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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223089/river-water-infiltration-enhances-denitrification-efficiency-in-riparian-groundwater
#1
Nico Trauth, Andreas Musolff, Kay Knöller, Ute S Kaden, Toralf Keller, Ulrike Werban, Jan H Fleckenstein
Nitrate contamination in ground- and surface water is a persistent problem in countries with intense agriculture. The transition zone between rivers and their riparian aquifers, where river water and groundwater interact, may play an important role in mediating nitrate exports, as it can facilitate intensive denitrification, which permanently removes nitrate from the aquatic system. However, the in-situ factors controlling riparian denitrification are not fully understood, as they are often strongly linked and their effects superimpose each other...
December 1, 2017: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222479/gdf15-deficiency-exacerbates-chronic-alcohol-and-carbon-tetrachloride-induced-liver-injury
#2
Hyo Kyun Chung, Jung Tae Kim, Hyeon-Woo Kim, Minjoo Kwon, So Yeon Kim, Minho Shong, Koon Soon Kim, Hyon-Seung Yi
Growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF15) has recently been shown to have an important role in the regulation of mitochondrial function and in the pathogenesis of complex human diseases. Nevertheless, the role of GDF15 in alcohol-induced or fibrotic liver diseases has yet to be determined. In this study, we demonstrate that alcohol- or carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-mediated hepatic GDF15 production ameliorates liver inflammation and fibrosis. Alcohol directly enhanced GDF15 expression in primary hepatocytes, which led to increased oxygen consumption...
December 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222162/dual-inhibition-of-pik3c3-and-fgfr-as-a-new-therapeutic-approach-to-treat-bladder-cancer
#3
Chun-Han Chen, C Changou, Tsung-Han Hsieh, Yu-Ching Lee, Cheng-Ying Chu, Kai-Cheng Hsu, Hao-Ching Wang, Yu-Chen Lin, Yan-Ni Lo, Yun-Ru Liu, Jing-Ping Liou, Yun Yen
PURPOSE: MPT0L145 has been developed as a FGFR inhibitor exhibiting significant anti-bladder cancer activity in vitro and in vivo via promoting autophagy-dependent cell death. Here, we aim to elucidate the underlying mechanisms. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: Autophagy flux, morphology and intracellular organelles were evaluated by western blotting, transmission electron microscope and fluorescence microscope. Molecular docking, surface plasmon resonance assay were performed to identify drug-protein interaction...
December 8, 2017: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222074/changes-of-oxygen-consumption-and-heart-rate-after-acute-myocardial-infarction-during-6-month-follow-up
#4
Yuri Choe, Jae-Young Han, In-Sung Choi, Hyeng-Kyu Park
BACKGROUND: Exercise intensity is a particularly important determinant of physiological responses to exercise training in patients with acute myocardial infarction. Heart rate (HR) is commonly used as a practical way of prescribing and monitoring exercise as specific intensities based on linear relationship between the percentage of maximum heart rate (%HRmax) and the percentage of maximum oxygen consumption (%VO2max) regardless of age, sex or exercise mode. OBJECTIVE: To examine the change in variability in the correlation between %HRmax and %VO2maxafter acute myocardial infarction...
December 5, 2017: PM & R: the Journal of Injury, Function, and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222055/autophagy-plays-a-protective-role-in-mn-induced-toxicity-in-pc12-cells
#5
Qian Zhou, Xiaolong Fu, Xueting Wang, Qin Wu, Yuanfu Lu, Jingshan Shi, James E Klaunig, Shaoyu Zhou
Excessive environmental or occupational exposure to manganese (Mn) is associated with increased risk of neuron degenerative disorders. Oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction are the main mechanisms of Mn mediated neurotoxicity. Selective removal of damaged mitochondria by autophagy has been proposed as a protective mechanism against neuronal toxicant-induced neurotoxicity. Whether autophagic flux plays a role in Mn-induced cytotoxicity remains to be fully elucidated. The present study was designed to investigate the effect of Mn exposure on autophagy, and how modulation of autophagic flux alters the sensitivities of cells to Mn-elicited cytotoxicity...
