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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27932571/esmolol-before-cardioplegia-and-as-cardioplegia-adjuvant-reduces-cardiac-troponin-release-after-cardiac-surgery-a-randomized-trial
#1
Elena Bignami, Marcello Guarnieri, Annalisa Franco, Chiara Gerli, Monica De Luca, Fabrizio Monaco, Giovanni Landoni, Alberto Zangrillo
BACKGROUND: Cardioplegic solutions are the standard in myocardial protection during cardiac surgery, since they interrupt the electro-mechanical activity of the heart and protect it from ischemia during aortic cross-clamping. Nevertheless, myocardial damage has a strong clinical impact. We tested the hypothesis that the short-acting beta-blocker esmolol, given immediately before cardiopulmonary bypass and as a cardioplegia additive, would provide an extra protection to myocardial tissue during cardiopulmonary bypass by virtually reducing myocardial activity and, therefore, oxygen consumption to zero...
December 8, 2016: Perfusion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931237/a-piperazidine-derivative-of-23-hydroxy-betulinic-acid-induces-a-mitochondria-derived-ros-burst-to-trigger-apoptotic-cell-death-in-hepatocellular-carcinoma-cells
#2
Nan Yao, Ying-Jie Li, Yu-He Lei, Nan Hu, Wei-Min Chen, Zhe Yao, Miao Yu, Jun-Shan Liu, Wen-Cai Ye, Dong-Mei Zhang
BACKGROUND: Elevated production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and an altered redox state have frequently been observed in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC); therefore, selective killing of HCC cells by chemotherapeutic agents that stimulate ROS generation or impair antioxidant systems may be a feasible approach in HCC chemotherapy. Recently, betulinic acid and its derivatives have attracted attention because they showed anti-cancer effects via a ROS- and mitochondria-related mechanism...
December 8, 2016: Journal of Experimental & Clinical Cancer Research: CR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27930804/increased-mitochondrial-ros-generation-mediates-the-loss-of-pvat-anticontractile-effect-in-hfd-treated-obese-mice
#3
Rafael Menezes da Costa, Rafael S Fais, Carlos R P Dechandt, Paulo Louzada-Junior, Luciane C Alberici, Núbia S Lobato, Rita C Tostes
Obesity is associated with structural and functional changes in the perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT), favoring the release of reactive oxygen species (ROS), vasoconstrictor and proinflammatory factors. Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) induces vascular dysfunction and is produced by the PVAT. We tested the hypothesis that obesity-associated PVAT dysfunction is mediated by augmented mitochondrial ROS (mROS) generation due to increased TNF-α production in this tissue. Aortae from high fat diet (HFD)-fed obese mice displayed increased contractions to phenylephrine (PE) and loss of PVAT anticontractile effect...
December 8, 2016: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928200/effects-of-the-drop-set-and-reverse-drop-set-methods-on-the-muscle-activity-and-intramuscular-oxygenation-of-the-triceps-brachii-among-trained-and-untrained-individuals
#4
Masahiro Goto, Shinsuke Nirengi, Yuko Kurosawa, Akinori Nagano, Takafumi Hamaoka
Influence of different load exercise to muscle activity during subsequent exercise with 75% of one repetition maximum (RM) load among trained and untrained individuals was verified. Resistance-trained men who were involved in resistance training (n = 16) and healthy young men who did not exercise regularly (n = 16) were recruited for this study. Each subject performed bench pressing with a narrow grip exercise using two different training set methods, the drop-set (DS) (3 sets × 2-10 repetitions with 95-75% of 1RM) and the reverse drop-set (RDS) (3 sets × 3-10 repetitions with 55-75% of 1RM)...
December 2016: Journal of Sports Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27927570/exercise-tolerance-in-children-with-early-onset-scoliosis-growing-rod-treatment-graduates
#5
Kelly A Jeans, Charles E Johnston, Wilshaw R Stevens, Dong-Phuong Tran
STUDY DESIGN: Prospectively enrolled early-onset scoliosis (EOS) patients undergoing growing rod treatment, who have had no surgery for >1 year and/or have received definitive fusion (growing rod "graduates"). OBJECTIVES: To assess oxygen consumption during exercise and determine if a diminished conventional pulmonary function test (PFT) correlates with metabolic, pulmonary, and cardiovascular measures during exercise. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Based on clinical impression and sequential PFT values, EOS patients who have undergone extensive treatment are thought to have limited capacity during exercise...
