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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28827059/enhanced-aerobic-glycolysis-of-nasopharyngeal-carcinoma-cells-by-epstein-barr-virus-latent-membrane-protein-1
#1
Wei-Wen Sung, Peir-Rong Chen, Ming-Hui Liao, Jeng-Woei Lee
Latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1) is a principal viral oncoprotein in Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-associated malignancies, including nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC), which acts through regulating tumorigenesis and metabolic reprogramming of cancers. In the presence of oxygen, we demonstrated that glucose consumption, lactate production and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity were significantly increased upon LMP1 expression in NPC cells and in a LMP1 variant derived from NPC patients-transformed BALB/c-3T3 cells...
August 4, 2017: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28827048/bioconversion-of-biodiesel-derived-crude-glycerol-into-lipids-and-carotenoids-by-an-oleaginous-red-yeast-sporidiobolus-pararoseus-km281507-in-an-airlift-bioreactor
#2
Atchara Manowattana, Charin Techapun, Masanori Watanabe, Thanongsak Chaiyaso
Here we tested the bioconversion of biodiesel-derived crude glycerol by the oleaginous red yeast Sporidiobolus pararoseus KM281507 in two bioreactors types (stirred-tank and airlift). High production yields (biomass, 10.62 ± 0.21 g/L; lipids, 3.26 ± 0.13 g/L; β-carotene, 30.64 ± 0.05 mg/L; total carotenoids, 46.59 ± 0.07 mg/L) were achieved in a 3.0 L airlift bioreactor under uncontrolled pH regimes (initial pH 5.63). Under optimized conditions (6.0 vvm aeration rate; 60 ± 5% constant dissolved oxygen [DO] maintained by flushing pure oxygen [O2] into the vessel; 10,000 Lux light irradiation) volumetric production in the airlift bioreactor was further increased (biomass, 19...
August 18, 2017: Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822994/glucagon-like-peptide-1-receptor-agonist-stimulates-mitochondrial-bioenergetics-in-human-adipocytes
#3
Joanna Góralska, Agnieszka Śliwa, Anna Gruca, Urszula Raźny, Monika Chojnacka, Anna Polus, Bogdan Solnica, Małgorzata Malczewska-Malec
Glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor agonists (GLP-1RAs) are relatively new pharmacological agents used to normalize glucose level in type 2 diabetes. Recently, GLP-1RAs have been approved for the treatment of obesity to reduce body weight in non-diabetic patients. The extra-pancre-atic effects of GLP-1RAs, as well as their molecular mechanism of action, are still poorly understood. Thus this study was aimed to verify the hypothesis that the mechanism of action of the GLP-1RAs involves mitochondria and that GLP-1RAs administration can improve mitochondrial functions...
August 19, 2017: Acta Biochimica Polonica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28822258/photochemical-oxidation-of-dimethylsulphide-to-dimethylsulphoxide-in-estuarine-and-coastal-waters
#4
Günther Uher, J Julian Pillans, Angela D Hatton, Robert C Upstill-Goddard
Dimethylsulphide (DMS) photo-oxidation and dimethylsulphoxide (DMSO) photoproduction were estimated in 26 laboratory irradiations of coastal samples from NE England (Tyne estuary) and W Scotland (Loch Linnhe and River Nant at Taynuilt). Pseudo-first order rate constants of DMS photo-oxidation (0.038 h(-1) to 0.345 h(-1)) and DMSO photo-production (0.017 h(-1) to 0.283 h(-1)) varied by one order of magnitude and were lowest in the coastal North Sea. Estuarine samples (salinity S < 30) had a mean DMSO yield of 96 ± 16% (n = 14), consistent with 1:1 M conversion via photosensitised oxidation by singlet oxygen...
August 11, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821596/hypoxia-decreases-creatine-uptake-in-cardiomyocytes-while-creatine-supplementation-enhances-hif-activation
#5
Lucia Santacruz, Antonio Jose Luis Arciniegas, Marcus Darrabie, Jose G Mantilla, Rebecca M Baron, Dawn E Bowles, Rajashree Mishra, Danny O Jacobs
Creatine (Cr), phosphocreatine (PCr), and creatine kinases (CK) comprise an energy shuttle linking ATP production in mitochondria with cellular consumption sites. Myocytes cannot synthesize Cr: these cells depend on uptake across the cell membrane by a specialized creatine transporter (CrT) to maintain intracellular Cr levels. Hypoxia interferes with energy metabolism, including the activity of the creatine energy shuttle, and therefore affects intracellular ATP and PCr levels. Here, we report that exposing cultured cardiomyocytes to low oxygen levels rapidly diminishes Cr transport by decreasing Vmax and Km Pharmacological activation of AMP-activated kinase (AMPK) abrogated the reduction in Cr transport caused by hypoxia...
