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Joseph H Pitcher, John Dziodzio, Joshua Keller, Teresa May, Richard R Riker, David B Seder
BACKGROUND: Hypotension, hyperglycemia, dysoxia, and dyscarbia may contribute to reperfusion injury, and each is independently associated with poor outcome (PO) after cardiac arrest. We investigated whether the combined effects of these physiological derangements are associated with cardiac arrest outcomes. METHODS: This institutional review board-approved retrospective cohort study included consecutive resuscitated cardiac arrest patients that received targeted temperature management at Maine Medical Center from 2013 to 2015...
February 28, 2018: Neurocritical Care
Pablo Cruces, Pablo Lillo, Camila Salas, Tatiana Salomon, Felipe Lillo, Carlos González, Alejandro Pacheco, Daniel E Hurtado
OBJECTIVES: Acute kidney injury is a serious complication with unacceptably high mortality that lacks of specific curative treatment. Therapies focusing on the hydraulic behavior have shown promising results in preventing structural and functional renal impairment, but the underlying mechanisms remain understudied. Our goal is to assess the effects of renal decapsulation on regional hemodynamics, oxygenation, and perfusion in an ischemic acute kidney injury experimental model. METHODS: In piglets, intra renal pressure, renal tissue oxygen pressure, and dysoxia markers were measured in an ischemia-reperfusion group with intact kidney, an ischemia-reperfusion group where the kidney capsule was removed, and in a sham group...
February 2018: Critical Care Medicine
Brian S Ferguson, Matthew J Rogatzki, Matthew L Goodwin, Daniel A Kane, Zachary Rightmire, L Bruce Gladden
Lactate (La- ) has long been at the center of controversy in research, clinical, and athletic settings. Since its discovery in 1780, La- has often been erroneously viewed as simply a hypoxic waste product with multiple deleterious effects. Not until the 1980s, with the introduction of the cell-to-cell lactate shuttle did a paradigm shift in our understanding of the role of La- in metabolism begin. The evidence for La- as a major player in the coordination of whole-body metabolism has since grown rapidly. La- is a readily combusted fuel that is shuttled throughout the body, and it is a potent signal for angiogenesis irrespective of oxygen tension...
April 2018: European Journal of Applied Physiology
Genri Numata, Satoshi Kodera, Hiroyuki Kiriyama, Atsuko Nakayama, Eisuke Amiya, Arihiro Kiyosue, Masaru Hatano, Eiki Takimoto, Masafumi Watanabe, Issei Komuro
Background: Central venous oxygen saturation (ScvO2 ) reflects the balance of oxygen delivery and consumption. Low ScvO2 indicates the presence of inadequate oxygen delivery, while high ScvO2 indicates reduced oxygen consumption and is sometimes associated with a high mortality rate in critically ill patients from dysoxia. Thiamine is an essential cofactor in cellular aerobic metabolism. Thiamine deficiency is more prevalent than was previously thought, and underlies severe conditions in critically ill patients...
2017: Journal of Intensive Care
Christos Lazaridis
Shock is a systemic form of acute circulatory failure leading to cellular dysoxia and death. Such a state of aerobic metabolism failure also underlies neuronal cell death in severe traumatic brain injury. It is becoming increasingly recognized that ischemic hypoxia is not the sole mechanism and that multiple alternate cooperating mechanisms may be responsible for compromising neuronal oxidative metabolism. These different mechanisms can be usefully understood via analysis of the classic subdivisions of tissue hypoxia...
February 2017: Journal of Critical Care
Hoong Sern Lim
Cardiogenic shock remains a highly lethal condition. Conventional therapy including revascularization and mechanical circulatory support aims to improve cardiac output and oxygen delivery, but increasing basic and clinical observations indicate wider circulatory and cellular abnormalities, particularly at the advanced stages of shock. Progressive cardiogenic shock is associated with microcirculatory and cellular abnormalities. Cardiogenic shock is initially characterized by a failure to maintain global oxygen delivery; however, progressive cardiogenic shock is associated with the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines, derangement of the regulation of regional blood flow, microcirculatory abnormalities, and cellular dysoxia...