December 6, 2017: Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222006/wrist-accelerometry-for-physical-activity-measurement-in-individuals-with-spinal-cord-injury-a-need-for-individually-calibrated-cut-points
#6
Laura A McCracken, Jasmin K Ma, Christine Voss, Franco H N Chan, Kathleen A Martin Ginis, Christopher R West
OBJECTIVE: To create and compare individual and group-based cut-points for wrist-accelerometry that corresponds to moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) in people with spinal cord injury (SCI). DESIGN: Participants completed a graded treadmill-wheeling test while being assessed for oxygen consumption, wrist-acceleration vector magnitude, and spoke acceleration. Oxygen consumption was converted to SCI metabolic equivalents (SCI METS) and linear regression was applied to determine an individualized vector magnitude cut-point (counts per minute, VM-CPM) corresponding with MVPA (≥3 SCI METS)...
December 5, 2017: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220206/aerobic-training-but-no-resistance-training-increases-sirt3-in-skeletal-muscle-of-sedentary-obese-male-adolescents
#7
Katya Vargas-Ortiz, Victoriano Pérez-Vázquez, Arturo Figueroa, Francisco J Díaz, Paulina G Montaño-Ascencio, Maciste H Macías-Cervantes
In recent years, prevalence of obesity in children and adolescents has increased. A strategy for prevention and management of obesity is aerobic training (AT) due to its effectiveness to decrease fat mass. AT increases the content of SIRT3, a mitochondrial protein that increases the expression of PGC-1α and NFR1, thereby enhances mitochondrial function and metabolic health. Resistance training (RT) provides metabolic benefits but its effect on SIRT3 content is unknown. To compare the effect of AT and RT on SIRT3, PGC-1α and NRF-1 protein levels in skeletal muscle of sedentary obese adolescents...
December 8, 2017: European Journal of Sport Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29219755/mitochondrial-abnormalities-related-to-the-dysfunction-of-circulating-endothelial-colony-forming-cells-in-moyamoya-disease
#8
Jung Won Choi, Sung Min Son, Inhee Mook-Jung, Youn Joo Moon, Ji Yeoun Lee, Kyu-Chang Wang, Hyun-Seung Kang, Ji Hoon Phi, Seung Ah Choi, Sangjoon Chong, Jayoung Byun, Seung-Ki Kim
OBJECTIVE Moyamoya disease (MMD) is a unique cerebrovascular disorder characterized by the progressive occlusion of the bilateral internal carotid arteries. Endothelial colony-forming cells (ECFCs), previously termed "endothelial progenitor cells," play an important role in the pathogenesis of MMD. In this study, the authors performed morphological and functional studies of the mitochondria of ECFCs from patients with MMD to present new insights into the pathogenesis of the disease. METHODS The morphology of ECFCs from 5 MMD patients and 5 healthy controls was examined under both a transmission electron microscope and a confocal laser scanning microscope...
December 8, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218520/design-synthesis-and-evaluation-of-glut-inhibitors
#9
Carlotta Granchi, Tiziano Tuccinardi, Filippo Minutolo
The Warburg effect describes how most cancer cells exhibit higher-than-normal glucose consumption, not only under hypoxic conditions, but also when normal oxygen levels are present. Although glucose transporter 1 (GLUT1) has been found to play a key role in the cellular uptake of glucose, especially in cancer cells, where it is generally overexpressed, it has not been given consideration as a suitable target for the development of anticancer drugs. In this chapter, an example of molecular design and realization of novel GLUT1 inhibitors, including in silico modeling, chemical synthesis, and biological characterization, is provided...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218518/evaluating-the-efficacy-of-glut-inhibitors-using-a-seahorse-extracellular-flux-analyzer
#10
Changyong Wei, Monique Heitmeier, Paul W Hruz, Mala Shanmugam
Glucose is metabolized through anaerobic glycolysis and aerobic oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS). Perturbing glucose uptake and its subsequent metabolism can alter both glycolytic and OXPHOS pathways and consequently lactate and/or oxygen consumption. Production and secretion of lactate, as a consequence of glycolysis, leads to acidification of the extracellular medium. Molecular oxygen is the final electron acceptor in the electron transport chain, facilitating oxidative phosphorylation of ADP to ATP. The alterations in extracellular acidification and/or oxygen consumption can thus be used as indirect readouts of glucose metabolism and assessing the impact of inhibiting glucose transport through specific glucose transporters (GLUTs)...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218237/increased-mir-21a-provides-metabolic-advantages-through-suppression-of-fbp1-expression-in-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-cells
#11
Qingchun Dai, Na Li, Xiaohong Zhou
Lung cancer is the most common solid tumor and the leading cause of cancer-related mortality worldwide. miR-21 is one of the most commonly observed aberrant miRNAs in human cancers. However, the biological roles of miR-21 in glucose metabolism of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells remain unknown. In the present study, our findings demonstrated that miR-21 promoted glucose uptake and increased TXNIP expression. miR-21 increased lactate generation and decreased oxygen consumption in NSCLC cells. Moreover, we found that miR-21 promoted glycolysis and decreased OXPHOS...
