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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350209/molecular-basis-for-cenp-n-recognition-of-cenp-a-nucleosome-on-the-human-kinetochore
#1
Tian Tian, Xiaorun Li, Yingying Liu, Chengliang Wang, Xing Liu, Guoqiang Bi, Xuan Zhang, Xuebiao Yao, Z Hong Zhou, Jianye Zang
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 19, 2018: Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343552/constitutive-centromere-associated-network-contacts-confer-differential-stability-on-cenp-a-nucleosomes-in-vitro-and-in-the-cell
#2
Shengya Cao, Keda Zhou, Zhening Zhang, Karolin Luger, Aaron F Straight
Eukaryotic centromeres are defined by the presence of nucleosomes containing the histone H3 variant, Centromere Protein A (CENP-A). Once incorporated at centromeres, CENP-A nucleosomes are remarkably stable, exhibiting no detectable loss or exchange over many cell cycles. It is currently unclear whether this stability is an intrinsic property of CENP-A containing chromatin or whether it arises from proteins that specifically associate with CENP-A chromatin. Two proteins, CENP-C and CENP-N, are known to bind CENP-A human nucleosomes directly...
January 17, 2018: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328419/screening-and-clinical-evaluation-of-dominant-peptides-of-centromere-protein-f-antigen-for-early-diagnosis-of-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#3
Siwen Li, Xiaojin Li, Anjian Xu, Bei Zhang, Xiaomin He, Hongda Chen, Jian Huang
Tumor-associated antigens, such as centromere protein F (CENP‑F), have been recognized as potential serological biomarkers for early diagnosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC); however, the exact regions corresponding to the dominant peptides of CENP‑F antigen remain to be explored. We aimed to screen and evaluate potential dominant peptides of CENP‑F for early diagnosis of HCC. Dominant peptides of CENP‑F were predicted by BioSun version 3.0, and the corresponding recombinant proteins were prepared...
January 4, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323636/an-optimized-method-for-3d-fluorescence-co-localization-applied-to-human-kinetochore-protein-architecture
#4
Aussie Suzuki, Sarah K Long, Edward D Salmon
Two-color fluorescence co-localization in 3D (three-dimension) has the potential to achieve accurate measurements at the nanometer length scale. Here, we optimized a 3D fluorescence co-localization method that uses mean values for chromatic aberration correction to yield the mean separation with ~10 nm accuracy between green and red fluorescently labeled protein epitopes within single human kinetochores. Accuracy depended critically on achieving small standard deviations in fluorescence centroid determination, chromatic aberration across the measurement field, and coverslip thickness...
January 11, 2018: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29305387/simple-and-complex-centromeric-satellites-in-drosophila-sibling-species
#5
Paul Talbert, Sivakanthan Kasinathan, Steven Henikoff
Centromeres are the chromosomal sites of assembly for kinetochores, the protein complexes that attach to spindle fibers and mediate separation of chromosomes to daughter cells in mitosis and meiosis. In most multicellular organisms, centromeres comprise a single specific family of tandem repeats, often 100-400 bp in length, found on every chromosome, typically in one location within heterochromatin. Drosophila melanogaster is unusual in that the heterochromatin contains many families of mostly short (5-12 bp) tandem repeats, none of which appear to be present at all centromeres, and none of which are found only at centromeres...
January 5, 2018: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29280735/decoding-the-centromeric-nucleosome-through-cenp-n
#6
Satyakrishna Pentakota, Keda Zhou, Charlotte Smith, Stefano Maffini, Arsen Petrovic, Garry P Morgan, John R Weir, Ingrid R Vetter, Andrea Musacchio, Karolin Luger
Centromere protein (CENP) A, a histone H3 variant, is a key epigenetic determinant of chromosome domains known as centromeres. Centromeres nucleate kinetochores, multi-subunit complexes that capture spindle microtubules to promote chromosome segregation during mitosis. Two kinetochore proteins, CENP-C and CENP-N, recognize CENP-A in the context of a rare CENP-A nucleosome. Here, we reveal the structural basis for the exquisite selectivity of CENP-N for centromeres. CENP-N uses charge and space complementarity to decode the L1 loop that is unique to CENP-A...
