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Hoong Sern Lim
Cardiogenic shock remains a highly lethal condition. Conventional therapy including revascularization and mechanical circulatory support aims to improve cardiac output and oxygen delivery, but increasing basic and clinical observations indicate wider circulatory and cellular abnormalities, particularly at the advanced stages of shock. Progressive cardiogenic shock is associated with microcirculatory and cellular abnormalities. Cardiogenic shock is initially characterized by a failure to maintain global oxygen delivery; however, progressive cardiogenic shock is associated with the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines, derangement of the regulation of regional blood flow, microcirculatory abnormalities, and cellular dysoxia...
August 2016: Clinical Cardiology
Hidetaka Nomaki, Joan M Bernhard, Akizumi Ishida, Masashi Tsuchiya, Katsuyuki Uematsu, Akihiro Tame, Tomo Kitahashi, Naoto Takahata, Yuji Sano, Takashi Toyofuku
Some benthic foraminiferal species are reportedly capable of nitrate storage and denitrification, however, little is known about nitrate incorporation and subsequent utilization of nitrate within their cell. In this study, we investigated where and how much (15)N or (34)S were assimilated into foraminiferal cells or possible endobionts after incubation with isotopically labeled nitrate and sulfate in dysoxic or anoxic conditions. After 2 weeks of incubation, foraminiferal specimens were fixed and prepared for Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and correlative nanometer-scale secondary ion mass spectrometry (NanoSIMS) analyses...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Hollmann D Aya, Andrea Carsetti, Simone Bazurro, Davide Bastoni, Manu L N G Malbrain, Maurizio Cecconi
Shock is defined as a state in which the circulation is unable to deliver sufficient oxygen to meet the demands of the tissues, resulting in cellular dysoxia and organ failure. In this process, the factors that govern the circulation at a haemodynamic level and oxygen delivery at a microcirculatory level play a major role. This manuscript aims to review the blood flow regulation from macro- and micro-haemodynamic point of view and to discuss new potential therapeutic approaches for cardiovascular instability in patients in cardiovascular shock...
2015: Anaesthesiology Intensive Therapy
H Hirasawa
It is widely recognized that endothelial hyperpermeability (EH) plays a pivotal role in the pathophysiology of severe sepsis and septic shock. However, very few attention has been paid to EH when we apply infusion therapy on the patients with severe sepsis and septic shock. And such infusion therapy without the consideration on EH often results in the interstitial edema which is one of the main causes of derangement in microcirculation and dysoxia in sepsis. Dysfunction of endothelial tight junction caused by inflammatory mediators is reported to be important pathophysiological factor of septic EH...
October 2015: Shock
Marco Ranucci, Giovanni Carboni, Mauro Cotza, Paolo Bianchi, Umberto Di Dedda, Tommaso Aloisio
OBJECTIVE: The nadir hematocrit (HCT) on cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) is a recognized independent risk factor for major morbidity and mortality in cardiac surgery. The main interpretation is that low levels of HCT on CPB result in a poor oxygen delivery and dysoxia of end organs. Hyperlactatemia (HL) is a marker of dysoxic metabolism, and is associated with bad outcomes in cardiac surgery. This study explores the relationship between nadir HCT on CPB and early postoperative HL. DESIGN: Retrospective study on 3,851 consecutive patients...
2015: PloS One
Ahmed Said, Stephen Rogers, Allan Doctor
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Oxygen (O2) delivery, the maintenance of which is fundamental to supporting those with critical illness, is a function of blood O2 content and flow. Here, we review red blood cell (RBC) physiology relevant to disordered O2 delivery in the critically ill. RECENT FINDINGS: Flow (rather than content) is the focus of O2 delivery regulation. O2 content is relatively fixed, whereas flow fluctuates by several orders of magnitude. Thus, blood flow volume and distribution vary to maintain coupling between O2 delivery and demand...
June 2015: Current Opinion in Pediatrics
Matthew J Rogatzki, Brian S Ferguson, Matthew L Goodwin, L Bruce Gladden
Through much of the history of metabolism, lactate (La(-)) has been considered merely a dead-end waste product during periods of dysoxia. Congruently, the end product of glycolysis has been viewed dichotomously: pyruvate in the presence of adequate oxygenation, La(-) in the absence of adequate oxygenation. In contrast, given the near-equilibrium nature of the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) reaction and that LDH has a much higher activity than the putative regulatory enzymes of the glycolytic and oxidative pathways, we contend that La(-) is always the end product of glycolysis...