August 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821569/elevated-temperature-and-acclimation-time-affect-metabolic-performance-in-the-heavily-exploited-nile-perch-of-lake-victoria
#6
Elizabeth A Nyboer, Lauren J Chapman
Increasing water temperatures due to anthropogenic climate change are predicted to negatively impact the aerobic metabolic performance of aquatic ectotherms. Specifically, it has been hypothesized that thermal increases result in reductions in aerobic scope (AS), which lead to decreases in energy available for essential fitness and performance functions. Consequences of warming are anticipated to be especially severe for warm-adapted tropical species as they are thought to have narrow thermal windows and limited plasticity for coping with elevated temperatures...
August 18, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820904/parametric-studies-of-metabolic-cooperativity-in-escherichia-coli-colonies-strain-and-geometric-confinement-effects
#7
Joseph R Peterson, John A Cole, Zaida Luthey-Schulten
Characterizing the complex spatial and temporal interactions among cells in a biological system (i.e. bacterial colony, microbiome, tissue, etc.) remains a challenge. Metabolic cooperativity in these systems can arise due to the subtle interplay between microenvironmental conditions and the cells' regulatory machinery, often involving cascades of intra- and extracellular signalling molecules. In the simplest of cases, as demonstrated in a recent study of the model organism Escherichia coli, metabolic cross-feeding can arise in monoclonal colonies of bacteria driven merely by spatial heterogeneity in the availability of growth substrates; namely, acetate, glucose and oxygen...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819317/intradialytic-central-venous-oxygen-saturation-is-associated-with-clinical-outcomes-in-hemodialysis-patients
#8
Lili Chan, Hanjie Zhang, Anna Meyring-Wösten, Israel Campos, Doris Fuertinger, Stephan Thijssen, Peter Kotanko
Central venous oxygen saturation (ScvO2) in the superior vena cava is predominantly determined by cardiac output, arterial oxygen content, and oxygen consumption by the upper body. While abnormal ScvO2 levels are associated with morbidity and mortality in non-uremic populations, ScvO2 has received little attention in hemodialysis patients. From 1/2012 to 8/2015, 232 chronic hemodialysis patients with central venous catheters as vascular access had their ScvO2 monitored during a 6-month baseline period and followed for up to 36 months...
August 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819094/atrioventricular-conduction-delay-predicts-impaired-exercise-capacity-in-patients-with-heart-failure-with-reduced-ejection-fraction
#9
Jakub Stępniewski, Grzegorz Kopeć, Wojciech Magoń, Piotr Podolec
BACKGROUND Atrioventricular conduction delay (AVCD) impairs left ventricular (LV) filling and consequently leads to a reduction of cardiac output. We hypothesized that in patients with severely depressed LV function and coexisting intraventricular conduction disturbances (IVCD), AVCD can affect exercise performance. Therefore, we evaluated the association of AVCD and exercise capacity in patients with heart failure (HFREF) and coexisting IVCD. MATERIAL AND METHODS We included patients with stable, chronic HFREF, LVEF <35%, sinus rhythm, and QRS ≥120 ms...
August 18, 2017: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28818643/combined-effects-of-oil-exposure-temperature-and-ultraviolet-radiation-on-buoyancy-and-oxygen-consumption-of-embryonic-mahi-mahi-coryphaena-hippurus
#10
Christina Pasparakis, Lauren E Sweet, John D Stieglitz, Daniel Benetti, Conrad T Casente, Aaron P Roberts, Martin Grosell
The Deepwater Horizon oil spill occurred in the summer of 2010 and coincided with the spawning window of the ecologically and economically important pelagic fish mahi-mahi (Coryphaena hippurus). During summer months, early life stage mahi-mahi were likely also exposed to other naturally occurring stressors such as increased temperature and ultraviolet radiation (UV). Previous research has shown that co-exposure to oil and additional natural stressors can affect the timing and duration of negative buoyancy in mahi-mahi embryos...