December 27, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29273057/cenp-b-protects-centromere-chromatin-integrity-by-facilitating-histone-deposition-via-the-h3-3-specific-chaperone-daxx
#7
Viacheslav M Morozov, Serena Giovinazzi, Alexander M Ishov
BACKGROUND: The main chromatin unit, the nucleosome, can be modulated by the incorporation of histone variants that, in combination with posttranslational histones modifications, determine epigenetics properties of chromatin. Understanding the mechanism that creates a histone variants landscape at different genomic elements is expected to elevate our comprehension of chromatin assembly and function. The Daxx chaperone deposits transcription-associated histone H3.3 at centromeres, but mechanism of centromere-specific Daxx targeting remains unclear...
December 22, 2017: Epigenetics & Chromatin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233929/single-cell-rna-seq-reveals-a-subpopulation-of-prostate-cancer-cells-with-enhanced-cell-cycle-related-transcription-and-attenuated-androgen-response
#8
Aaron M Horning, Yao Wang, Che-Kuang Lin, Anna D Louie, Rohit R Jadhav, Chia-Nung Hung, Chiou-Miin Wang, Chun-Lin Lin, Nameer B Kirma, Michael A Liss, Addanki P Kumar, LuZhe Sun, Zhijie Liu, Wei-Ting Chao, Qianben Wang, Victor X Jin, Chun-Liang Chen, Tim H-M Huang
Increasing evidence suggests the presence of minor cell subpopulations in prostate cancer that are androgen independent and poised for selection as dominant clones after androgen-deprivation therapy. In this study, we investigated this phenomenon by stratifying cell subpopulations based on transcriptome profiling of 144 single LNCaP prostate cancer cells treated or untreated with androgen after cell cycle synchronization. Model-based clustering of 397 differentially expressed genes identified eight potential subpopulations of LNCaP cells, revealing a previously unappreciable level of cellular heterogeneity to androgen stimulation...
December 12, 2017: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227679/thermally-tunable-pickering-emulsions-stabilized-by-carbon-dots-incorporated-core-shell-nanospheres-with-fluorescence-on-off-behavior
#9
Jianqiang Chen, Chenyang Zhu, Zhen Yang, Yiying Yue, Ping Wang, Takuya Kitaoka
Lack of deep understanding of nanoparticles (NPs) actions in oil/water interface set an obstacle to practical applications of Pickering emulsions. Fluorescence labels by incorporation of carbon dots (CDs) into poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (PNIPAM) matrix can not only mark the action of PNIPAM-based NPs in the interface, but also reflect the colloidal morphologies of PNIPAM. In this work, we employed coaxial electrospraying for fabricating core-shell nanospheres of cellulose acetate encapsulated by PNIPAM and facile incorporation of CDs in PNIPAM shell was achieved simultaneously...
December 11, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29212814/structural-basis-for-assembly-of-the-cbf3-kinetochore-complex
#10
Vera Leber, Andrea Nans, Martin R Singleton
Eukaryotic chromosomes contain a specialised region known as the centromere, which forms the platform for kinetochore assembly and microtubule attachment. The centromere is distinguished by the presence of nucleosomes containing the histone H3 variant, CENP-A. In budding yeast, centromere establishment begins with the recognition of a specific DNA sequence by the CBF3 complex. This in turn facilitates CENP-ACse4 nucleosome deposition and kinetochore assembly. Here, we describe a 3.6 Å single-particle cryo-EM reconstruction of the core CBF3 complex, incorporating the sequence-specific DNA-binding protein Cep3 together with regulatory subunits Ctf13 and Skp1...
December 6, 2017: EMBO Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208640/shaping-chromatin-in-the-nucleus-the-bricks-and-the-architects
#11
David Sitbon, Katrina Podsypanina, Tejas Yadav, Geneviève Almouzni
Chromatin organization in the nucleus provides a vast repertoire of information in addition to that encoded genetically. Understanding how this organization impacts genome stability and influences cell fate and tumorigenesis is an area of rapid progress. Considering the nucleosome, the fundamental unit of chromatin structure, the study of histone variants (the bricks) and their selective loading by histone chaperones (the architects) is particularly informative. Here, we report recent advances in understanding how relationships between histone variants and their chaperones contribute to tumorigenesis using cell lines and Xenopus development as model systems...