2015: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Masashi Tsuchiya, Takashi Toyofuku, Katsuyuki Uematsu, Volker Brüchert, John Collen, Hiroyuki Yamamoto, Hiroshi Kitazato
The benthic foraminifer Virgulinella fragilis Grindell and Collen 1976 has multiple putative symbioses with both bacterial and kleptoplast endobionts, possibly aiding its survival in environments from dysoxia (5-45 μmol-O2 /L) to microxia (0-5 μmol-O2 /L) and in the dark. To clarify the origin and function of V. fragilis endobionts, we used genetic analyses and transmission electron microscope observations. Virgulinella fragilis retained δ-proteobacteria concentrated at its cell periphery just beneath the cell membranes...
July 2015: Journal of Eukaryotic Microbiology
Morgan Cencer, Yuan Liu, Audra Winter, Meridith Murley, Hao Meng, Bruce P Lee
The remarkable underwater adhesion strategy employed by mussels has inspired bioadhesives that have demonstrated promise in connective tissue repair, wound closure, and local delivery of therapeutic cells and drugs. While the pH of oxygenated blood and internal tissues is typically around 7.4, skin and tumor tissues are significantly more acidic. Additionally, blood loss during surgery and ischemia can lead to dysoxia, which lowers pH levels of internal tissues and organs. Using 4-armed PEG end-capped with dopamine (PEG-D) as a model adhesive polymer, the effect of pH on the rate of intermolecular cross-linking and adhesion to biological substrates of catechol-containing adhesives was determined...
August 11, 2014: Biomacromolecules
Jean Guibourdenche, Marie-Clémence Leguy, Vassilis Tsatsaris
Preeclampsia is a syndrome specific of pregnancy and placenta diagnosed after 20 WG on the association of an hypertension and a proteinuria. It is responsible for significant maternal-fetal morbidity and mortality which justify the development of markers for screening, diagnosis and prognosis. These markers are actors or witnesses to the various stages and mechanisms of the disease : the initial defect of trophoblast invasion and remodeling of uterine arteries (proteases [PAPP-A, ADAM-12, uPA, MMPs], their inhibitors, and angiogenic factors [PlGF, sflt-1, s-eng]) which induces hydrostatic abnormalities (uterine doppler) and placental hypoperfusion with dysoxia (HIF-1α) and oxidative stress (free radicals, peroxynitrites, oxidized LDL)...
November 2013: Annales de Biologie Clinique
C N Roterman, J T Copley, K T Linse, P A Tyler, A D Rogers
The phylogeny of the superfamily Chirostyloidea (Decapoda: Anomura) has been poorly understood owing to limited taxon sampling and discordance between different genes. We present a nine-gene dataset across 15 chirostyloids, including all known yeti crabs (Kiwaidae), to improve the resolution of phylogenetic affinities within and between the different families, and to date key divergences using fossil calibrations. This study supports the monophyly of Chirostyloidea and, within this, a basal split between Eumunididae and a Kiwaidae-Chirostylidae clade...
August 7, 2013: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
Pablo Cruces, Benjamín Erranz, Alejandro Donoso, Cristóbal Carvajal, Tatiana Salomón, María Fernanda Torres, Franco Díaz
BACKGROUND: The effects of mild hypothermia (HT) on acute lung injury (ALI) are unknown in species with metabolic rate similar to that of humans, receiving protective mechanical ventilation (MV). We hypothesized that mild hypothermia would attenuate pulmonary and systemic inflammatory responses in piglets with ALI managed with a protective MV. METHODS: Acute lung injury (ALI) was induced with surfactant deactivation in 38 piglets. The animals were then ventilated with low tidal volume, moderate positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP), and permissive hypercapnia throughout the experiment...
November 2013: Paediatric Anaesthesia
Abele Donati, Dick Tibboel, Can Ince
Current hemodynamic monitoring of critically ill patients is mainly focused on monitoring of pressure-derived hemodynamic variables related to systemic circulation. Increasingly, oxygen transport pathways and indicators of the presence of tissue dysoxia are now being considered. In addition to the microcirculatory parameters related to oxygen transport to the tissues, it is becoming increasingly clear that it is also important to gather information regarding the functional activity of cellular and even subcellular structures to gain an integrative evaluation of the severity of disease and the response to therapy...