November 2016: Spine Deformity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923872/dopamine-directly-increases-mitochondrial-mass-and-thermogenesis-in-brown-adipocytes
#6
Rose Kohlie, Nina Perwitz, Julia Resch, Sebastian Michael Schmid, Hendrik Lehnert, Johannes Klein, Karl Alexander Iwen
Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is key to energy homeostasis. By virtue of its thermogenic potential it may dissipate excessive energy, regulate body weight, and increase insulin sensitivity. Catecholamines are critically involved in the regulation of BAT-thermogenesis, yet research has focussed on the effects of noradrenaline and adrenaline. Some evidence suggests a role of dopamine (DA) in BAT-thermogenesis but the cellular mechanisms involved have not been addressed. We employed our extensively characterised murine brown adipocyte cells...
December 6, 2016: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923829/glucose-metabolism-reprogrammed-by-overexpression-of-ikk%C3%AE%C2%B5-promotes-pancreatic-tumor-growth
#7
Haseeb Zubair, Shafquat Azim, Sanjeev Kumar Srivastava, Aamir Ahmad, Arun Bhardwaj, Mohammad Aslam Khan, Girijesh Kumar Patel, Sumit Arora, James Elliot Carter, Seema Singh, Ajay Pratap Singh
Aberrant expression of the kinase IKKε in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) has been associated with poor prognosis. In this study, we define a pathobiologic function for IKKε in reprogramming glucose metabolism and driving progression in PDAC. Silencing IKKε in PDAC cells, which overexpressed it endogenously, was sufficient to reduce malignant cell growth, clonogenic potential, glucose consumption, lactate secretion, and expression of genes involved in glucose metabolism, without impacting the basal oxygen consumption rate...
October 20, 2016: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922886/bioengineered-renal-cell-therapy-device-for-clinical-translation
#8
Christopher J Pino, Angela J Westover, Deborah A Buffington, H David Humes
The Bioartificial Renal Epithelial Cell System (BRECS), is a cell-based device to treat acute kidney injury through renal cell therapy from an extracorporeal circuit. To enable widespread implementation of cell therapy, the BRECS was designed to be cryopreserved as a complete device, cryostored, cryoshipped to an end-use site, thawed as a complete device, and employed in a therapeutic extracorporeal hemofiltration circuit. This strategy overcomes storage and distribution issues that have been previous barriers to cell therapy...
December 2, 2016: ASAIO Journal: a Peer-reviewed Journal of the American Society for Artificial Internal Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922255/risk-factors-for-nocturnal-hypoxemia-in-severe-osa-patients
#9
Eric Deflandre, Damien Kempeneers, Stephanie Degey, Robert Poirrier, Pascal Legros, Jean F Brichant, Jean Joris
BACKGROUND: Severe obstructive sleep apnea (sOSA) and oxygen desaturations are both risk factors for postoperative complications. In some but not all patients, sOSA is associated with frequent oxygen desaturation episodes during sleep. The aim of this retrospective study was to identify the risk factors for exhibiting oxygen desaturation in patients with sOSA. METHODS: Records of 786 patients, mainly obese (Body Mass Index [mean + SD] = 30.2 + 6.0 kg/m2), were analyzed...
December 6, 2016: Minerva Anestesiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921399/antioxidant-and-antidiabetic-properties-of-tartary-buckwheat-rice-flavonoids-after-in-vitro-digestion
#10
Tao Bao, Ye Wang, Yu-Ting Li, Vemana Gowd, Xin-He Niu, Hai-Ying Yang, Li-Shui Chen, Wei Chen, Chong-de Sun
Oxidative stress and diabetes have a tendency to alter protein, lipid, and DNA moieties. One of the strategic methods used to reduce diabetes-associated oxidative stress is to inhibit the carbohydrate-digesting enzymes, thereby decreasing gastrointestinal glucose production. Plant-derived natural antioxidant molecules are considered a therapeutic tool in the treatment of oxidative stress and diabetes. The objective of this study was to identify tartary buckwheat rice flavonoids and evaluate the effect of in vitro digestion on their antioxidant and antidiabetic properties...