December 5, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Symposia on Quantitative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196561/hierarchical-regulation-of-centromeric-cohesion-protection-by-meikin-and-shugoshin-during-meiosis-i
#12
Seira Miyazaki, Jihye Kim, Takeshi Sakuno, Yoshinori Watanabe
The kinetochore is the key apparatus regulating chromosome segregation. Particularly in meiosis, unlike in mitosis, sister kinetochores are captured by microtubules emanating from the same spindle pole (mono-orientation), and sister chromatid cohesion mediated by cohesin is protected at centromeres in the following anaphase. Shugoshin, which localizes to centromeres depending on the phosphorylation of histone H2A by Bub1 kinase, plays a central role in protecting meiotic cohesin Rec8 from separase cleavage...
December 1, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Symposia on Quantitative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196559/remarkable-evolutionary-plasticity-of-centromeric-chromatin
#13
Steven Henikoff, Jitendra Thakur, Sivakanthan Kasinathan, Paul B Talbert
Centromeres were familiar to cell biologists in the late 19th century, but for most eukaryotes the basis for centromere specification has remained enigmatic. Much attention has been focused on the cenH3 (CENP-A) histone variant, which forms the foundation of the centromere. To investigate the DNA sequence requirements for centromere specification, we applied a variety of epigenomic approaches, which have revealed surprising diversity in centromeric chromatin properties. Whereas each point centromere of budding yeast is occupied by a single precisely positioned tetrameric nucleosome with one cenH3 molecule, the "regional" centromeres of fission yeast contain unphased presumably octameric nucleosomes with two cenH3s...
December 1, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Symposia on Quantitative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29194511/prolyl-isomerization-of-the-cenp-a-n-terminus-regulates-centromeric-integrity-in-fission-yeast
#14
Hwei Ling Tan, Kim Kiat Lim, Qiaoyun Yang, Jing-Song Fan, Ahmed Mahmoud Mohammed Sayed, Liy Sim Low, Bingbing Ren, Teck Kwang Lim, Qingsong Lin, Yu-Keung Mok, Yih-Cherng Liou, Ee Sin Chen
Centromeric identity and chromosome segregation are determined by the precise centromeric targeting of CENP-A, the centromere-specific histone H3 variant. The significance of the amino-terminal domain (NTD) of CENP-A in this process remains unclear. Here, we assessed the functional significance of each residue within the NTD of CENP-A from Schizosaccharomyces pombe (SpCENP-A) and identified a proline-rich 'GRANT' (Genomic stability-Regulating site within CENP-A N-Terminus) motif that is important for CENP-A function...
November 29, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29192061/nude-l-regulates-dynein-at-kinetochores-but-is-dispensable-for-other-dynein-functions-in-the-c-elegans-early-embryo
#15
Patrícia A Simões, Ricardo Celestino, Ana X Carvalho, Reto Gassmann
In mitosis, the molecular motor dynein is recruited to kinetochores by the Rod-Zw10-Zwilch complex (RZZ) and Spindly to control spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) signaling and microtubule attachment. How the ubiquitous dynein co-factors Lis1 and NudE/L contribute to these functions remains poorly understood. Here, we show that the C. elegans NudE/L homolog NUD-2 is dispensable for dynein- and LIS-1-dependent mitotic spindle assembly in the zygote. This facilitates functional characterization of kinetochore-localized NUD-2, which is recruited by the CENP-F-like proteins HCP-1/2 independently of RZZ-Spindly and dynein-LIS-1...
