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Koog Chan Park, Minkyoung Lee, Yoon Jeon, Raok Jeon, Sung Hee Baek, Ho Lee, Keun Il Kim
The Mis18 proteins (Mis18α, Mis18β and M18BP1) are pivotal to the deposition of CENP-A at the centromere during cell cycle progression and are indispensable for embryonic development. Here, we show that Mis18α is critical for the proliferation of keratinocytes and stratification of the epidermis. Mice lacking Mis18α in the epidermis died shortly after birth, showing skin abnormalities like thin and translucent skin as well as defective skin barrier functions. The epidermis of newborn Mis18α-deficient mice lacked distinct stratification and mature hair follicles, with a reduction in the number of proliferating cells and increased cell death in the basal layer...
September 23, 2016: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
Jun-Ichirou Ohzeki, Nobuaki Shono, Koichiro Otake, Nuno M C Martins, Kazuto Kugou, Hiroshi Kimura, Takahiro Nagase, Vladimir Larionov, William C Earnshaw, Hiroshi Masumoto
Centromere chromatin containing histone H3 variant CENP-A is required for accurate chromosome segregation as a foundation for kinetochore assembly. Human centromere chromatin assembles on a part of the long α-satellite (alphoid) DNA array, where it is flanked by pericentric heterochromatin. Heterochromatin spreads into adjacent chromatin and represses gene expression, and it can antagonize centromere function or CENP-A assembly. Here, we demonstrate an interaction between CENP-A assembly factor M18BP1 and acetyltransferase KAT7/HBO1/MYST2...
June 6, 2016: Developmental Cell
Jason Palladino, Barbara G Mellone
Heterochromatin is incompatible with centromeric chromatin assembly and propagation. In this issue of Developmental Cell, Ohzeki et al. (2016) reveal that a critical role of the Mis18 complex is to transiently recruit the lysine acetyltransferase KAT7 to centromeres to facilitate the removal of H3K9me3 and the deposition of CENP-A.
June 6, 2016: Developmental Cell
Madison E Stellfox, Isaac K Nardi, Christina M Knippler, Daniel R Foltz
The Mis18 complex specifies the site of new CENP-A nucleosome assembly by recruiting the CENP-A-specific assembly factor HJURP (Holliday junction recognition protein). The human Mis18 complex consists of Mis18α, Mis18β, and Mis18 binding protein 1 (Mis18BP1/hsKNL2). Although Mis18α and Mis18β are highly homologous proteins, we find that their conserved YIPPEE domains mediate distinct interactions that are essential to link new CENP-A deposition to existing centromeres. We find that Mis18α directly interacts with the N terminus of Mis18BP1, whereas Mis18β directly interacts with CENP-C during G1 phase, revealing that these proteins have evolved to serve distinct functions in centromeres of higher eukaryotes...
June 7, 2016: Cell Reports
Sara Weirich, Srikanth Kudithipudi, Albert Jeltsch
The SUV4-20H1 and SUV4-20H2 enzymes methylate histone H4 at K20, and they have overlapping and distinct biological effects. Here, by in vitro methylation studies we confirmed that both the murine SUV4-20H enzymes strongly favor the monomethylated H4K20 peptide substrate. We also show that both enzymes only generate dimethylated H4K20 products. We determined the substrate sequence recognition motif of both enzymes using SPOT peptide arrays showing that SUV4-20H1 recognizes an (RY)-Kme1-(IVLM)-(LFI)-X-D sequence...
June 5, 2016: Journal of Molecular Biology
Isaac K Nardi, Ewelina Zasadzińska, Madison E Stellfox, Christina M Knippler, Daniel R Foltz
Centromeres are specialized chromatin domains specified by the centromere-specific CENP-A nucleosome. The stable inheritance of vertebrate centromeres is an epigenetic process requiring deposition of new CENP-A nucleosomes by HJURP. We show HJURP is recruited to centromeres through a direct interaction between the HJURP centromere targeting domain and the Mis18α-β C-terminal coiled-coil domains. We demonstrate Mis18α and Mis18β form a heterotetramer through their C-terminal coiled-coil domains. Mis18α-β heterotetramer formation is required for Mis18BP1 binding and centromere recognition...
March 3, 2016: Molecular Cell
Lakxmi Subramanian, Bethan Medina-Pritchard, Rachael Barton, Frances Spiller, Raghavendran Kulasegaran-Shylini, Guoda Radaviciute, Robin C Allshire, A Arockia Jeyaprakash
Mis18 is a key regulator responsible for the centromere localization of the CENP-A chaperone Scm3 in Schizosaccharomyces pombe and HJURP in humans, which establishes CENP-A chromatin that defines centromeres. The molecular and structural determinants of Mis18 centromere targeting remain elusive. Here, by combining structural, biochemical, and yeast genetic studies, we show that the oligomerization of S. pombe Mis18, mediated via its conserved N-terminal Yippee-like domain, is crucial for its centromere localization and function...
