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Vesa M Olkkonen, Juha Sinisalo, Matti Jauhiainen
Remarkably good results have been achieved in the treatment of atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases (CVD) by using statin, ezetimibe, antihypertensive, antithrombotic, and PCSK9 inhibitor therapies and their proper combinations. However, despite this success, the remaining CVD risk is still high. To target this residual risk and to treat patients who are statin-intolerant or have an exceptionally high CVD risk for instance due to familial hypercholesterolemia (FH), new therapies are intensively sought. One pathway of drug development is targeting the circulating triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (TRL) and their lipolytic remnants, which, according to the current view, confer a major CVD risk...
March 8, 2018: Atherosclerosis
Stefania Lamon-Fava, Margaret R Diffenderfer, P Hugh R Barrett, Wing Yee Wan, Borbala Postfai, Chorthip Nartsupha, Gregory G Dolnikowski, Ernst J Schaefer
The distinct effects of the estrogen and progestin components of hormonal therapy on the metabolism of apolipoprotein (apo) B-containing lipoproteins have not been studied. We enrolled eight healthy postmenopausal women in a placebo-controlled, randomized, double-blind crossover study. Each subject received placebo, conjugated equine estrogen (CEE, 0.625 mg/day) and CEE plus medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA, 2.5 mg/day) for 8 weeks in a randomized order, with a 4-week washout between phases. Main outcomes were the fractional catabolic rate (FCR) and production rate (PR) of apo B100 in triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (TRL), intermediate-density lipoproteins (IDL) and low -density lipoprotein (LDL) and of apo B48 in TRL...
March 14, 2018: Lipids
Aliyeh Hasanzadeh, Alireza Khataee, Mahmoud Zarei, Sang Woo Joo
This work reports the potential application of modified gas-diffusion electrode (GDE) with C 60 -CNT composite, as a stable and efficient cathode material for degradation of trifluralin (TRL) pesticide by photo-assisted electrochemical (PE) process. C 60 -CNT composite was prepared and characterized. Subsequently, a novel C 60 -CNT composite modified GDE cathode was developed and the electrochemical and physical characteristics of the modified GDEs were studied. C 60 -CNT composite/GDE showed great efficiencies for electro-generating H 2 O 2 , owing to huge surface area and high conductivity...
February 9, 2018: Chemosphere
Mikael Larsson, Christopher M Allan, Patrick J Heizer, Yiping Tu, Norma P Sandoval, Rachel S Jung, Rosemary L Walzem, Anne P Beigneux, Stephen G Young, Loren G Fong
GPIHBP1, an endothelial cell protein, binds lipoprotein lipase (LPL) in the subendothelial spaces and transports it to the capillary lumen. In Gpihbp1-/- mice, LPL remains stranded in the subendothelial spaces, causing hypertriglyceridemia, but how Gpihbp1-/- mice respond to metabolic stress (e.g., cold exposure) has never been studied. In wild-type mice, cold exposure increases LPL-mediated processing of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (TRLs) in brown adipose tissue (BAT), providing fuel for thermogenesis and leading to lower plasma triglyceride levels...
February 15, 2018: Journal of Lipid Research
Erin E Mulvihill
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The intestine is highly efficient at absorbing and packaging dietary lipids onto the structural protein apoB48 for distribution throughout the body. Here, we summarize recent advances into understanding the physiological and pharmacological actions of the proglucagon-derived peptides: glucagon like peptide 1 (GLP-1) and glucagon like peptide 2 (GLP-2) on intestinal lipoprotein secretion. RECENT FINDINGS: Several recent studies have elucidated mechanisms underlying the paradoxical effects of GLP-1 and GLP-2 on intestinal production of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (TRLs)...
February 9, 2018: Current Opinion in Lipidology
Takahiro Akiyama, Jun Yasutomi, Kimihiko Kusashio, Masanari Matsumoto, Takeshi Suzuki, Ayako Iida, Namiko Imamura, Arihito Yoshizumi, Rina Harano, Ikuo Udagawa, Masayuki Ohtsuka
We report a case of a 79-year-old man who developed severe therapy-related pancytopenia from tegafur uracil(UFT)and Leucovorin(LV)as adjuvant chemotherapy for ascending colon cancer. Laparoscopic right hemicolectomy resection was performed for the ascending colon cancer. Pathohistological analysis revealed that the ascending colon tumor was moderately differentiated tubular adenocarcinoma(T3, N1, M0, and Stage III a). Postoperative adjuvant chemotherapy with UFT and LV was administered. After 2 courses of chemotherapies, severe thrombocytopenia(Grade 4)and neutropenia(Grade 4)were noted...
