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Yvette N Lamb, Emma D Deeks
Sarilumab (Kevzara® ), a monoclonal antibody against the interleukin-6 (IL-6) receptor, is approved in various countries, including the USA, those of the EU, and Japan, as a subcutaneous treatment administered every 2 weeks for moderately to severely active rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in adults who have responded inadequately to, or are intolerant of, one or more DMARDs. In placebo-controlled trials, sarilumab improved the signs and symptoms of RA, as well as physical function and health-related quality-of-life (HR-QOL), when administered in combination with conventional synthetic DMARD (csDMARD) therapy in patients with an inadequate response to methotrexate or an inadequate response to, or intolerance of, at least one tumour necrosis factor (TNF) inhibitor; benefits were sustained over ≤ 3 years' therapy in an open-label extension...
June 2018: Drugs
Francis Grover, Maurice Lamb, Scott Bonnette, Paula L Silva, Tamara Lorenz, Michael A Riley
Tightly coordinated grip force adaptations in response to changing load forces have been reported as continuous, stable, and proportional to the load force changes. Considering the existence of inherent sensorimotor feedback delays, current accounts of grip force-load force coupling invoke explicit predictive mechanisms in the form of internal models for feedforward control to account for anticipatory grip force modulations. However, recent findings suggest that the stability and regularity of grip force-load force coupling is less persistent than previously thought...
June 22, 2018: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
Ramón A Alvarez, Daniel Zavala-Araiza, David R Lyon, David T Allen, Zachary R Barkley, Adam R Brandt, Kenneth J Davis, Scott C Herndon, Daniel J Jacob, Anna Karion, Eric A Kort, Brian K Lamb, Thomas Lauvaux, Joannes D Maasakkers, Anthony J Marchese, Mark Omara, Stephen W Pacala, Jeff Peischl, Allen L Robinson, Paul B Shepson, Colm Sweeney, Amy Townsend-Small, Steven C Wofsy, Steven P Hamburg
Methane emissions from the U.S. oil and natural gas supply chain were estimated using ground-based, facility-scale measurements and validated with aircraft observations in areas accounting for ~30% of U.S. gas production. When scaled up nationally, our facility-based estimate of 2015 supply chain emissions is 13 ± 2 Tg/y, equivalent to 2.3% of gross U.S. gas production. This value is ~60% higher than the U.S. EPA inventory estimate, likely because existing inventory methods miss emissions released during abnormal operating conditions...
June 21, 2018: Science
T Devincenzi, A Prunier, K Meteau, S Prache
Excessive flavour in lamb meat is undesirable for consumers and can prompt purchase resistance. Volatile indoles responsible for off-flavours accumulate more in the fat of lambs on pasture than on grain and are enhanced when lambs graze alfalfa. Here, we investigated whether barley supplementation of lambs grazing alfalfa influences meat sensory quality. Using three groups of 12 male Romane lambs, we compared three feeding regimes: alfalfa grazing (AG), alfalfa grazing + daily supplementation with barley (29 g/kg live weight0...
June 22, 2018: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
Paula C Lamb, Christine Norton
Nurses working in haemodialysis units are expected to demonstrate competency and understanding of the technical processes involved in supporting patients undergoing haemodialysis treatment. In 2012 the nursing education team within a large acute National Health Service (NHS) London Hospital Group updated and standardised haemodialysis clinical competencies to assist junior haemodialysis nurses develop their clinical skills and knowledge in delivering nursing care to patients receiving haemodialysis treatment...
June 12, 2018: Nurse Education in Practice
Brice R Rea, Andrew M W Newton, Rachel M Lamb, Rachel Harding, Grant R Bigg, Phil Rose, Matteo Spagnolo, Mads Huuse, John M L Cater, Stuart Archer, Francis Buckley, Maral Halliyeva, Jane Huuse, David G Cornwell, Simon H Brocklehurst, John A Howell
Geometries of Early Pleistocene [2.58 to 0.78 million years (Ma) ago] ice sheets in northwest Europe are poorly constrained but are required to improve our understanding of past ocean-atmosphere-cryosphere coupling. Ice sheets are believed to have changed in their response to orbital forcing, becoming, from about 1.2 Ma ago, volumetrically larger and longer-lived. We present a multiproxy data set for the North Sea, extending to over a kilometer below the present-day seafloor, which demonstrates spatially extensive glaciation of the basin from the earliest Pleistocene...
June 2018: Science Advances
M Bellés, V Alonso, P Roncalés, J A Beltrán
BACKGROUND: Sulphite is commonly used to preserve lamb burger meat in the European Union. Nevertheless, its consumption has been related to certain health problems which have increased consumer demand of free-sulphite products. Natural compounds with antioxidant and antimicrobial properties may be a feasible alternative to preserve lamb burger meat. This study evaluated the antimicrobial and antioxidant properties of carvacrol, green tea and their combination in preserving lamb burger meat...
