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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124482/apociii-as-a-cardiovascular-risk-factor-and-modulation-by-the-novel-lipid-lowering-agent-volanesorsen
#1
REVIEW
Natalia A Rocha, Cara East, Jun Zhang, Peter A McCullough
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Apolipoprotein CIII (ApoCIII) is now recognized as a key regulator in severe hypertriglyceridemia, chylomicronemia, and conditions of triglyceride-rich lipoprotein (TRL) remnant excess due to its inhibition of lipoprotein lipase (LPL) and hepatic lipase, leading to decreased hepatic reuptake of TRLs, as well as enhanced synthesis and secretion of VLDL from the liver. ApoCIII gain-of-function mutations are associated with atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease (CHD), and contribute to the development of cardiometabolic syndrome, hypertriglyceridemia, and type 2 diabetes mellitus...
November 9, 2017: Current Atherosclerosis Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116404/review-of-cardiometabolic-effects-of-prescription-omega-3-fatty-acids
#2
REVIEW
Megan F Burke, Frances M Burke, Daniel E Soffer
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Populations with significant dietary fish intake tend to have lower cardiovascular (CV) risk and demonstrable physiologic differences including lower lipid/lipoprotein levels and other direct and indirect effects on the arterial wall and inhibiting factors that promote atherosclerosis. Treatment with high doses of pharmacologic-grade omega-3 fatty acid (n-3FA) supplements achieves significant reductions in triglycerides (TG), non-high-density lipoprotein- (non-HDL-) and TG-rich lipoprotein- (TRL-) cholesterol levels...
November 7, 2017: Current Atherosclerosis Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29100061/apolipoprotein-c-ii-new-findings-related-to-genetics-biochemistry-and-role-in-triglyceride-metabolism
#3
REVIEW
Anna Wolska, Richard L Dunbar, Lita A Freeman, Masako Ueda, Marcelo J Amar, Denis O Sviridov, Alan T Remaley
Apolipoprotein C-II (apoC-II) is a small exchangeable apolipoprotein found on triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (TRL), such as chylomicrons (CM) and very low-density lipoproteins (VLDL), and on high-density lipoproteins (HDL), particularly during fasting. ApoC-II plays a critical role in TRL metabolism by acting as a cofactor of lipoprotein lipase (LPL), the main enzyme that hydrolyses plasma triglycerides (TG) on TRL. Here, we present an overview of the role of apoC-II in TG metabolism, emphasizing recent novel findings regarding its transcriptional regulation and biochemistry...
October 20, 2017: Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29065709/direct-effects-of-fermented-cow-s-milk-product-with-lactobacillus-paracasei-cba-l74-on-human-enterocytes
#4
L Paparo, R Aitoro, R Nocerino, C Fierro, C Bruno, R Berni Canani
Cow's milk fermented with Lactobacillus paracasei CBA L74 (FM-CBAL74) exerts a preventive effect against infectious diseases in children. We evaluated if this effect is at least in part related to a direct modulation of non-immune and immune defence mechanisms in human enterocytes. Human enterocytes (Caco-2) were stimulated for 48 h with FM-CBAL74 at different concentrations. Cell growth was assessed by colorimetric assay; cell differentiation (assessed by lactase expression), tight junction proteins (zonula occludens1 and occludin), mucin 2, and toll-like receptor (TRL) pathways were analysed by real-time PCR; innate immunity peptide synthesis, beta-defensin-2 (HBD-2) and cathelicidin (LL-37) were evaluated by ELISA...
October 25, 2017: Beneficial Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29057816/encapsulation-stabilized-europium-containing-nanoparticle-as-a-probe-for-time-resolved-luminescence-detection-of-cardiac-troponin-i
#5
Ka Ram Kim, Yong Duk Han, Hyeong Jin Chun, Kyung Won Lee, Dong-Ki Hong, Kook-Nyung Lee, Hyun C Yoon
The use of a robust optical signaling probe with a high signal-to-noise ratio is important in the development of immunoassays. Lanthanide chelates are a promising material for this purpose, which provide time-resolved luminescence (TRL) due to their large Stokes shift and long luminescence lifetime. From this, they have attracted considerable interest in the in vitro diagnostics field. However, the direct use of lanthanide chelates is limited because their luminescent signal can be easily affected by various quenchers...
October 18, 2017: Biosensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046138/usefulness-of-simultaneous-measurement-of-plasma-steroids-including-precursors-for-the-evaluation-of-drug-effects-on-adrenal-steroidogenesis-in-rats
#6
Tomoaki Tochitani, Akihito Yamashita, Izumi Matsumoto, Mami Kouchi, Yuta Fujii, Izuru Miyawaki, Toru Yamada, Kiyoko Bando
The aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of simultaneous measurement of plasma steroids, including precursors, for the evaluation of drug effects on adrenal steroidogenesis in vivo. Plasma concentrations of corticosterone and its precursors were examined in rats dosed with compounds that affect adrenal steroidogenesis via different modes of action as well as the relationships of the changes with blood chemistry and adrenal histopathology. Male rats were dosed with tricresyl phosphate, aminoglutethimide, trilostane (TRL), metyrapone (MET), ketoconazole (KET), or mifepristone for 7 days...