November 30, 2017: Journal of Cell Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29180432/phosphorylation-of-cenp-c-by-aurora-b-facilitates-kinetochore-attachment-error-correction-in-mitosis
#16
Xing Zhou, Fan Zheng, Chengliang Wang, Minhao Wu, Xiaozhen Zhang, Qian Wang, Xuebiao Yao, Chuanhai Fu, Xuan Zhang, Jianye Zang
Kinetochores are superprotein complexes that orchestrate chromosome segregation via a dynamic interaction with spindle microtubules. A physical connection between CENP-C and the Mis12-Ndc80-Knl1 (KMN) protein network is an important pathway that is used to assemble kinetochores on CENP-A nucleosomes. Multiple outer kinetochore components are phosphorylated by Aurora B kinase to activate the spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) and to ensure accurate chromosome segregation. However, it is unknown whether Aurora B can phosphorylate inner kinetochore components to facilitate proper mitotic chromosome segregation...
November 27, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29170278/a-mitosis-specific-and-r-loop-driven-atr-pathway-promotes-faithful-chromosome-segregation
#17
Lilian Kabeche, Hai Dang Nguyen, Remi Buisson, Lee Zou
The ATR kinase is crucial for DNA damage and replication stress responses. Here, we describe a surprising role of ATR in mitosis. Acute inhibition or degradation of ATR in mitosis induces whole-chromosome missegregation. The effect of ATR ablation is not due to altered CDK1 activity, DNA damage responses, or unscheduled DNA synthesis, but to loss of an ATR function at centromeres. In mitosis, ATR localizes to centromeres through Aurora A-regulated association with CENP-F, allowing ATR to engage RPA-coated centromeric R loops...
November 23, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131418/stereoselective-nanozyme-based-on-ceria-nanoparticles-engineered-with-amino-acids
#18
Xiaogang Qu, Yuhuan Sun, Chuanqi Zhao, Nan Gao, Jinsong Ren
Stereoselectivity towards substrate is one of the most important characteristics of enzymes. Amino acids, as cofactors of many enzymes, play important roles in stereochemistry. Herein, chiral nanozymes were constructed by grafting a series of D- or L-amino acids on surfaces of ceria (cerium oxide) nanoparticles. We selected the most commonly used drug for combating Parkinson's disease 3, 4-dihydroxyphenylalanine (DOPA) enantiomers as examples for chiral catalysis. Through detailed kinetic studies of eight amino acids modified cerium oxide nanoparticles (CeNP), we found that phenylalanine-modified CeNP was optimal for the DOPA oxidation reaction and showed excellent stereoselectivity towards its enantiomers...
November 12, 2017: Chemistry: a European Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119119/an-exploration-of-the-impact-of-anticentromere-antibody-on-early-stage-embryo
#19
Ying Ying, Xi Guo, Yiping Zhong, Canquan Zhou
Background: Previously, we found women with positive anticentromere antibody showed impaired potential of oocyte maturation and embryo cleavage; the possible mechanism behind this phenomenon was still unknown. Objective: Thus, the present study aimed to preliminarily explore whether ACA could penetrate into the living embryos and impair their developmental potential via in vitro coculture with mouse embryos. Methods: Mouse embryos were collected and used for in vitro culture with polyclonal anticentromere protein A (CENP-A) antibody; then, immunofluorescence assay was performed to determine the penetration of antibody into embryos, and embryo development potential was observed...
2017: Journal of Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29074736/molecular-basis-of-cenp-c-association-with-the-cenp-a-nucleosome-at-yeast-centromeres
#20
Hua Xiao, Feng Wang, Jan Wisniewski, Alexey K Shaytan, Rodolfo Ghirlando, Peter C FitzGerald, Yingzi Huang, Debbie Wei, Shipeng Li, David Landsman, Anna R Panchenko, Carl Wu
Histone CENP-A-containing nucleosomes play an important role in nucleating kinetochores at centromeres for chromosome segregation. However, the molecular mechanisms by which CENP-A nucleosomes engage with kinetochore proteins are not well understood. Here, we report the finding of a new function for the budding yeast Cse4/CENP-A histone-fold domain interacting with inner kinetochore protein Mif2/CENP-C. Strikingly, we also discovered that AT-rich centromere DNA has an important role for Mif2 recruitment. Mif2 contacts one side of the nucleosome dyad, engaging with both Cse4 residues and AT-rich nucleosomal DNA...
October 1, 2017: Genes & Development
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