June 21, 2018: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
S Lobón, M Blanco, A Sanz, G Ripoll, M Joy
BACKGROUND: The interest for grazing systems and the use of condensed tannins (CT) as sources of natural antioxidants in animal diets has been increasing in recent years. The objective was to study the animal performance and carcass quality of the lambs according to the feeding strategy during lactation (Indoor, grazing Alfalfa, grazing Sainfoin) and the inclusion of quebracho as a source of CT (50 g kg-1 ) in the fattening concentrate. RESULTS: The feeding strategy during lactation only had effects on carcass quality...
June 21, 2018: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
P L P Fontes, D D Henry, F M Ciriaco, N Oosthuizen, R F Cooke, V R G Mercadante, N DiLorenzo, G C Lamb
To evaluate the effects of a polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) supplement on reproductive parameters of suckled beef cows, two experiments were conducted. In Experiment (Exp.) 1, 60 primiparous cows were randomly assigned to one of two treatments: CTRL - 1.36 kg/day of corn gluten feed (CGF) and MEGR - 1.36 kg/day of CGF and 0.23 kg/day of calcium salts of soybean oil. Supplementation occurred from 30 days before fixed-time artificial insemination (TAI) until 7 days post-TAI. The expression of interferon-stimulated genes (ISG) was measured on days 18 and 21...
June 21, 2018: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
Luciane Holsback, Heloísa Eid Lima, Odilon Vidotto, Marcelo Alves da Silva, Thaís Helena Constantino Patelli, Felippe Danyel Cardoso Martins, Mércia de Seixas
The aim of this study was to investigate the occurrence of Cryptosporidium in cattle and sheep from the North Pioneer mesoregion of the state of Paraná. For this, 317 stool samples were collected from cattle and sheep on 16 properties in six municipalities in the North Pioneer mesoregion of Paraná. For detection of Cryptosporidium species, molecular analysis was performed using nested-PCR techniques targeting the 18S rRNA gene. Of the 37 beef cows and 115 calves analyzed, four (10.8%) and 14 (12.2%), respectively, were positive for Cryptosporidium...
June 14, 2018: Revista Brasileira de Parasitologia Veterinária, Brazilian Journal of Veterinary Parasitology
Tomasz Daszkiewicz, Cezary Purwin, Dorota Kubiak, Maja Fijałkowska, Emilia Kozłowska, Zofia Antoszkiewicz
The aim of this study was to determine changes in the quality of lamb meat (Longissimus thoracis et lumborum), which was vacuum-packaged and freezer-stored (-26°C) for 6 and 12 months. The experiment was performed on 12 male lambs of the Kamieniec Longwool breed, raised to 106 days of age. In comparison with fresh meat, thawed meat was characterized by lower ash content, higher pH, greater natural drip loss and cooking loss, and lower scores for taste intensity. Vacuum packaging and low-temperature storage protected lamb meat against oxidative changes, and alleviated the adverse effects of oxidation on the color, aroma and taste of meat...
June 20, 2018: Animal Science Journal, Nihon Chikusan Gakkaihō
Farshid Alambeigi, Zerui Wang, Yun-Hui Liu, Russell H Taylor, Mehran Armand
We present a novel semi-autonomous clinician-in-the-loop strategy to perform the laparoscopic cryoablation of small kidney tumors. To this end, we introduce a model-independent bimanual tissue manipulation technique. In this method, instead of controlling the robot, which inserts and steers the needle in the deformable tissue (DT), the cryoprobe is introduced to the tissue after accurate manipulation of a target point on the DT to the desired predefined insertion location of the probe. This technique can potentially reduce the risk of kidney fracture, which occurs due to the incorrect insertion of the probe within the kidney...
June 19, 2018: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
Rebecca Levin-Epstein, Minsong Cao, Percy Lee, Michael L Steinberg, James Lamb, Ann C Raldow
Locoregional recurrence in the pelvis after definitive treatment for rectal cancer can lead to significant morbidity. Furthermore, the toxicity associated with reirradiation may also negatively impact the quality of life and even survival. Here we present the case of a 39-year-old male with locoregionally recurrent rectal cancer in a left pelvic sidewall lymph node, treated with stereotactic magnetic resonance (MR)-guided ablative radiotherapy after previously receiving long-course chemoradiation that had already exceeded ideal bowel dose constraints...
April 14, 2018: Curēus
L E Lamb, X Zhi, F Alam, M Pyzio, C L Scudamore, S Wiles, S Sriskandan
BACKGROUND: The development of vaccines and evaluation of novel treatment strategies for invasive group A streptococcal (iGAS) disease requires suitable models of human infection that can be monitored longitudinally and are preferably non-invasive. Bio-photonic imaging provides an opportunity to reduce use of animals in infection modelling and refine the information that can be obtained, however the range of bioluminescent GAS strains available is limited. In this study we set out to develop bioluminescent iGAS strains for use in in vivo pneumonia and soft tissue disease models...