August 2017: Toxicologic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28969633/relation-between-low-density-lipoprotein-cholesterol-apolipoprotein-b-ratio-and-triglyceride-rich-lipoproteins-in-patients-with-coronary-artery-disease-and-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-a-cross-sectional-study
#7
Shigemasa Tani, Tsukasa Yagi, Wataru Atsumi, Kenji Kawauchi, Rei Matsuo, Atsushi Hirayama
BACKGROUND: The low-density lipoprotein cholesterol/apolipoprotein B (LDL-C/apoB) ratio has conventionally been used as an index of the LDL-particle size. Smaller LDL-particle size is associated with triglyceride (TG) metabolism disorders, often leading to atherogenesis. We investigated the association between the LDL-C/apoB ratio and TG metabolism in coronary artery disease (CAD) patients with diabetes mellitus (DM). METHODS: In the cross-sectional study, the LDL-C/apoB ratio, which provides an estimate of the LDL-particle size, was calculated in 684 consecutive patients with one additional risk factor...
October 2, 2017: Cardiovascular Diabetology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929498/dog-skin-parasite-load-tlr-2-il-10-and-tnf-%C3%AE-expression-and-infectiousness
#8
D C M Pereira-Fonseca, F M Oliveira-Rovai, L A C Rodas, C A C Beloti, R B P Torrecilha, P K R K Ito, S V Avanço, R S Cipriano, Y T Utsunomiya, R M Hiramoto, L Calvo-Bado, O Courtenay, G F Machado, V M F Lima, C M Nunes
Visceral leishmaniosis is a zoonotic disease that is transmitted by Lutzomyia longipalpis sandflies. Dogs are the main peri-urban reservoir of the disease, and progression of canine leishmaniosis is dependent on the type of immune response elaborated against the parasite. Type 1 immunity is characterized by effective cellular response, with production of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α). In contrast, Type 2 immunity is predominantly humoral, associated with progression of the disease and mediated by anti-inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin 10 (IL-10)...
November 2017: Parasite Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28893538/indispensable-role-of-lipoprotein-bound-apoe-in-adipogenesis-and-endocytosis-induced-by-postprandial-trl
#9
Mingyu Zhang, Yanhong Li, Xuehong Wei, Feng Tian, Fan Ouyang, Shuiping Zhao, Ling Liu
Diet-associated obesity is coexisted with postprandial hypertriglyceridemia that indicates increased number of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (TRL). This study aimed to investigate the effect of postprandial TRL-bound apolipoprotein E (ApoE) on adipogenesis and potential mechanisms. 3T3-L1 cells were cultured with (i) human TRL (h-TRL) with or without insulin, or (ii) TRL from wild type mice (WT-TRL) or ApoE knock-out mice (EKO-TRL) and insulin. The differentiating adipocytes were incubated with different kinds of TRL labeled by red fluorescence and confocal microscopy was performed...
November 4, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28825717/a-human-apoc3-missense-variant-and-monoclonal-antibody-accelerate-apoc-iii-clearance-and-lower-triglyceride-rich-lipoprotein-levels
#10
Sumeet A Khetarpal, Xuemei Zeng, John S Millar, Cecilia Vitali, Amritha Varshini Hanasoge Somasundara, Paolo Zanoni, James A Landro, Nicole Barucci, William J Zavadoski, Zhiyuan Sun, Hans de Haard, Ildikó V Toth, Gina M Peloso, Pradeep Natarajan, Marina Cuchel, Sissel Lund-Katz, Michael C Phillips, Alan R Tall, Sekar Kathiresan, Paul DaSilva-Jardine, Nathan A Yates, Daniel J Rader
Recent large-scale genetic sequencing efforts have identified rare coding variants in genes in the triglyceride-rich lipoprotein (TRL) clearance pathway that are protective against coronary heart disease (CHD), independently of LDL cholesterol (LDL-C) levels. Insight into the mechanisms of protection of these variants may facilitate the development of new therapies for lowering TRL levels. The gene APOC3 encodes apoC-III, a critical inhibitor of triglyceride (TG) lipolysis and remnant TRL clearance. Here we report a detailed interrogation of the mechanism of TRL lowering by the APOC3 Ala43Thr (A43T) variant, the only missense (rather than protein-truncating) variant in APOC3 reported to be TG lowering and protective against CHD...
