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İbrahim Hanif Nazlı, Duygu Barut Celepci, Gül Yakalı, Derya Topkaya, Muhittin Aygün, Serap Alp
In this study, two oxazol-5-one derivatives, C20H20N2O2 (1) and C21H22N2O2 (2), were synthesized by getting condensed p-N,N-diethylaminobenzaldehyde with two presented hippuric acid derivatives and in further studies they were analysed spectrochemically. Molecular and crystal structures of the compounds were determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction and the results revealed that the molecular packing of the crystal structures were stabilized by weak intraand intermolecular interactions also with C-O∙∙∙π, C-H∙∙∙π and π∙∙∙π stacking interactions...
March 2018: Acta Chimica Slovenica
Tapan Kumar Pradhan, Pradipta Panigrahi
We experimentally investigated the effect of a neighboring liquid droplet on fluid convection inside a liquid droplet of aqueous solution present inside a micro-channel using micro-PIV technique. There is no physical contact between the two droplets and the solute concentration of the two droplets are set at different value. Vapor concentration near the interface of the two droplets is different due to the difference in solute concentration. Water vapor evaporates from the low concentration droplet having higher vapor pressure and condenses on the high concentration droplet having lower vapor pressure...
March 21, 2018: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Simon D Kloß, Wolfgang Schnick
The structural diversity of tetrahedra networks of phosphates can greatly be enhanced by introduction of mixed N/O anion positions. LiPr2 P4 N7 O3 exemplifies the benefits of N/O mixed anion positions as it is the first rare-earth (oxo)nitridophosphate with a single-layered structure and a degree of condensation (atomic ratio of tetrahedra centers (P) to tetrahedra corners (N/O atoms)) of 2/5. The compound was prepared through high-pressure metathesis starting from PrF3 , LiPN2 , Li2 O, and PON using a hydraulic 1000t press and the multianvil technique...
March 21, 2018: Inorganic Chemistry
Masahiro Ikejiri, Haruka Kojima, Yuumi Fugono, Aki Fujisaka, Yoshiko Chihara, Kazuyuki Miyashita
We have developed a novel analog of the GFP chromophore: geo-DAIN. Since geo-DAIN is equipped with an E/Z-photoisomerizable geometrical diarylmethylene moiety instead of benzylidene of the GFP chromophore, different-colored reversible emissions are expected. We synthesized geo-DAIN by a condensation with methyl imidate and N-(diarylmethylene)glycinate. We found the emission from geo-DAIN to be different from that of benzylidene-type analogs; in the powder state, the E- and Z-isomers of geo-DAIN emitted different fluorescence colors...
March 21, 2018: Organic & Biomolecular Chemistry
Raghav R Poudyal, Fatma Pir Cakmak, Christine D Keating, Philip C Bevilacqua
This Perspective focuses on RNA in biological and nonbiological compartments resulting from liquid-liquid phase separation (LLPS), with an emphasis on origins of life. In extant cells, intracellular liquid condensates, many of which are rich in RNAs and intrinsically disordered proteins, provide spatial regulation of biomolecular interactions that can result in altered gene expression. Given the diversity of biogenic and abiogenic molecules that undergo LLPS, such membraneless compartments may have also played key roles in prebiotic chemistries relevant to the origins of life...
March 21, 2018: Biochemistry
Ruifang Li, Ruiling Zhang, Yanhui Yang, Xueqin Wang, Yanjie Yi, Pei Fan, Zhengwei Liu, Chen Chen, Junpeng Chang
CGA-N12 is an antifungal peptide derived from human chromogranin A. In our previous investigation, CGA-N12 was found to have specific anti-candidal activity, though the mechanism of action remained unclear. Herein, we investigated the effects of CGA-N12 on mitochondria. We found that CGA-N12 induced an over-generation of intracellular reactive oxygen species and dissipation in mitochondrial membrane potential, in which the former plays key roles in the initiation of apoptosis and the latter is a sign of the cell apoptosis...
March 20, 2018: Biochemical Journal
D R B Brito, L M Costa-Júnior, J L Garcia, J F J Torres-Acosta, H Louvandini, J A A Cutrim-Júnior, J F M Araújo, E D S Soares
Gastrointestinal nematodes (GINs) cause considerable economic losses in grazing goat herds. At present, GIN control cannot rely on conventional anthelmintic (AH) drugs because parasites have developed resistance against such drugs. Thus, alternative control methods are being sought to reduce the dependence on AH. Many tannin-rich plants exhibit AH activity and may be used as alternatives for GIN control. Mimosa caesalpiniifolia is a tannin-rich shrub consumed by small ruminants in Brazil. This study evaluated the in vivo AH effect of M...