June 19, 2018: BMC Microbiology
Jeffrey Rohrbough, Hong-Ngan Nguyen, Fred S Lamb
We utilized plasma membrane-localized ClC-3 to investigate relationships between steady-state transport current (ISS ), gating charge (Q) movement, and cytoplasmic alkalization rate. ClC-3 exhibited lower transport efficiency than ClC-5, as reflected by a larger Q/ISS ratio, but an indistinguishable Cl- /H+ coupling ratio. External SCN- reduced H+ transport rate and uncoupled anion/H+ exchange by 80-90%. "Gluext " removal (E224A) eliminated Q and abolished H+ transport. We hypothesized that M531 impedes "water-wire" H+ transfer from the cytoplasm to E224...
June 19, 2018: Journal of Physiology
Darrel Waggoner, Karen E Wain, Adrian M Dubuc, Laura Conlin, Scott E Hickey, Allen N Lamb, Christa Lese Martin, Cynthia C Morton, Kristen Rasmussen, Jane L Schuette, Stuart Schwartz, David T Miller
PURPOSE: Chromosomal microarray (CMA) is recommended as the first-tier test in evaluation of individuals with neurodevelopmental disability and congenital anomalies. CMA may not detect balanced cytogenomic abnormalities or uniparental disomy (UPD), and deletion/duplications and regions of homozygosity may require additional testing to clarify the mechanism and inform accurate counseling. We conducted an evidence review to synthesize data regarding the benefit of additional testing after CMA to inform a genetic diagnosis...
June 18, 2018: Genetics in Medicine: Official Journal of the American College of Medical Genetics
Helen Richmond, Clare Lait, Cynthia Srikesavan, Esther Williamson, Jane Moser, Meredith Newman, Lauren Betteley, Beth Fordham, Sophie Rees, Sarah E Lamb, Julie Bruce
BACKGROUND: Musculoskeletal shoulder problems are common after breast cancer treatment. There is some evidence to suggest that early postoperative exercise is safe and may improve shoulder function. We describe the development and delivery of a complex intervention for evaluation within a randomised controlled trial (RCT), designed to target prevention of musculoskeletal shoulder problems after breast cancer surgery (The Prevention of Shoulder Problems Trial; PROSPER). METHODS: A pragmatic, multicentre RCT to compare the clinical and cost-effectiveness of best practice usual care versus a physiotherapy-led exercise and behavioural support intervention in women at high risk of shoulder problems after breast cancer treatment...
June 18, 2018: BMC Health Services Research
Ryan Ichikawa, Christopher A Lamb, Jeff Eastham-Anderson, Alexis Scherl, Laura Raffals, William A Faubion, Miriam R Bennett, Anna K Long, John C Mansfield, John A Kirby, Mary E Keir
Background: Recent findings suggest that αE expression is enriched on effector T cells and that intestinal αE+ T cells have increased expression of inflammatory cytokines. αE integrin expression is a potential predictive biomarker for response to etrolizumab, a monoclonal antibody against β7 integrin that targets both α4β7 and αEβ7. We evaluated the prevalence and localisation of αE+ cells as well as total αE gene expression in healthy subjects and inflammatory bowel disease patients...
June 15, 2018: Journal of Crohn's & Colitis
Beenu Jain, Upendra Lambe, Anuj Tewari, Surender Kumar Kadian, Minakshi Prasad
Foot and mouth disease is an economically important transboundary disease of wildlife and cloven hoofed animals including ruminants. In the absence of vaccination, detection of antibodies against structural proteins (SPs) of foot-and-mouth disease virus is an indicator of infection. In the present study, a rapid dot blot assay using gold nanoparticlees was developed for the detection of antibodies against SPs of FMDV. Commercially available FMD vaccine was used as a source of FMD antigen. After the synthesis of gold nanoparticles (GNPs), the GNP-dot blot assay was tested and was found very sensitive, as the detection of antibody was up to 10-4 of serum dilution...
June 2018: Virusdisease
Kim Hamer, Dave Bartley, Amy Jennings, Alison Morrison, Neil Sargison
Monepantel resistance was diagnosed during routine monitoring of the effectiveness of a farm's roundworm control strategy. Weaned lambs had become ill thrifty and developed diarrhoea, despite the routine use of monepantel. This clinical presentation was caused by trichostrongylosis. The faecal egg count reduction was 76.7% (95% CI: 55.1-82.2%) following treatment with 2.5 mg/kg monepantel. Predominantly Trichostrongylus vitrinus along with small proportions of Oesophagostomum venulosum and Trichostrongylus vitrinus were identified by deep amplicon sequencing of pools of larvae recovered from pre and post monepantel treatment coprocultures and on postmortem examinations...
June 15, 2018: Veterinary Parasitology
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