September 2017: Nature Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28801256/new-innovative-ecosystems-in-france-to-develop-the-bioeconomy
#11
REVIEW
Thierry Stadler, Jean-Marie Chauvet
The cluster's policy initiated in France in 2005 was a formidable opportunity to boost innovation in the bioeconomy and to develop innovation platforms allowing industrial demonstration and feasibility at technology readiness level (TRL) from 5 to 9. The IAR Cluster (Industries and Agro-Resources), based in the Hauts-de-France and Grand Est regions is completely dedicated to the bioeconomy. IAR's work has contributed to build a complete innovation ecosystem on bioeconomy by opening up relationships between actors along the full value chain...
August 9, 2017: New Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28751575/effects-of-intranasal-insulin-on-triglyceride-rich-lipoprotein-particle-production-in-healthy-men
#12
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Changting Xiao, Satya Dash, Priska Stahel, Gary F Lewis
OBJECTIVE: Insulin administered directly into the brain acutely suppresses hepatic glucose production and triglyceride-rich lipoprotein (TRL) secretion in rodents. In addition, intranasally administered insulin, which selectively raises cerebrospinal fluid insulin concentration, suppresses hepatic glucose production in humans; however, its effect on TRL secretion in humans has not previously been examined. In this study, we examined whether intranasal insulin, administered at a dose that has previously been shown to suppress hepatic glucose production, modulates TRL particle secretion by the liver and intestine in humans...
September 2017: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719051/the-binding-mechanism-between-azoles-and-fgcyp51b-sterol-14%C3%AE-demethylase-of-fusarium-graminearum
#13
Hengwei Qian, Meilin Duan, Xiaomei Sun, Mengyu Chi, Ying Zhao, Wenxing Liang, Juan Du, Jinguang Huang, Baodu Li
BACKGROUND: Fusarium graminearum is the main pathogen of Fusarium Head Blight (FHB), a worldwide plant disease and one of the major wheat diseases in China. The control of the FHB is mainly dependent on the application of DMIs fungicides. Fungal sterol 14α-demethylase enzymes (CYP51) are the main target for DMIs fungicides. In order to investigate the binding mechanism between azoles and CYP51B in F.graminearum, the molecular modeling study and biological evaluation were performed. RESULTS: Firstly, the homology model based on the crystal structure of Aspergillus fumigatus was built...
July 18, 2017: Pest Management Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676122/genome-wide-search-for-zelda-like-chromatin-signatures-identifies-gaf-as-a-pioneer-factor-in-early-fly-development
#14
Arbel Moshe, Tommy Kaplan
BACKGROUND: The protein Zelda was shown to play a key role in early Drosophila development, binding thousands of promoters and enhancers prior to maternal-to-zygotic transition (MZT), and marking them for transcriptional activation. Recently, we showed that Zelda acts through specific chromatin patterns of histone modifications to mark developmental enhancers and active promoters. Intriguingly, some Zelda sites still maintain these chromatin patterns in Drosophila embryos lacking maternal Zelda protein...
July 4, 2017: Epigenetics & Chromatin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28662934/high-triglycerides-and-low-high-density-lipoprotein-cholesterol-lipid-profile-in-rheumatoid-arthritis-a-potential-link-among-inflammation-oxidative-status-and-dysfunctional-high-density-lipoprotein
#15
Javier Rodríguez-Carrio, Mercedes Alperi-López, Patricia López, Raquel López-Mejías, Sara Alonso-Castro, Francisco Abal, Francisco J Ballina-García, Miguel Á González-Gay, Ana Suárez
BACKGROUND: The interactions between inflammation and lipid profile in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) are poorly understood. The lipid profile study in RA has been biased toward lipoprotein levels, whereas those of triglycerides (TGs) and lipoprotein functionality have been underestimated. OBJECTIVES: Since recent findings suggest a role for TG and TG-rich lipoproteins (TRL) on inflammation, we aimed to evaluate a combined lipid profile characterized by high TG and low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels (TG(high)HDL(low)) in RA...
June 3, 2017: Journal of Clinical Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502507/impact-of-bariatric-surgery-on-apolipoprotein-c-iii-levels-and-lipoprotein-distribution-in-obese-human-subjects
#16
Marie Maraninchi, Nadège Padilla, Sophie Béliard, Bruno Berthet, Juan-Patricio Nogueira, Jeanine Dupont-Roussel, Julien Mancini, Audrey Bégu-Le Corroller, Noémie Dubois, Rachel Grangeot, Catherine Mattei, Marion Monclar, Anastasia Calabrese, Carole Guérin, Charles Desmarchelier, Alain Nicolay, Changting Xiao, Patrick Borel, Gary F Lewis, René Valéro
BACKGROUND: Elevated apolipoprotein C-III (apoC-III) has been postulated to contribute to the atherogenic dyslipidemia seen in obesity and insulin-resistant states, mainly by impairing plasma triglyceride-rich lipoprotein (TRL) metabolism. Bariatric surgery is associated with improvements of several obesity-associated metabolic abnormalities, including a reduction in plasma triglycerides (TGs) and an increase in plasma high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C). OBJECTIVES: We investigated the specific effect of bariatric surgery on apoC-III concentrations in plasma, non-HDL, and HDL fractions in relation to lipid profile parameters evolution...