2017: American Journal of Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29218018/aerobic-interval-training-and-cardiometabolic-health-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-a-meta-analysis
#12
Shanhu Qiu, Xue Cai, Zilin Sun, Martina Zügel, Jürgen M Steinacker, Uwe Schumann
Vigorous to maximal aerobic interval training (INT) has received remarkable interest in improving cardiometabolic outcomes for type 2 diabetes patients recently, yet with inconsistent findings. This meta-analysis was aimed to quantify its effectiveness in type 2 diabetes. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were identified by searches of 3 databases to October 2017, which evaluated the effects of INT with a minimal training duration of 8 weeks vs. moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT) or non-exercise training (NET) among type 2 diabetes patients on outcomes including cardiorespiratory fitness, glycemic control, body composition, blood pressure, and lipid profiles...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217665/critical-determinants-of-combined-sprint-and-endurance-performance-an-integrative-analysis-from-muscle-fiber-to-the-human-body
#13
Stephan van der Zwaard, Willem J van der Laarse, Guido Weide, Frank W Bloemers, Mathijs J Hofmijster, Koen Levels, Dionne A Noordhof, Jos J de Koning, Cornelis J de Ruiter, Richard T Jaspers
Optimizing physical performance is a major goal in current physiology. However, basic understanding of combining high sprint and endurance performance is currently lacking. This study identifies critical determinants of combined sprint and endurance performance using multiple regression analyses of physiologic determinants at different biologic levels. Cyclists, including 6 international sprint, 8 team pursuit, and 14 road cyclists, completed a Wingate test and 15-km time trial to obtain sprint and endurance performance results, respectively...
December 7, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216947/-effects-of-active-abdominal-compression-decompression-cpr-on-oxygen-metabolism-and-prognosis-in-patients-with-cardiac-arrest
#14
Xin Sha, Sisen Zhang, Hongwei Wang, Yingxin Cen, Wei Song, Jing Li, Lixiang Wang
OBJECTIVE: To analyze the effect of active abdominal compression-decompression cardiopulmonary resuscitation (AACD-CPR) and standard cardiopulmonary resuscitation (STD-CPR) on oxygen metabolism and prognosis of patient with cardiac arrest (CA), and to evaluate the treatment effect of AACD-CPR. METHODS: Patients with CA, CA time less than 30 minutes, and without STD-CPR and AACD-CPR contraindications admitted to the Zhengzhou People's Hospital from October 1st 2015 to May 31st 2017 were enrolled...
December 2017: Zhonghua Wei Zhong Bing Ji Jiu Yi Xue
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215849/-study-of-mitochondrial-dysfunction-using-cytoplasmic-hybrid
#15
V V Sinyov, M A Sazonova, V P Karagodin, A I Ryzhkova, E V Galitsyna, A A Melnichenko, N A Demakova, T P Shkurat, I A Sobenin, A N Orekhov
Aim. This review article describes literature sources devoted to the investigation of mitochondrial dysfunction using cytoplasmic hybrids (cybrids). The presented studies were carried out on cultures of cybrid cell lines HL60, MOL T-4, A549, 143B, HeLa, Arpe-19, HEK-293, SH-SY5Y and NT2. According to the analysis of scientific world literature, some of the most promising models for studying mitochondrial dysfunction are cell cultures without mitochondria (rho0) and cytoplasmic hybrids containing one or several mutations of mitochondrial genome...