April 2016: EMBO Reports
Sojin An, Hanseong Kim, Uhn-Soo Cho
CENP-A is a centromere-specific histone H3 variant that is required for kinetochore assembly and accurate chromosome segregation. For it to function properly, CENP-A must be specifically localized to centromeres. In fission yeast, Scm3sp and the Mis18 complex, composed of Mis16, Eic1, and Mis18, function as a CENP-A(Cnp1)-specific chaperone and a recruiting factor, respectively, and together ensure accurate delivery of CENP-A(Cnp1) to centromeres. Although how Scm3sp specifically recognizes CENP-A(Cnp1) has been revealed recently, the recruiting mechanism of CENP-A(Cnp1) via the Mis18 complex remains unknown...
October 9, 2015: Journal of Molecular Biology
Marinela Perpelescu, Tetsuya Hori, Atsushi Toyoda, Sadahiko Misu, Norikazu Monma, Kazuho Ikeo, Chikashi Obuse, Asao Fujiyama, Tatsuo Fukagawa
The CENP-A-specific chaperone HJURP mediates CENP-A deposition at centromeres. The N-terminal region of HJURP is responsible for binding to soluble CENP-A. However, it is unclear whether other regions of HJURP have additional functions for centromere formation and maintenance. In this study, we generated chicken DT40 knockout cell lines and gene replacement constructs for HJURP to assess the additional functions of HJURP in vivo. Our analysis revealed that the middle region of HJURP associates with the Mis18 complex protein M18BP1/KNL2 and that the HJURP-M18BP1 association is required for HJURP function...
August 1, 2015: Molecular Biology of the Cell
Andrei N Lupas, Hongbo Zhu, Mateusz Korycinski
Despite having caused one of the greatest medical catastrophies of the last century through its teratogenic side-effects, thalidomide continues to be an important agent in the treatment of leprosy and cancer. The protein cereblon, which forms an E3 ubiquitin ligase compex together with damaged DNA-binding protein 1 (DDB1) and cullin 4A, has been recently indentified as a primary target of thalidomide and its C-terminal part as responsible for binding thalidomide within a domain carrying several invariant cysteine and tryptophan residues...
January 2015: PLoS Computational Biology
Meghan C Barnhart-Dailey, Daniel R Foltz
The Mis18 complex is a critical player in determining when and where centromeres are built. A new study identifies Polo-like kinase (Plk1) as a positive regulator required for the localization of Mis18 to centromeres. This is a critical step that is essential for proper centromere function and maintaining the integrity of the genome.
September 8, 2014: Current Biology: CB
Kara L McKinley, Iain M Cheeseman
To ensure the stable transmission of the genome during vertebrate cell division, the mitotic spindle must attach to a single locus on each chromosome, termed the centromere. The fundamental requirement for faithful centromere inheritance is the controlled deposition of the centromere-specifying histone, CENP-A. However, the regulatory mechanisms that ensure the precise control of CENP-A deposition have proven elusive. Here, we identify polo-like kinase 1 (Plk1) as a centromere-localized regulator required to initiate CENP-A deposition in human cells...
July 17, 2014: Cell
Lakxmi Subramanian, Nicholas R T Toda, Juri Rappsilber, Robin C Allshire
CENP-A chromatin forms the foundation for kinetochore assembly. Replication-independent incorporation of CENP-A at centromeres depends on its chaperone HJURP(Scm3), and Mis18 in vertebrates and fission yeast. The recruitment of Mis18 and HJURP(Scm3) to centromeres is cell cycle regulated. Vertebrate Mis18 associates with Mis18BP1(KNL2), which is critical for the recruitment of Mis18 and HJURP(Scm3). We identify two novel fission yeast Mis18-interacting proteins (Eic1 and Eic2), components of the Mis18 complex...
2014: Open Biology
Takeshi Hayashi, Masahiro Ebe, Koji Nagao, Aya Kokubu, Kenichi Sajiki, Mitsuhiro Yanagida
CENP-A is a centromere-specific variant of histone H3 that is required for accurate chromosome segregation. The fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe and mammalian Mis16 and Mis18 form a complex essential for CENP-A recruitment to centromeres. It is unclear, however, how the Mis16-Mis18 complex achieves this function. Here, we identified, by mass spectrometry, novel fission yeast centromere proteins Mis19 and Mis20 that directly interact with Mis16 and Mis18. Like Mis18, Mis19 and Mis20 are localized at the centromeres during interphase, but not in mitosis...