March 15, 2018: Veterinary Parasitology
Ping Sun, Torsten Wronski, Jean D Bariyanga, Ann Apio
The distribution of gastro-intestinal (GI) parasites across landscapes is closely related to the spatial distribution of hosts. In GI parasites with environmental life stages, the vitality of parasites is also affected by ecological and landscape-related components of the environment. This is particularly relevant for domestic livestock species that are often kept across habitats with varying degrees of degradation, exposing them to a wide range of environmentally robust parasite species. In our study, we examined the effect of environmental and anthropogenic factors on the prevalence and intensity of GI parasites across a free-ranging stock of Ankole cattle in the Mutara rangelands of northeastern Rwanda...
March 15, 2018: Veterinary Parasitology
Wenchao Zhang, Xiaoxia Wang, Yiwei Wu, Zhi Qi, Rongjie Yang
Organic-inorganic hybrid macrocyclic compounds, cyclic polyphenylsilsesquioxanes (cyc-PSQs), have been synthesized through hydrolysis and condensation reactions of phenyltrichlorosilane. Structural characterization has revealed that cyc-PSQs consist of a closed-ring double-chain siloxane inorganic backbone bearing organic phenyl groups. The cyc-PSQ molecules have been simulated and structurally optimized using the Forcite tool as implemented in Materials Studio. Structurally optimized cyc-PSQs are highly symmetrical and regular with high stereoregularity, consistent with the dimensions of their experimentally derived structures...
March 20, 2018: Inorganic Chemistry
Kimberly McCoy, Masaki Uchida, Byeongdu Lee, Trevor Douglas
Bottom-up construction of mesoscale materials using biologically derived nanoscale building blocks enables engineering of desired physical properties using green production methods. Virus-like particles (VLPs) are exceptional building blocks due to their monodispersed sizes, geometric shapes, production ease, proteinaceous composition, and our ability to independently functionalize the interior and exterior interfaces. Here a VLP, derived from bacteriophage P22, is used as a building block for the fabrication of a Protein Macromolecular Framework (PMF); a tightly-linked 3D network of functional protein cages that exhibit long-range order and catalytic activity...
March 20, 2018: ACS Nano
Kendra E Brett, Lindsay J Ritchie, Emily Ertel, Alexandria Bennett, Greg A Knoll
BACKGROUND: The best approach for determining whether a transplant program is delivering high-quality care is unknown. This review aims to identify and characterize quality metrics in solid organ transplantation. METHODS: Medline, Embase, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials were searched from inception until February 1 2017. Relevant full text reports and conference abstracts that examined quality metrics in organ transplantation were included. Two reviewers independently extracted study characteristics and quality metrics from 52 full text reports and 24 abstracts...
March 20, 2018: Transplantation
Ruoxing Lei, Jessica P Lee, Matthew B Francis, Sanjay Kumar
Intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) play central roles in numerous cellular processes. While IDP structure and function are often regulated by multisite phosphorylation, the biophysical mechanisms linking these post-translational modifications to IDP structure remain elusive. For example, the intrinsically disordered C-terminal sidearm domain of the neurofilament heavy subunit (NFH-SA) forms a dense brush along axonal NF backbones and is subject to extensive serine phosphorylation. Yet, biophysical insight into the relationship between phosphorylation and structure has been limited by the lack of paradigms in which NF brush conformational responses can be measured in the setting of controlled phosphorylation...
March 20, 2018: Biochemistry
Margherita Maiuri, Johanna Brazard
During the last two decades, 2D optical techniques have been extended to the visible range, targeting electronic transitions. Since the report of the very first 2D electronic measurement (Hybl et al. in J Chem Phys 115:6606-6622, [2001]), two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy (2DES) has allowed fundamentally new insights into the structure and dynamics of condensed-phase systems (Ginsberg et al. in Acc Chem Res 42:1352-1363, 2009; Jonas in Annu Rev Phys Chem 54:425-463, 2003), producing experiments that measure correlations among electronic states of an absorbing species within complex systems...
March 20, 2018: Topics in Current Chemistry (Journal)
Qiaoxian Huang, Shengke Li, Yuan-Fu Ding, Hang Yin, Lian-Hui Wang, Ruibing Wang
Due to its outstanding capability to facilitate DNA condensation, transportation and endosomal escape, polyethylenimine (PEI) has been frequently studied for gene delivery. However, its molecular weight (M.W.) dependent transfection efficiency and cytotoxicity has severely limited its clinical application. To resolve this dilemma, a supramolecular strategy was developed for the first time, in which PEI with large M.W. (branched, 25 kDa) that has a satisfactory transfection efficiency, yet high non-specific cytotoxicity for gene delivery was wrapped with macrocyclic cucurbit[7]uril (CB[7])...