April 2017: Patologicheskaia Fiziologiia i èksperimental'naia Terapiia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215305/cerebrovascular-function-and-mitochondrial-bioenergetics-after-ischemia-reperfusion-in-male-rats
#16
Ibolya Rutkai, Ivan Merdzo, Sanjay V Wunnava, Genevieve T Curtin, Prasad Vg Katakam, David W Busija
The underlying factors promoting increased mitochondrial proteins, mtDNA, and dilation to mitochondrial-specific agents in male rats following tMCAO are not fully elucidated. Our goal was to determine the morphological and functional effects of ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) on mitochondria using electron microscopy, Western blot, mitochondrial oxygen consumption rate (OCR), and Ca2+ sparks activity measurements in middle cerebral arteries (MCAs) from male Sprague Dawley rats (Naïve, tMCAO, Sham). We found a greatly increased OCR in ipsilateral MCAs (IPSI) compared with contralateral (CONTRA), Sham, and Naïve MCAs...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215107/%C3%AE-carotene-bioaccessibility-from-biofortified-maize-zea-mays-is-related-to-its-density-and-is-negatively-influenced-by-lutein-and-zeaxanthin
#17
Nivedita Dube, Purna Chandra Mashurabad, Firoz Hossain, Raghu Pullakhandam, Longvah Thingnganing, Dinesh Kumar Bharatraj
Biofortification of maize with provitamin A (pro-VA) carotenoids has been successful, but the bioavailability of carotenoids needs to be explored. In the present study, we investigated the carotenoid content, micellarization and intestinal cell uptake of carotenoids from 10 maize hybrids [normal maize, quality protein maize (QPM), pro-VA carotenoid and double biofortified QPM + pro-VA maize hybrids] using a simulated in vitro digestion/Caco-2 cell model. The pro-VA carotenoid content of biofortified maize hybrids is 2-10 fold higher compared to that of normal maize...
December 7, 2017: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29215097/the-molecular-dialogue-between-arabidopsis-thaliana-and-the-necrotrophic-fungus-botrytis-cinerea-leads-to-major-changes-in-host-carbon-metabolism
#18
Florian Veillet, Cécile Gaillard, Pauline Lemonnier, Pierre Coutos-Thévenot, Sylvain La Camera
Photoassimilates play crucial roles during plant-pathogen interactions, as colonizing pathogens rely on the supply of sugars from hosts. The competition for sugar acquisition at the plant-pathogen interface involves different strategies from both partners which are critical for the outcome of the interaction. Here, we dissect individual mechanisms of sugar uptake during the interaction of Arabidopsis thaliana with the necrotrophic fungus Botrytis cinerea using millicell culture insert, that enables molecular communication without physical contact...
December 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214717/bisphenol-a-is-an-exogenous-toxin-that-promotes-mitochondrial-injury-and-death-in-tubular-cells
#19
Enrique Bosch-Panadero, Sebastian Mas, Esther Civantos, Pedro Abaigar, Vanesa Camarero, Alberto Ruiz-Priego, Alberto Ortiz, Jesus Egido, Emilio González-Parra
BACKGROUND: Uremic toxins that accumulate in chronic kidney disease (CKD) contribute to CKD complications, such as CKD progression. Bisphenol A (BPA) is a ubiquitous environmental toxin, structurally related with p-cresol, that accumulates in CKD. Our aim was to characterize the nephrotoxic potential of BPA. Specifically, we addressed BPA toxicity over energy-demanding proximal tubular cells. METHODS: Cell death and oxidative stress were evaluated by flow cytometry and confocal microscopy in HK-2 human proximal tubular epithelial cells...
December 7, 2017: Environmental Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212670/repeated-measurement-of-mo2-in-small-aquatic-organisms-a-manual-intermittent-flow-respirometer-using-off-the-shelf-components
#20
Daniel W Baker, Michael E Hudson, Emily J Frost, Mary A Sewell
Measurement of rates of oxygen consumption (MO2) in small aquatic embryos or larvae (< 1mm) in response to altered environmental conditions has traditionally been challenging. Here, using modifications of a commercially available fluorescent optode flow-through cell (FTC: PreSens™ FTC-PSt3) and routine laboratory supplies (syringes, stopcocks, tubing), we have constructed a manual intermittent flow respirometer (MIFR) that allows measurement of MO2 in small numbers of individuals when sequentially exposed to different environmental conditions (e...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
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