July 2014: Genes to Cells: Devoted to Molecular & Cellular Mechanisms
Jianyu Wang, Xing Liu, Zhen Dou, Liang Chen, Hao Jiang, Chuanhai Fu, Guosheng Fu, Dan Liu, Jiancun Zhang, Tongge Zhu, Jingwen Fang, Jianye Zang, Jinke Cheng, Maikun Teng, Xia Ding, Xuebiao Yao
The centromere is essential for precise and equal segregation of the parental genome into two daughter cells during mitosis. CENP-A is a unique histone H3 variant conserved in eukaryotic centromeres. The assembly of CENP-A to the centromere is mediated by Holliday junction recognition protein (HJURP) in early G1 phase. However, it remains elusive how HJURP governs CENP-A incorporation into the centromere. Here we show that human HJURP directly binds to Mis18β, a component of the Mis18 complex conserved in the eukaryotic kingdom...
March 21, 2014: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Ik Soo Kim, Minkyoung Lee, Joo Hyeon Park, Raok Jeon, Sung Hee Baek, Keun Il Kim
Ubiquitin E3 ligases including SCF complex are key regulators of cell cycle. Here, we show that Mis18β, a component of Mis18 complex governing CENP-A localization, is a new substrate of βTrCP-containing SCF complex. βTrCP interacted with Mis18β exclusively during interphase but not during mitosis and mediated proteasomal degradation of Mis18β leading to the inactivation of Mis18 complex during interphase. In addition, uncontrolled stabilization of Mis18β caused cell death. Together, we propose that βTrCP-mediated regulation of Mis18β stability is a mechanism to restrict centromere function of Mis18 complex from late mitosis to early G1 phase...
January 3, 2014: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Madison E Stellfox, Aaron O Bailey, Daniel R Foltz
The centromere is the chromosomal region that directs kinetochore assembly during mitosis in order to facilitate the faithful segregation of sister chromatids. The location of the human centromere is epigenetically specified. The presence of nucleosomes that contain the histone H3 variant, CENP-A, are thought to be the epigenetic mark that indicates active centromeres. Maintenance of centromeric identity requires the deposition of new CENP-A nucleosomes with each cell cycle. During S-phase, existing CENP-A nucleosomes are divided among the daughter chromosomes, while new CENP-A nucleosomes are deposited during early G1...
February 2013: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
Silvia Dambacher, Wen Deng, Matthias Hahn, Dennis Sadic, Jonathan Fröhlich, Alexander Nuber, Christian Hoischen, Stephan Diekmann, Heinrich Leonhardt, Gunnar Schotta
Centromeres are important structural constituents of chromosomes that ensure proper chromosome segregation during mitosis by providing defined sites for kinetochore attachment. In higher eukaryotes, centromeres have no specific DNA sequence and thus, they are rather determined through epigenetic mechanisms. A fundamental process in centromere establishment is the incorporation of the histone variant CENP-A into centromeric chromatin, which provides a binding platform for the other centromeric proteins. The Mis18 complex, and, in particular, its member M18BP1 was shown to be essential for both incorporation and maintenance of CENP-A...
January 2012: Nucleus
Ik Soo Kim, Minkyoung Lee, Koog Chan Park, Yoon Jeon, Joo Hyeon Park, Eun Ju Hwang, Tae Im Jeon, Seoyoung Ko, Ho Lee, Sung Hee Baek, Keun Il Kim
The Mis18 complex has been identified as a critical factor for the centromeric localization of a histone H3 variant, centromeric protein A (CENP-A), which is responsible for the specification of centromere identity in the chromosome. However, the functional role of Mis18 complex is largely unknown. Here, we generated Mis18α conditional knockout mice and found that Mis18α deficiency resulted in lethality at early embryonic stage with severe defects in chromosome segregation caused by mislocalization of CENP-A...
May 11, 2012: Molecular Cell
Ben Moree, Corey B Meyer, Colin J Fuller, Aaron F Straight
Eukaryotic chromosomes segregate by attaching to microtubules of the mitotic spindle through a chromosomal microtubule binding site called the kinetochore. Kinetochores assemble on a specialized chromosomal locus termed the centromere, which is characterized by the replacement of histone H3 in centromeric nucleosomes with the essential histone H3 variant CENP-A (centromere protein A). Understanding how CENP-A chromatin is assembled and maintained is central to understanding chromosome segregation mechanisms...
September 19, 2011: Journal of Cell Biology
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