August 5, 2017: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28817701/effect-of-exoskeletal-joint-constraint-and-passive-resistance-on-metabolic-energy-expenditure-implications-for-walking-in-paraplegia
#11
Sarah R Chang, Rudi Kobetic, Ronald J Triolo
An important consideration in the design of a practical system to restore walking in individuals with spinal cord injury is to minimize metabolic energy demand on the user. In this study, the effects of exoskeletal constraints on metabolic energy expenditure were evaluated in able-bodied volunteers to gain insight into the demands of walking with a hybrid neuroprosthesis after paralysis. The exoskeleton had a hydraulic mechanism to reciprocally couple hip flexion and extension, unlocked hydraulic stance controlled knee mechanisms, and ankles fixed at neutral by ankle-foot orthoses...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816922/nil-whey-protein-effect-on-glycaemic-control-after-intense-mixed-mode-training-in-t2d
#12
Kim A Gaffney, Adam Lucero, Lee Stoner, James Faulkner, Patricia Whitfield, Jeremy Krebs, David S Rowlands
While intense endurance and resistance exercise training and whey protein supplementation have both been shown to independently improve glycaemic control, no known studies have examined the effect of high-intensity mixed-mode interval training (MMIT) and whey supplementation in adults with Type-2 diabetes (T2D). PURPOSE: To determine if peri-training whey protein supplementation combined with MMIT can improve glycaemic control. METHODS: In a double-blind randomised controlled trial, 24 men (55...
August 14, 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816920/similar-metabolic-innate-immunity-and-adipokine-profiles-in-adult-and-pediatric-sepsis-versus-systemic-inflammatory-response-syndrome-a-pilot-study
#13
Theonymfi Tavladaki, Anna Maria Spanaki, Helen Dimitriou, Efmorfia Kondili, Christianna Choulaki, Dimitris Georgopoulos, George Briassoulis
OBJECTIVES: To examine whether the septic profiles of heat shock protein 72, heat shock protein 90α, resistin, adiponectin, oxygen consumption, CO2 production, energy expenditure, and metabolic pattern, along with illness severity, nutritional, and inflammatory indices, differ between adult and pediatric patients compared with systemic inflammatory response syndrome and healthy controls. To evaluate whether these biomolecules may discriminate sepsis from systemic inflammatory response syndrome in adult and pediatric patients...
August 12, 2017: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816594/consensus-statement-on-current-and-emerging-methods-for-the-diagnosis-and-evaluation-of-cerebrovascular-disease
#14
Manus J Donahue, Eric Achten, Petrice M Cogswell, Frank-Erik De Leeuw, Colin P Derdeyn, Rick M Dijkhuizen, Audrey P Fan, Rashid Ghaznawi, Jeremy J Heit, M Arfan Ikram, Peter Jezzard, Lori C Jordan, Eric Jouvent, Linda Knutsson, Richard Leigh, David S Liebeskind, Weili Lin, Thomas W Okell, Adnan I Qureshi, Charlotte J Stagg, Matthias Jp van Osch, Peter Cm van Zijl, Jennifer M Watchmaker, Max Wintermark, Ona Wu, Greg Zaharchuk, Jinyuan Zhou, Jeroen Hendrikse
Cerebrovascular disease (CVD) remains a leading cause of death and the leading cause of adult disability in most developed countries. This work summarizes state-of-the-art, and possible future, diagnostic and evaluation approaches in multiple stages of CVD, including (i) visualization of sub-clinical disease processes, (ii) acute stroke theranostics, and (iii) characterization of post-stroke recovery mechanisms. Underlying pathophysiology as it relates to large vessel steno-occlusive disease and the impact of this macrovascular disease on tissue-level viability, hemodynamics (cerebral blood flow, cerebral blood volume, and mean transit time), and metabolism (cerebral metabolic rate of oxygen consumption and pH) are also discussed in the context of emerging neuroimaging protocols with sensitivity to these factors...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28816373/efficacy-and-safety-of-using-premedication-with-simethicone-pronase-during-upper-gastrointestinal-endoscopy-examination-with-sedation-a-single-center-prospective-single-blinded-randomized-controlled-trial
#15
Ling-Ye Zhang, Wen-Yan Li, Ming Ji, Fu-Kun Liu, Guang-Yong Chen, Shan-Shan Wu, Qian Hao, Hui-Hong Zhai, Shu-Tian Zhang
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the efficacy and safety of premedication with simethicone/pronase during esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) with sedation. METHODS: 610 patients were randomly allocated to two groups based on the type of premedication given. The premedication used in the control group was 10ml of lidocaine hydrochloride mucilage (LHM, N=314) and the premedication used in the intervention group was 80mL of simethicone/pronase solution plus 10ml of lidocaine hydrochloride mucilage (SP/LHM, N=296)...
