR) and hemostasis. Consumptive coagulopathy is a hallmark of sepsis and often mediated through increased tissue factor (TF) expression. OBJECTIVES: To study the relative roles of complement, TLRs and TF in Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus)-induced coagulation. METHODS: Lepirudin-anticoagulated human whole blood was incubated with the three S...
February 13, 2018: Journal of Thrombosis and Haemostasis: JTH
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29436650/toll%C3%A2-like-receptor-2-mediates-deposition-of-collagen-i-in-adipose-tissue-of-high-fat-diet%C3%A2-induced-obese-mice
#12
Bing Song, Haoqiang Zhang, Suping Zhang
Obesity is marked by deposition of collagen I in adipose tissue. Toll like receptor (TLR)2 is involved in lipid metabolism, however the association between TLR2 and collagen I remains unclear. The present study was designed to investigate the effect of TLR2 knockout on collagen I in adipose tissue in obese mice. TLR2 knockout and C57BL/6J mice (aged 4 weeks) were fed normal chow or a high‑fat‑diet for 16 weeks. Compared with adipose tissue from lean controls, that from C57BL/6J mice fed a high‑fat diet had increased levels of collagen I, TIMP1 and TGFβ1 and lower levels of MMP1...
February 12, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29436632/sparstolonin-b-attenuates-spinal-cord-injury%C3%A2-induced-inflammation-in-rats-by-modulating-tlr4%C3%A2-trafficking
#13
Jianjun Yuan, Xueli Zhang, Rusen Zhu, Zijian Cui, Wei Hu
The present study used a spinal cord injury (SCI) model to evaluate whether sparstolonin B was able to prevent SCI, and to investigate the underlying signaling mechanism. Sparstolonin B attenuated the SCI‑induced Batto, Beattie and Bresnahan score and water content in rats. Sparstolonin B attenuated the mRNA expression of proinflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)‑18, IL‑6, IL‑1β, and IL‑23, decreased the levels of tumor necrosis factor‑α and interferon‑γ, and decreased caspase‑3 activity and apoptosis regulator Bax protein expression in SCI rats...
February 6, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29435270/roles-of-toll-like-receptors-from-inflammation-to-lung-cancer-progression
#14
Jinjing Gu, Yi Liu, Bin Xie, Pingping Ye, Jiefan Huang, Zhe Lu
Lung cancer is among the most common malignant tumors worldwide, and is characterized by a low survival rate compared with other cancers. Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are highly conserved in evolution and widely expressed on immune cells, where they serve an important role in the innate immune system by evoking inflammatory responses. Evasion of immune destruction is an important hallmark in the development of cancer. There is an established association between chronic inflammation and cancer, with TLRs serving important roles in the immune response against tumor cells...
February 2018: Biomedical Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29435026/dha-induces-apoptosis-of-human-malignant-breast-cancer-tissues-by-the-tlr-4-ppar-%C3%AE-pathways
#15
Lijing Geng, Wei Zhou, Bing Liu, Xinyun Wang, Bo Chen
Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) oil is an important polyunsaturated fatty acid for the human body. Evidence has demonstrated that DHA is beneficial for inhibiting mammary carcinogenesis. However, the mechanisms of DHA mediating apoptosis induction have not been fully elucidated. Thus, in the present study, the activity levels of total-superoxide dismutase (t-SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione-peroxidase (GSH-PX) and the concentration of malondialdehyde (MDA) were determined in DHA oil-treated human malignant breast tissues...
March 2018: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434596/insight-into-phosphatidylinositol-dependent-membrane-localization-of-the-innate-immune-adaptor-protein-toll-interleukin-1-receptor-domain-containing-adaptor-protein
#16
Mahesh Chandra Patra, Sangdun Choi
The toll/interleukin 1 receptor (TIR) domain-containing adaptor protein (TIRAP) plays an important role in the toll-like receptor (TLR) 2, TLR4, TLR7, and TLR9 signaling pathways. TIRAP anchors to phosphatidylinositol (PI) 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) on the plasma membrane and PI (3,4,5)-trisphosphate (PIP3) on the endosomal membrane and assists in recruitment of the myeloid differentiation primary response 88 protein to activated TLRs. To date, the structure and mechanism of TIRAP's membrane association are only partially understood...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434584/tlr3-ligand-poly-i-c-exerts-distinct-actions-in-synovial-fibroblasts-when-delivered-by-extracellular-vesicles
#17
Mojca Frank-Bertoncelj, David S Pisetsky, Christoph Kolling, Beat A Michel, Renate E Gay, Astrid Jüngel, Steffen Gay
Extracellular vesicles (EV) can modulate the responses of cells to toll-like receptor (TLR) ligation; conversely, TLR ligands such as double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) can enhance the release of EV and influence of the composition and functions of EV cargos. Inflamed synovial joints in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) are rich in EV and extracellular RNA; besides, RNA released from necrotic synovial fluid cells can activate the TLR3 signaling in synovial fibroblasts (SFs) from patients with RA. Since EV occur prominently in synovial joints in RA and may contribute to the pathogenesis, we questioned whether EV can interact with dsRNA, a TLR3 ligand, and modify its actions in arthritis...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29432957/modulation-of-toll-like-receptor-signaling-by-antimicrobial-peptides
#18
REVIEW
Ernest Y Lee, Michelle W Lee, Gerard C L Wong
Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are typically thought of as molecular hole punchers that directly kill pathogens by membrane permeation. However, recent work has shown that AMPs are pleiotropic, multifunctional molecules that can strongly modulate immune responses. In this review, we provide a historical overview of the immunomodulatory properties of natural and synthetic antimicrobial peptides, with a special focus on human cathelicidin and defensins. We also summarize the various mechanisms of AMP immune modulation and outline key structural rules underlying the recently-discovered phenomenon of AMP-mediated Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling...
February 9, 2018: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29431121/methotrexate-limits-inflammation-through-an-a20-dependent-cross-tolerance-mechanism
#19
Cristina Municio, Ángeles Dominguez-Soto, Sara Fuentelsaz-Romero, Amalia Lamana, Nuria Montes, Víctor D Cuevas, Raquel García Campos, José L Pablos, Isidoro González-Álvaro, Amaya Puig-Kröger
OBJECTIVES: Methotrexate (MTX) is the anchor drug for treatment of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), but the mechanism of its anti-inflammatory action is not fully understood. In RA, macrophages display a proinflammatory polarisation profile that resembles granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF)-differentiated macrophages and the response to MTX is only observed in thymidylate synthase+ GM-CSF-dependent macrophages. To determine the molecular basis for the MTX anti-inflammatory action, we explored toll-like receptor (TLR), RA synovial fluid (RASF) and tumour necrosis factor receptor (TNFR)-initiated signalling in MTX-exposed GM-CSF-primed macrophages...
February 3, 2018: Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29430761/nod-like-receptor-pyrin-domain-containing-3-nlrp3-regulates-inflammation-induced-pro-labor-mediators-in-human-myometrial-cells
#20
Ratana Lim, Martha Lappas
PROBLEM: Inflammation plays a major role in preterm birth. Nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptor pyrin domain-containing-3 (NLRP3) plays a role in inflammatory diseases. The aims of this study were to determine the effect of term labor on the expression of NLRP3 in human myometrium and the effect of NLRP3 silencing on pro-labor mediators in myometrial cells. METHOD OF STUDY: NLRP3 expression was assessed in myometrium from non-laboring and laboring women by qRT-PCR and Western blotting...
February 12, 2018: American Journal of Reproductive Immunology: AJRI
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