2016: Journal of Zhejiang University. Science. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920725/controlled-reperfusion-strategies-improve-cardiac-hemodynamic-recovery-after-warm-global-ischemia-in-an-isolated-working-rat-heart-model-of-donation-after-circulatory-death-dcd
#11
Emilie Farine, Petra Niederberger, Rahel K Wyss, Natalia Méndez-Carmona, Brigitta Gahl, Georg M Fiedler, Thierry P Carrel, Hendrik T Tevaearai Stahel, Sarah L Longnus
Aims: Donation after circulatory death (DCD) could improve cardiac graft availability, which is currently insufficient to meet transplant demand. However, DCD organs undergo an inevitable period of warm ischemia and most cardioprotective approaches can only be applied at reperfusion (procurement) for ethical reasons. We investigated whether modifying physical conditions at reperfusion, using four different strategies, effectively improves hemodynamic recovery after warm ischemia. Methods and Results: Isolated hearts of male Wistar rats were perfused in working-mode for 20 min, subjected to 27 min global ischemia (37°C), and 60 min reperfusion (n = 43)...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919469/dangerous-intoxication-after-oral-ingestion-of-poppers-alkyl-nitrites-two-case-reports
#12
Stéphanie Pain, François Chavant, Bernard Fauconneau, Jérémy Guenezan, Nicolas Marjanovic, Jean-Yves Lardeur, Bertrand Brunet, Marie-Christine Perault-Pochat
"Poppers" (alkyl nitrites) were made famous in the 1960s as a party drug and are still used today. They are highly volatile, sweet-smelling liquids commonly administered by inhalation. However, sometimes, they can be consumed by oral ingestion resulting in greater toxicity. They are used for their vasodilator effects but these volatile nitrites can also cause methemoglobinemia. Methemoglobinemia is a rare pathology that results from the oxidation of iron in the hemoglobin molecule. Oxidation of iron switches it from the ferrous to the ferric state and impedes the ability of hemoglobin to carry oxygen...
December 2, 2016: Thérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918999/effect-of-silver-nanoparticles-on-the-metabolic-rate-hematological-response-and-survival-of-juvenile-white-shrimp-litopenaeus-vannamei
#13
Karla Juarez-Moreno, Claudio Humberto Mejía-Ruiz, Fernando Díaz, Horacio Reyna-Verdugo, Ana Denisse Re, Edgar F Vazquez-Felix, Edna Sánchez-Castrejón, Josué D Mota-Morales, Alexey Pestryakov, Nina Bogdanchikova
White spot syndrome virus (WSSV) is highly lethal and contagious in shrimps; its outbreaks causes an economic crisis for aquaculture. Several attempts have been made to treat this disease; however, to date, there is no effective cure. Because of their antimicrobial activities, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are the most studied nanomaterial. Although the antiviral properties of AgNPs have been studied, their antiviral effect against viral infection in aquaculture has not been reported. The AgNPs tested herein are coated with polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) and possess multiple international certifications for their use in veterinary and human applications...
December 2, 2016: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918857/new-approach-to-molsidomine-active-metabolites-coming-from-the-results-of-2-models-of-experimental-cardiology
#14
Michał Żorniak, Katarzyna A Mitręga, Maurycy Porc, Tadeusz F Krzemiński
Molsidomine is a well-known vasodilatating, antianginal drug. Despite earlier studies with its metabolites (3-morpholino-syndnonimine (SIN-1) and N-nitroso-N-morpholino-amino-acetonitrile (SIN-1A)), which indicated a potential favorable cardioprotective activity, a lot of controversy remains. The aim of our research was to compare molsidomine, SIN-1, SIN-1A, and lidocaine influence on arrhythmias and hemodynamic parameters in 2 experimental models in rats. In the Langendorff heart study, SIN-1A markedly elevated left ventricular systolic pressure, maximum rise and fall of the first pressure derivative, coronary flow, and myocardial oxygen consumption...
October 4, 2016: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918670/combined-plyometric-strength-training-improves-ice-hockey-players-on-ice-sprint
#15
Torstein E Dæhlin, Ole C Haugen, Simen Haugerud, Ivana Hollan, Truls Raastad, Bent R Rønnestad
: Combined plyometric and strength training have previously been suggested as a strategy to improve skating performance in ice hockey players. However, the effects of combined plyometric and strength training has not been previously been compared to the effects of strength training only. PURPOSE: To compare the effects of combined plyometric and strength training on ice hockey players' skating sprint performance with strength training only. METHODS: Eighteen participants were randomly assigned to two groups that completed 5 strength-training sessions per week for 8 weeks...