August 17, 2017: Digestive Endoscopy: Official Journal of the Japan Gastroenterological Endoscopy Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815370/effects-of-small-hydropower-plants-on-mercury-concentrations-in-fish
#16
Elaine C Cebalho, Sergi Díez, Manoel Dos Santos Filho, Claumir Cesar Muniz, Wilkinson Lázaro, Olaf Malm, Aurea R A Ignácio
Although the impacts of large dams on freshwater biota are relatively well known, the effects of small hydropower plants (SHP) are not well investigated. In this work, we studied if mercury (Hg) concentrations in fish rise in two tropical SHP reservoirs, and whether similar effects take place during impoundment. Total Hg concentrations in several fish species were determined at two SHP in the Upper Guaporé River basin floodplain, Brazil. In total, 185 specimens were analysed for Hg content in dorsal muscle and none of them reported levels above the safety limit (500 μg kg(-1)) for fish consumption recommended by the World Health Organisation (WHO)...
August 16, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28815271/the-prolidase-activity-oxidative-stress-and-nitric-oxide-levels-of-bladder-tissues-with-or-without-tumor-in-patients-with-bladder-cancer
#17
İlhan Gecit, Recep Eryılmaz, Servet Kavak, İsmail Meral, Halit Demir, Necip Pirinççi, Mustafa Güneş, Kerem Taken
This study was designed to evaluate the malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione (GSH) and nitric oxide (NO) levels, and also prolidase, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), superoxide dismutase (SOD) enzyme activities in malignant and benign cancers of bladder tissue. A total of 59 patients admitted to our clinic due to microscopic or macroscopic haematuria, were prospectively included in the study. Because of some reasons (no request to participate in the study, the inability to reach, other malignancies, alcohol consumption, metabolic disease), eight patients were excluded from study...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Membrane Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814762/down-regulation-of-pdk4-is-critical-for-the-switch-of-carbohydrate-catabolism-during-syncytialization-of-human-placental-trophoblasts
#18
Xiaohui Liu, Rujuan Zuo, Yirong Bao, Xiaoxian Qu, Kang Sun, Hao Ying
Pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase (PDK) is known as a gatekeeper directing the carbon flux into glycolysis via inhibition of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex. During syncytialization of placental trophoblasts, both ATP production and oxygen consumption are increased to meet enhanced energetic demands by syntiotrophoblasts. We hypothesized that down-regulation of PDK expression may play a central role in the switch from glycolysis to oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) during syncytialization. By using primary human trophoblasts, we demonstrated that PDK4 was the dominating PDK isoform in human cytotrophoblasts, and its abundance was substantially decreased upon syncytialization, which was accompanied by decreases in lactate production and increases in ATP production...
August 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813012/inhibitory-effect-of-lycopene-on-amyloid-%C3%AE-induced-apoptosis-in-neuronal-cells
#19
Sinwoo Hwang, Joo Weon Lim, Hyeyoung Kim
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease. Brain amyloid-β deposition is a crucial feature of AD, causing neuronal cell death by inducing oxidative damage. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) activate NF-κB, which induces expression of Nucling. Nucling is a pro-apoptotic factor recruiting the apoptosome complex. Lycopene is an antioxidant protecting from oxidative stress-induced cell damage. We investigated whether lycopene inhibits amyloid-β-stimulated apoptosis through reducing ROS and inhibiting mitochondrial dysfunction and NF-κB-mediated Nucling expression in neuronal SH-SY5Y cells...
August 16, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813008/dietary-fructose-enhances-the-ability-of-low-concentrations-of-angiotensin-ii-to-stimulate-proximal-tubule-na%C3%A2-%C2%BA-reabsorption
#20
Agustin Gonzalez-Vicente, Pablo D Cabral, Nancy J Hong, Jessica Asirwatham, Nianxin Yang, Jessica M Berthiaume, Fernando P Dominici, Jeffrey L Garvin
Fructose-enriched diets cause salt-sensitive hypertension. Proximal tubules (PTs) reabsorb 70% of the water and salt filtered through the glomerulus. Angiotensin II (Ang II) regulates this process. Normally, dietary salt reduces Ang II allowing the kidney to excrete more salt, thereby preventing hypertension. We hypothesized that fructose-enriched diets enhance the ability of low concentrations of Ang II to stimulate PT transport. We measured the effects of a low concentration of Ang II (10(-12) mol/L) on transport-related oxygen consumption (QO₂), and Na/K-ATPase and Na/H-exchange (NHE) activities and expression in PTs from rats consuming tap water (Control) or 20% fructose (FRUC)...
August 16, 2017: Nutrients
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