March 20, 2018: Biomaterials Science
Martin Konečný, Miroslav Bartosik, Jindrich Mach, Vojtěch Švarc, David Nezval, Jakub Piastek, Pavel Procházka, Aleš Cahlík, Tomas Sikola
The article shows how the dynamic mapping of surface potential (SP) measured by Kelvin Probe Force Microscopy in combination with a calculation of diffusion-like equation and the theory based on the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) model of water condensation and electron hopping can provide the information concerning the resistivity of low conductive surfaces and their water coverage. This is enabled by a study of charge transport between isolated and grounded graphene sheets on a silicon dioxide surface at different relative humidity (RH) with regard to the use of graphene in ambient electronic circuits, and especially in sensors...
March 20, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Weixiang Liu, Yukun Qin, Song Liu, Ronge Xing, Huahua Yu, Xiaolin Chen, Kecheng Li, Pengcheng Li
Based on a condensation reaction, a chitosan-derivative-bearing amino pyridine group was prepared and subsequently followed by coordination with cupric ions, zinc ions and nickel ions to synthesize chitosan metal complexes. The calculations using the density functional theory (DFT) show that the copper ions and nickel ions underwent dsp2 hybridization, the zinc ions underwent sp3 hybridization, and they all formed a coordination bond with the carbon atom in the p-π conjugate group. The antifungal properties of O-CSPX-M against Phytophthora capsici (P...
March 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
Liguang Li, Zhenli L He, Malak M Tfaily, Patrick Inglett, Peter J Stoffella
Leaching of dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) has been reported as a pathway of N loss from agriculture, but the molecular composition of DON in agricultural water is poorly understood. Runoff water samples were collected from citrus grove furrows (CGF), ditches (CGD) and pasture ditches (PD) in four seasons. Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FT-ICR-MS) was used to investigate molecular composition of DON. Chemodiversity index of DON had spatiotemporal variations, while the molecular composition of total DON showed minimal variations, except for PD in November...
March 16, 2018: Water Research
Jian Zhong, Irina Nikolova, Xiaoming Cai, A Rob MacKenzie, Roy M Harrison
This study implements a two-box model coupled with ultrafine particle (UFP) multicomponent microphysics for a compartmentalised street canyon. Canyon compartmentalisation can be described parsimoniously by three parameters relating to the features of the canyon and the atmospheric state outside the canyon, i.e. the heterogeneity coefficient, the vortex-to-vortex exchange velocity, and the box height ratio. The quasi-steady solutions for the two compartments represent a balance among emissions, microphysical aerosol dynamics (i...
March 16, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Xiaojing Liu, Junhao Jia, Yuanliang Jia, He Gu, Jingwen Luo, Xiaochuan Chen
A flexible strategy has been developed to synthesize divergent flavonoids bearing a chiral A-ring. As two key steps, the coupling via a boron-mediated aldol condensation and the cyclization via a highly stereoselective intramolecular Michael addition of 1,3-diketone proceed under mild conditions; thus, the chiral flavonoids bearing C-7 oxy functional groups or olefinic bonds are both easily accessible. Using this approach, the first synthesis of (+)-cryptogione F, (+)-cryptocaryanone B, and (+)-cryptochinones A and C, as well as stereoselective synthesis of (+)-cryptocaryone and (+)-cryptocaryanone A, were achieved from 2-deoxy-d-ribose in high overall yields...
March 19, 2018: Organic Letters
Stephanie Portillo-Ledesma, Lía M Randall, Derek Parsonage, Joaquín Dalla Rizza, P Andrew Karplus, Leslie B Poole, Ana Denicola, Gerardo Ferrer-Sueta
Two-cysteine peroxiredoxins (Prx) have a three-step catalytic cycle consisting of (1) reduction of peroxide and formation of sulfenic acid on the enzyme, (2) condensation of the sulfenic acid with a thiol to form disulfide, also known as resolution, and (3) reduction of the disulfide by a reductant protein. By following changes in protein fluorescence, we have studied the pH dependence of reaction 2 in human peroxiredoxins 1, 2 and 5, and in Salmonella typhimurium AhpC and obtained rate constants for the reaction and p Ka values of the thiol and sulfenic acid involved for each system...
March 19, 2018: Biochemistry
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