March 2017: Journal of Clinical Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28486852/the-relationship-between-migraine-and-lipid-sub-fractions-among-individuals-without-cardiovascular-disease-a-cross-sectional-evaluation-in-the-brazilian-longitudinal-study-of-adult-health-elsa-brasil
#17
Alessandra C Goulart, Paulo A Lotufo, Itamar S Santos, Márcio S Bittencourt, Raul D Santos, Michael J Blaha, Steven Jones, Peter P Toth, Krishnaji Kulkarni, Isabela M Benseñor
Introduction Recent studies have explored the relationship between dyslipidemia and migraine in a cardiovascular context. Thus, we aimed to evaluate the possible association between lipids, lipoprotein subfractions and migraine according to aura symptoms in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil). Methods 1,560 women and 1,595 men, without CVD or lipid disorders requiring medication, underwent a baseline clinical assessment. Total-cholesterol and its sub-fractions (LDL, VLDL and HDL subclass cholesterol); triglycerides and triglyceride-rich lipoprotein cholesterol [TRL-C (VLDL1+2-C VLDL3-C + IDL-C)] were determined by vertical auto profile (VAP)...
January 1, 2017: Cephalalgia: An International Journal of Headache
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392500/metabolism-and-proteomics-of-large-and-small-dense-ldl-in-combined-hyperlipidemia-effects-of-rosuvastatin
#18
Nuntakorn Thongtang, Margaret R Diffenderfer, Esther M M Ooi, P Hugh R Barrett, Scott M Turner, Ngoc-Anh Le, W Virgil Brown, Ernst J Schaefer
Small dense LDL (sdLDL) has been reported to be more atherogenic than large buoyant LDL (lbLDL). We examined the metabolism and protein composition of sdLDL and lbLDL in six subjects with combined hyperlipidemia on placebo and rosuvastatin 40 mg/day. ApoB-100 kinetics in triglyceride-rich lipoproteins (TRLs), lbLDL (density [d] = 1.019-1.044 g/ml), and sdLDL (d = 1.044-1.063 g/ml) were determined in the fed state by using stable isotope tracers, mass spectrometry, and compartmental modeling. Compared with placebo, rosuvastatin decreased LDL cholesterol and apoB-100 levels in TRL, lbLDL, and sdLDL by significantly increasing the fractional catabolic rate of apoB-100 (TRL, +45%; lbLDL, +131%; and sdLDL, +97%), without a change in production...
July 2017: Journal of Lipid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28391908/apob-lipoproteins-and-dysfunctional-white-adipose-tissue-relation-to-risk-factors-for-type-2-diabetes-in-humans
#19
Valérie Lamantia, Simon Bissonnette, Hanny Wassef, Yannick Cyr, Alexis Baass, Robert Dufour, Rémi Rabasa-Lhoret, May Faraj
BACKGROUND: Elevated plasma apoB is an independent predictor of T2D; however, underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Chronic reduction in white adipose tissue (WAT) function promotes T2D. We reported that differentiation of preadipocytes and acute incubation of human WAT with LDL induce their dysfunction (decreased hydrolysis and storage of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins [TRL]). OBJECTIVE: To examine the hypothesis that the association of plasma apoB with T2D risk factors, hypertriglyceridemia (hyperTG), insulin resistance (IR), and hyperinsulinemia, was dependent on WAT dysfunction...
January 2017: Journal of Clinical Lipidology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28368338/electronic-noses-for-composites-surface-contamination-detection-in-aerospace-industry
#20
Saverio De Vito, Maria Lucia Miglietta, Ettore Massera, Grazia Fattoruso, Fabrizio Formisano, Tiziana Polichetti, Maria Salvato, Brigida Alfano, Elena Esposito, Girolamo Di Francia
The full exploitation of Composite Fiber Reinforced Polymers (CFRP) in so-called green aircrafts design is still limited by the lack of adequate quality assurance procedures for checking the adhesive bonding assembly, especially in load-critical primary structures. In this respect, contamination of the CFRP panel surface is of significant concern since it may severely affect the bonding and the mechanical properties of the joint. During the last years, the authors have developed and tested an electronic nose as a non-destructive tool for pre-bonding surface inspection for contaminants detection, identification and quantification...
April 2, 2017: Sensors
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