August 2016: Clinical Cardiology
Hidetaka Nomaki, Joan M Bernhard, Akizumi Ishida, Masashi Tsuchiya, Katsuyuki Uematsu, Akihiro Tame, Tomo Kitahashi, Naoto Takahata, Yuji Sano, Takashi Toyofuku
Some benthic foraminiferal species are reportedly capable of nitrate storage and denitrification, however, little is known about nitrate incorporation and subsequent utilization of nitrate within their cell. In this study, we investigated where and how much (15)N or (34)S were assimilated into foraminiferal cells or possible endobionts after incubation with isotopically labeled nitrate and sulfate in dysoxic or anoxic conditions. After 2 weeks of incubation, foraminiferal specimens were fixed and prepared for Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and correlative nanometer-scale secondary ion mass spectrometry (NanoSIMS) analyses...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Hollmann D Aya, Andrea Carsetti, Simone Bazurro, Davide Bastoni, Manu L N G Malbrain, Maurizio Cecconi
Shock is defined as a state in which the circulation is unable to deliver sufficient oxygen to meet the demands of the tissues, resulting in cellular dysoxia and organ failure. In this process, the factors that govern the circulation at a haemodynamic level and oxygen delivery at a microcirculatory level play a major role. This manuscript aims to review the blood flow regulation from macro- and micro-haemodynamic point of view and to discuss new potential therapeutic approaches for cardiovascular instability in patients in cardiovascular shock...
2015: Anaesthesiology Intensive Therapy
H Hirasawa
It is widely recognized that endothelial hyperpermeability (EH) plays a pivotal role in the pathophysiology of severe sepsis and septic shock. However, very few attention has been paid to EH when we apply infusion therapy on the patients with severe sepsis and septic shock. And such infusion therapy without the consideration on EH often results in the interstitial edema which is one of the main causes of derangement in microcirculation and dysoxia in sepsis. Dysfunction of endothelial tight junction caused by inflammatory mediators is reported to be important pathophysiological factor of septic EH...
October 2015: Shock
Marco Ranucci, Giovanni Carboni, Mauro Cotza, Paolo Bianchi, Umberto Di Dedda, Tommaso Aloisio
OBJECTIVE: The nadir hematocrit (HCT) on cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) is a recognized independent risk factor for major morbidity and mortality in cardiac surgery. The main interpretation is that low levels of HCT on CPB result in a poor oxygen delivery and dysoxia of end organs. Hyperlactatemia (HL) is a marker of dysoxic metabolism, and is associated with bad outcomes in cardiac surgery. This study explores the relationship between nadir HCT on CPB and early postoperative HL. DESIGN: Retrospective study on 3,851 consecutive patients...
2015: PloS One
Ahmed Said, Stephen Rogers, Allan Doctor
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Oxygen (O2) delivery, the maintenance of which is fundamental to supporting those with critical illness, is a function of blood O2 content and flow. Here, we review red blood cell (RBC) physiology relevant to disordered O2 delivery in the critically ill. RECENT FINDINGS: Flow (rather than content) is the focus of O2 delivery regulation. O2 content is relatively fixed, whereas flow fluctuates by several orders of magnitude. Thus, blood flow volume and distribution vary to maintain coupling between O2 delivery and demand...
June 2015: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
Matthew J Rogatzki, Brian S Ferguson, Matthew L Goodwin, L Bruce Gladden
Through much of the history of metabolism, lactate (La(-)) has been considered merely a dead-end waste product during periods of dysoxia. Congruently, the end product of glycolysis has been viewed dichotomously: pyruvate in the presence of adequate oxygenation, La(-) in the absence of adequate oxygenation. In contrast, given the near-equilibrium nature of the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) reaction and that LDH has a much higher activity than the putative regulatory enzymes of the glycolytic and oxidative pathways, we contend that La(-) is always the end product of glycolysis...
2015: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Masashi Tsuchiya, Takashi Toyofuku, Katsuyuki Uematsu, Volker Brüchert, John Collen, Hiroyuki Yamamoto, Hiroshi Kitazato
The benthic foraminifer Virgulinella fragilis Grindell and Collen 1976 has multiple putative symbioses with both bacterial and kleptoplast endobionts, possibly aiding its survival in environments from dysoxia (5-45 μmol-O2 /L) to microxia (0-5 μmol-O2 /L) and in the dark. To clarify the origin and function of V. fragilis endobionts, we used genetic analyses and transmission electron microscope observations. Virgulinella fragilis retained δ-proteobacteria concentrated at its cell periphery just beneath the cell membranes...