November 2017: Gan to Kagaku Ryoho. Cancer & Chemotherapy
Jean-Philippe Drouin-Chartier, André J Tremblay, Marie-Claude Lépine, Valéry Lemelin, Benoît Lamarche, Patrick Couture
Background: The substitution of omega (ω)-6 (n-6) polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) for saturated fatty acids (SFAs) is advocated in cardiovascular disease prevention. The impact of this substitution on lipoprotein metabolism in subjects with dyslipidemia associated with insulin resistance (IR) remains unknown. Objective: In men with dyslipidemia and IR, we evaluated the impact of substituting ω-6 PUFAs for SFAs on the in vivo kinetics of apolipoprotein (apo) B-containing lipoproteins and on the intestinal expression of key genes involved in lipoprotein metabolism...
January 1, 2018: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Michael H Davidson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 14, 2018: European Heart Journal
Jordan Muscatello, Enrique Chacón, Pedro Tarazona, Fernando Bresme
The interfacial thermal resistance determines condensation-evaporation processes and thermal transport across material-fluid interfaces. Despite its importance in transport processes, the interfacial structure responsible for the thermal resistance is still unknown. By combining nonequilibrium molecular dynamics simulations and interfacial analyses that remove the interfacial thermal fluctuations we show that the thermal resistance of liquid-vapor interfaces is connected to a low density fluid layer that is adsorbed at the liquid surface...
July 28, 2017: Physical Review Letters
Qian Zhang, Mengge Liu, Shiyu Li, Zhenrui Xu, Jiajia Wang, Yuzhe Wang, Zhengbin Fei, Wenhua Huang, Hanxiao Sun
Bifidobacterium has been developed for the oral delivery of peptides and has the added beneficial effect on our bodies through its probiotic properties. Here, we utilize Bifidobacterium as a delivery system to orally deliver Glucagon like peptide-2 (GLP-2). We constructed vector derived from pET-31b(+) to construct a Bifidobacterium longum expressing GLP-2. We then determined the bioactivity of recombinant Bifidobacterium in Caco-2 cells. Finally, we quantified newly synthesized ApoB48 and chylomicron production in mice infused with exogenous GLP-2 or Bifidobacterium expressing GLP-2...
January 9, 2018: Journal of Microbiological Methods
Ke Liu, Aibin He, Chang Ye, Shaowen Liu, Jian Lu, Mengtao Gao, Youzhong Fan, Bilin Lu, Xiaohai Tian, Yunbo Zhang
Succeeding in breeding super hybrid rice has been considered as a great progress in rice production in China. This on-farm study was conducted with Minirhizotron techniques to identify dynamic root morphological traits and distribution (0-30 cm) under different nitrogen treatments. Five elite super hybrid rice cultivars, Liangyoupeijiu (LYPJ), Yliangyou 1(YLY1), Yliangyou 2(YLY2), Yliangyou 900(YLY900) and Super 1000(S1000), were grown at four N levels: 0 kg ha-1 (N1), 210 kg ha-1 (N2), 300 kg ha-1 (N3) and 390 kg ha-1 (N4) in 2015 and 2016...
January 9, 2018: Scientific Reports
Manon Launay, Antoine Roux, Laurence Beaumont, Benoit Douvry, Lucien Lecuyer, Emmanuel Douez, Clément Picard, Dominique Grenet, Vincent Jullien, Véronique Boussaud, Romain Guillemain, Eliane M Billaud
Appropriate exposure to posaconazole (PSZ) has been limited until the recent approval of the delayed-release oral tablet formulation. Our goal was to determine the exposure obtained by using the standard dose of 300 mg once a day in lung transplant (LT) patients, including patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). PSZ trough concentrations ( C 0 ) were determined using a liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry assay. Indicative thresholds of interest were <0.7 mg/liter for prophylaxis and 1 to 3 mg/liter for cure...
March 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Damian Janicki
TiC-reinforced composite surface layers (TRLs) on a ductile cast iron EN-GJS-700-2 grade (DCI) substrate were synthesized using a diode laser surface alloying with a direct injection of titanium powder into the molten pool. The experimental results were compared with thermodynamic calculations. The TRLs having a uniform distribution of the TiC particles and their fraction up to 15.4 vol % were achieved. With increasing titanium concentration in the molten pool, fractions of TiC and retained austenite increase and the shape of TiC particles changes from cubic to dendritic form...
January 5, 2018: Materials
Sanith Cheriyamundath, Tejashree Mahaddalkar, Shreyada N Save, Sinjan Choudhary, Ramakrishna V Hosur, Manu Lopus
Triphala (Trl) is an ayurvedic formulation used for treating disorders of the digestive, respiratory, and nervous systems. Its anticancer properties have also been documented. We studied effects of Trl on tubulin, a target protein for several anticancer drugs, and systematically elucidated a possible antiproliferative mechanism of action of Trl. Trl inhibited proliferation of HeLa (cervical adenocarcinoma), PANC-1 (pancreatic adenocarcinoma), and MDA-MB-231 (triple-negative breast carcinoma) cells in microgram quantities and strongly suppressed the clonogenicity of HeLa cells...