December 5, 2016: International Journal of Sports Physiology and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916644/targeted-mitochondrial-uncoupling-beyond-ucp1-the-fine-line-between-death-and-metabolic-health
#16
REVIEW
Mario Ost, Susanne Keipert, Susanne Klaus
In the early 1930s, the chemical uncoupling agent 2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP) was promoted for the very first time as a powerful and effective weight loss pill but quickly withdrawn from the market due to its lack of tissue-selectivity with resulting dangerous side effects, including hyperthermia and death. Today, novel mitochondria- or tissue-targeted chemical uncouplers with higher safety and therapeutic values are under investigation in order to tackle obesity, diabetes and fatty liver disease. Moreover, in the past 20 years, transgenic mouse models were generated to understand the molecular and metabolic consequences of targeted uncoupling, expressing functional uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) ectopically in white adipose tissue or skeletal muscle...
December 1, 2016: Biochimie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916346/cardiopulmonary-exercise-testing-is-a-better-outcome-predictor-than-exercise-echocardiography-in-asymptomatic-aortic-stenosis
#17
Olivia Domanski, Marjorie Richardson, Augustin Coisne, Anne-Sophie Polge, Stephanie Mouton, François Godart, Jean Louis Edmé, Regis Matran, Patrizio Lancellotti, David Montaigne
BACKGROUND: Objective assessment of maximal aerobic capacity using peak oxygen consumption (peak VO2) can be helpful in the management of patients with asymptomatic aortic stenosis (AS). The relationship between peak VO2 and AS severity criteria derived from rest and supine exercise echocardiography (SEE) has never been explored. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to determine whether low peak VO2 (<85% of predicted value) is associated with severity parameters in SEE, and poor clinical outcome...
November 3, 2016: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916312/effects-of-pulse-and-press-additions-of-salt-on-biofilms-of-nutrient-rich-streams
#18
Joaquín Cochero, Magdalena Licursi, Nora Gómez
Chronic and pulse increments of salinity can cause different consequences on the aquatic communities, and its effects are related to factors such as the magnitude, frequency and ionic composition, as well as on the baseline salt concentrations in the water. The aim of this study was to explore the responses of the biofilms from a nutrient-rich stream to both pulse and chronic additions of salt, along with their recovery after the stressor had been removed. For this purpose, a microcosm study was conducted exposing biofilms to water enriched with sodium chloride in two treatments (press and pulse), and comparing the changes in the biofilm with control microcosms without salt additions...
December 1, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915453/effects-of-chronic-nitric-oxide-synthase-inhibition-on-v-o2max-and-exercise-capacity-in-mice
#19
M Wojewoda, K Przyborowski, B Sitek, A Zakrzewska, L Mateuszuk, J A Zoladz, S Chlopicki
Acute inhibition of NOS by L-NAME (N(ω)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester) is known to decrease maximal oxygen consumption (V'O2max) and impair maximal exercise capacity, whereas the effects of chronic L-NAME treatment on V'O2max and exercise performance have not been studied so far. In this study, we analysed the effect of L-NAME treatment, (LN2 and LN12, respectively) on V'O2max and exercise capacity (in maximal incremental running and prolonged sub-maximal incremental running tests), systemic NO bioavailability (plasma nitrite (NO2(-)) and nitrate (NO3(-))) and prostacyclin (PGI2) production in C57BL6/J mice...
December 3, 2016: Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archives of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915162/high-fat-diet-induces-metabolic-changes-and-reduces-oxidative-stress-in-female-mouse-hearts
#20
Ignasi Barba, Elisabet Miró-Casas, José L Torrecilla, Eulàlia Pladevall, Sergi Tejedor, Rubén Sebastián-Pérez, Marisol Ruiz-Meana, José R Berrendero, Antonio Cuevas, David García-Dorado
After an acute myocardial infarction, obese patients generally have a better prognosis than their leaner counterparts, known as the "obesity paradox". In addition, female sex is associated with a lower risk of cardiac ischemic events and smaller infarct size compared to males. The objective of the present work was to study the metabolic phenotype and mitochondrial function associated to female sex and short-term high-fat diet. (1)H NMR spectra of mice heart extracts were analysed by mRMR variable selection and linear discriminant analysis was used to evaluate metabolic changes...
November 15, 2016: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
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