July 2015: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
Morgan Cencer, Yuan Liu, Audra Winter, Meridith Murley, Hao Meng, Bruce P Lee
The remarkable underwater adhesion strategy employed by mussels has inspired bioadhesives that have demonstrated promise in connective tissue repair, wound closure, and local delivery of therapeutic cells and drugs. While the pH of oxygenated blood and internal tissues is typically around 7.4, skin and tumor tissues are significantly more acidic. Additionally, blood loss during surgery and ischemia can lead to dysoxia, which lowers pH levels of internal tissues and organs. Using 4-armed PEG end-capped with dopamine (PEG-D) as a model adhesive polymer, the effect of pH on the rate of intermolecular cross-linking and adhesion to biological substrates of catechol-containing adhesives was determined...
August 11, 2014: Biomacromolecules
Jean Guibourdenche, Marie-Clémence Leguy, Vassilis Tsatsaris
Preeclampsia is a syndrome specific of pregnancy and placenta diagnosed after 20 WG on the association of an hypertension and a proteinuria. It is responsible for significant maternal-fetal morbidity and mortality which justify the development of markers for screening, diagnosis and prognosis. These markers are actors or witnesses to the various stages and mechanisms of the disease : the initial defect of trophoblast invasion and remodeling of uterine arteries (proteases [PAPP-A, ADAM-12, uPA, MMPs], their inhibitors, and angiogenic factors [PlGF, sflt-1, s-eng]) which induces hydrostatic abnormalities (uterine doppler) and placental hypoperfusion with dysoxia (HIF-1α) and oxidative stress (free radicals, peroxynitrites, oxidized LDL)...
November 2013: Annales de Biologie Clinique
C N Roterman, J T Copley, K T Linse, P A Tyler, A D Rogers
The phylogeny of the superfamily Chirostyloidea (Decapoda: Anomura) has been poorly understood owing to limited taxon sampling and discordance between different genes. We present a nine-gene dataset across 15 chirostyloids, including all known yeti crabs (Kiwaidae), to improve the resolution of phylogenetic affinities within and between the different families, and to date key divergences using fossil calibrations. This study supports the monophyly of Chirostyloidea and, within this, a basal split between Eumunididae and a Kiwaidae-Chirostylidae clade...
August 7, 2013: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
Pablo Cruces, Benjamín Erranz, Alejandro Donoso, Cristóbal Carvajal, Tatiana Salomón, María Fernanda Torres, Franco Díaz
BACKGROUND: The effects of mild hypothermia (HT) on acute lung injury (ALI) are unknown in species with metabolic rate similar to that of humans, receiving protective mechanical ventilation (MV). We hypothesized that mild hypothermia would attenuate pulmonary and systemic inflammatory responses in piglets with ALI managed with a protective MV. METHODS: Acute lung injury (ALI) was induced with surfactant deactivation in 38 piglets. The animals were then ventilated with low tidal volume, moderate positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP), and permissive hypercapnia throughout the experiment...
November 2013: Paediatric Anaesthesia
Abele Donati, Dick Tibboel, Can Ince
Current hemodynamic monitoring of critically ill patients is mainly focused on monitoring of pressure-derived hemodynamic variables related to systemic circulation. Increasingly, oxygen transport pathways and indicators of the presence of tissue dysoxia are now being considered. In addition to the microcirculatory parameters related to oxygen transport to the tissues, it is becoming increasingly clear that it is also important to gather information regarding the functional activity of cellular and even subcellular structures to gain an integrative evaluation of the severity of disease and the response to therapy...
2013: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
Russell S Roberson, Elliott Bennett-Guerrero
Anemia is common in critically ill patients. Although the goal of transfusion of red blood cells is to increase oxygen-carrying capacity, there are contradictory results about whether red blood cell transfusion to treat moderate anemia (e.g., hemoglobin 7-10 g/dL) improves tissue oxygenation or changes outcomes. Whereas increasing levels of anemia eventually lead to a level of critical oxygen delivery, increased cardiac output and oxygen extraction are homeostatic mechanisms the body uses to prevent a state of dysoxia in the setting of diminished oxygen delivery due to anemia...
January 2012: Mount Sinai Journal of Medicine, New York
Mark Williams, Jean Vannier, Laure Corbari, Jean-Charles Massabuau
BACKGROUND: We examine the physiological and lifestyle adaptations which facilitated the emergence of ostracods as the numerically dominant Phanerozoic bivalve arthropod micro-benthos. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The PO(2) of modern normoxic seawater is 21 kPa (air-equilibrated water), a level that would cause cellular damage if found in the tissues of ostracods and much other marine fauna. The PO(2) of most aquatic breathers at the cellular level is much lower, between 1 and 3 kPa...
2011: PloS One
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