December 12, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Wafaa A Zaghary, Shereen Mowaka, Mostafa A Hassan, Bassam M Ayoub
Multifaceted comparative analytical methods for trelagliptin (TRL) were investigated, applied to ZAFATEK tablets and HPLC-UV was selected for a degradation kinetic study. UPLC-MS/MS (Method I), UPLC-UV (Method II), HPLC-UV (Method III), UHPLC-UV (Method IV) and direct UV (Method V) methods were developed. Methods (I-V) showed satisfactory results using TRL concentration ranges of 50-800 ng/mL, 2.5-80 μg/mL, 5-100 μg/mL, 5-100 μg/mL and 5-50 μg/mL, respectively. Multiple Reaction Monitoring (MRM) of the transition pairs of m/z 358...
December 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
Arcangelo Iannuzzi, Marco Gentile, Gabriella Iannuzzo, Giuseppe Covetti, Camilla Panico, Amalia Mattiello, Ersilia La Fata, Lanfranco D'Elia, Mario De Michele, Paolo Rubba
The aim of the study was to evaluate the relationship between cholesterol contained in very-low-density lipoproteins (VLDL-C), intermediate-density lipoproteins (IDL-C), low-density lipoproteins, high-density lipoproteins, and carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) and carotid plaques in 228 postmenopausal women (63.1 ± 8.2 years) who participated in the ATENA Project and underwent clinical, biochemical (including the assay of lipoproteins using the Lipoprint system), and carotid ultrasound tests. Very-low-density lipoprotein cholesterol had a statistically significant linear association with cIMT ( P < ...
January 1, 2017: Angiology
Thais B Ferreira, Joana Hygino, Ana Cristina Wing, Taissa M Kasahara, Priscila M Sacramento, Solange Camargo, Fernanda Rueda, Soniza V Alves-Leon, Regina Alvarenga, Claudia Cristina Vasconcelos, Anshu Agrawal, Sudhir Gupta, Cleonice A M Bento
Signalling through Toll-like receptors (TLRs) may play a role in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases, such as multiple sclerosis (MS). In the present study, the expression of TLR-2, -4 and -9 was significantly higher on CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells from MS patients compared to healthy individuals. Following in-vitro activation, the proportion of interleukin (IL)-17+ and IL-6+ CD4+ and CD8+ T-cells was higher in the patients. In addition, the proportion of IFN-γ-secreting TLR+ CD8+ T-cells was increased in MS patients...
November 23, 2017: Immunology
Natalia A Rocha, Cara East, Jun Zhang, Peter A McCullough
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Apolipoprotein CIII (ApoCIII) is now recognized as a key regulator in severe hypertriglyceridemia, chylomicronemia, and conditions of triglyceride-rich lipoprotein (TRL) remnant excess due to its inhibition of lipoprotein lipase (LPL) and hepatic lipase, leading to decreased hepatic reuptake of TRLs, as well as enhanced synthesis and secretion of VLDL from the liver. ApoCIII gain-of-function mutations are associated with atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease (CHD), and contribute to the development of cardiometabolic syndrome, hypertriglyceridemia, and type 2 diabetes mellitus...
November 9, 2017: Current Atherosclerosis Reports
Megan F Burke, Frances M Burke, Daniel E Soffer
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Populations with significant dietary fish intake tend to have lower cardiovascular (CV) risk and demonstrable physiologic differences including lower lipid/lipoprotein levels and other direct and indirect effects on the arterial wall and inhibiting factors that promote atherosclerosis. Treatment with high doses of pharmacologic-grade omega-3 fatty acid (n-3FA) supplements achieves significant reductions in triglycerides (TG), non-high-density lipoprotein- (non-HDL-) and TG-rich lipoprotein- (TRL-) cholesterol levels...
November 7, 2017: Current Atherosclerosis Reports
Anna Wolska, Richard L Dunbar, Lita A Freeman, Masako Ueda, Marcelo J Amar, Denis O Sviridov, Alan T Remaley
Apolipoprotein C-II (apoC-II) is a small exchangeable apolipoprotein found on triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (TRL), such as chylomicrons (CM) and very low-density lipoproteins (VLDL), and on high-density lipoproteins (HDL), particularly during fasting. ApoC-II plays a critical role in TRL metabolism by acting as a cofactor of lipoprotein lipase (LPL), the main enzyme that hydrolyses plasma triglycerides (TG) on TRL. Here, we present an overview of the role of apoC-II in TG metabolism, emphasizing recent novel findings regarding its transcriptional regulation and biochemistry...
December 2017: Atherosclerosis
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