2013: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
Russell S Roberson, Elliott Bennett-Guerrero
Anemia is common in critically ill patients. Although the goal of transfusion of red blood cells is to increase oxygen-carrying capacity, there are contradictory results about whether red blood cell transfusion to treat moderate anemia (e.g., hemoglobin 7-10 g/dL) improves tissue oxygenation or changes outcomes. Whereas increasing levels of anemia eventually lead to a level of critical oxygen delivery, increased cardiac output and oxygen extraction are homeostatic mechanisms the body uses to prevent a state of dysoxia in the setting of diminished oxygen delivery due to anemia...
January 2012: Mount Sinai Journal of Medicine, New York
Mark Williams, Jean Vannier, Laure Corbari, Jean-Charles Massabuau
BACKGROUND: We examine the physiological and lifestyle adaptations which facilitated the emergence of ostracods as the numerically dominant Phanerozoic bivalve arthropod micro-benthos. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The PO(2) of modern normoxic seawater is 21 kPa (air-equilibrated water), a level that would cause cellular damage if found in the tissues of ostracods and much other marine fauna. The PO(2) of most aquatic breathers at the cellular level is much lower, between 1 and 3 kPa...
2011: PloS One
Jean Henrion
Hypoxic hepatitis (HH), an acute liver injury also known as 'ischaemic hepatitis' or 'shock liver', is frequently observed in intensive care units. HH is heralded by a massive but transient rise in serum aminotransferase activities caused by anoxic necrosis of centrilobular liver cells. Cardiac failure, respiratory failure and toxic-septic shock are the main underlying conditions accounting for more than 90% of cases, but HH may also occur in other circumstances. Until recently, liver ischaemia, i.e. a drop in hepatic blood flow, was considered the leading, and even the sole, hemodynamic mechanism responsible for HH, and it was generally held that a shock state was required...
August 2012: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
Jean-Louis Teboul, Olfa Hamzaoui, Xavier Monnet
Real-time monitoring of mixed venous oxygen blood saturation (SvO2) or of central venous oxygen blood saturation is often used during resuscitation of septic shock. However, the meaning of these parameters is far from straightforward. In the present commentary, we emphasize that SvO2--a global marker of tissue oxygen balance--can never be simplistically used as a marker of preload responsiveness, which is an intrinsic marker of cardiac performance. In some septic shock patients, because of profound hypovolemia or myocardial dysfunction, SvO2 can be low but obviously cannot alone indicate whether a fluid challenge would increase cardiac output...
2011: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
Nicolai Haase, Anders Perner
Shock therapy aims at increasing central venous oxygen saturation (ScvO2), which is a marker of inadequate oxygen delivery. In this issue of Critical Care, Textoris and colleagues challenge this notion by reporting that high levels of ScvO2 are associated with mortality in patients with septic shock. This is of obvious interest, but as their retrospective design has inherent limitations, the association should be confirmed in a prospective, multicenter study with protocolized ScvO2 measurements and detailed registration of potentially confounding factors...
2011: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
Hitoshi Ohashi, Naruo Kawasaki, Hirotsugu Komatsu, Takafumi Wada, Akiko Hosoyama, Nobuyoshi Hanyu, Katsutoshi Kobayashi, Maiko Ohashi, Yasuhiko Taira
PURPOSE: Tissue dysoxia is thought to be a fundamental cause of the organ failure that occurs as a result of shock. Plasma lactate has been frequently measured as an indicator of the state of systemic tissue metabolism. On the other hand, tissue lactate levels can directly indicate a disorder in the state of cytological tissue metabolism. The continuous monitoring of lactate levels in subcutaneous tissue will reflect the state of tissue dysoxia more precisely than levels of lactate in the plasma lactate...
2011: Journal of Smooth Muscle Research, Nihon Heikatsukin Gakkai Kikanshi
Elisabetta Erba, Cinzia Bottini, Helmut J Weissert, Christina E Keller
Ocean acidification induced by atmospheric CO2 may be a major threat to marine ecosystems, particularly to calcareous nannoplankton. We show that, during the Aptian (approximately 120 million years ago) Oceanic Anoxic Event 1a, which resulted from a massive addition of volcanic CO2, the morphological features of calcareous nannofossils traced the biological response to acidified surface waters. We observe the demise of heavily calcified nannoconids and reduced calcite paleofluxes at the beginning of a pre-anoxia calcification crisis...
July 23, 2010: Science
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