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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938417/new-perspectives-on-pheochromocytoma-and-paraganglioma-towards-a-molecular-classification
#1
Joakim Crona, David Taïeb, Karel Pacak
A new molecular biology based taxonomy has been proposed for pheochromocytoma and paraganglioma (PPGL). Data from the Cancer Genome Atlas revealed clinically relevant prognostic and predictive biomarkers and stratified PPGLs into three main clusters. Each subgroup has a distinct molecular-biochemical-imaging signature. Concurrently, new methods for biochemical analysis, functional imaging, and medical therapies have also become available. The research community now strives to match the cluster biomarkers with the most superior intervention...
August 4, 2017: Endocrine Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938114/the-eukaryotic-co2-concentrating-organelle-is-liquid-like-and-exhibits-dynamic-reorganization
#2
Elizabeth S Freeman Rosenzweig, Bin Xu, Luis Kuhn Cuellar, Antonio Martinez-Sanchez, Miroslava Schaffer, Mike Strauss, Heather N Cartwright, Pierre Ronceray, Jürgen M Plitzko, Friedrich Förster, Ned S Wingreen, Benjamin D Engel, Luke C M Mackinder, Martin C Jonikas
Approximately 30%-40% of global CO2 fixation occurs inside a non-membrane-bound organelle called the pyrenoid, which is found within the chloroplasts of most eukaryotic algae. The pyrenoid matrix is densely packed with the CO2-fixing enzyme Rubisco and is thought to be a crystalline or amorphous solid. Here, we show that the pyrenoid matrix of the unicellular alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii is not crystalline but behaves as a liquid that dissolves and condenses during cell division. Furthermore, we show that new pyrenoids are formed both by fission and de novo assembly...
September 21, 2017: Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938057/outbreak-of-drepanopeziza-fungus-in-aspen-forests-and-variation-in-stand-susceptibility-leaf-functional-traits-compensatory-growth-and-phenology
#3
Anson C Call, Samuel B St Clair
In the spring of 2015, a severe outbreak of the necrotrophic pathogen Drepanopeziza (also known as Marssonina) spread across large portions of aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.) forests in the western United States. Among adjacent stands, some were diseased and others were not. Drepanopeziza infection in diseased aspen stands stimulated compensatory growth of second-flush leaves at the top of the canopy. These patterns of infection provided an opportunity to characterize associations of pathogen infection and leaf functional traits...
September 1, 2017: Tree Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936767/smc-complexes-orchestrate-the-mitotic-chromatin-interaction-landscape
#4
REVIEW
Yasutaka Kakui, Frank Uhlmann
Chromatin is a very long DNA-protein complex that controls the expression and inheritance of the genetic information. Chromatin is stored within the nucleus in interphase and further compacted into chromosomes during mitosis. This process, known as chromosome condensation, is essential for faithful segregation of genomic DNA into daughter cells. Condensin and cohesin, members of the structural maintenance of chromosomes (SMC) family, are fundamental for chromosome architecture, both for establishment of chromatin structure in the interphase nucleus and for the formation of condensed chromosomes in mitosis...
September 21, 2017: Current Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28936329/3-cyanoallyl-boronates-are-versatile-building-blocks-in-the-synthesis-of-polysubstituted-thiophenes
#5
Wenjie Shao, Sherif J Kaldas, Andrei K Yudin
We report the preparation of hitherto unprecedented 3-cyanoallyl boronates using condensation of the parent α-boryl aldehyde and nitriles. The resulting allyl boronates have been used to generate a wide range of borylated thiophenes, which represent a valuable class of heterocycles in modern drug discovery. Subsequent Suzuki-Miyaura cross-coupling enabled the synthesis of pharmaceutically important 3,5-disubstituted aminothiophenes. Moreover, late stage functionalization gave access to borylated bromothiophene and thieno[2,3-b]pyridines...
June 1, 2017: Chemical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935879/interlayer-excitons-in-a-bulk-van-der-waals-semiconductor
#6
Ashish Arora, Matthias Drüppel, Robert Schmidt, Thorsten Deilmann, Robert Schneider, Maciej R Molas, Philipp Marauhn, Steffen Michaelis de Vasconcellos, Marek Potemski, Michael Rohlfing, Rudolf Bratschitsch
Bound electron-hole pairs called excitons govern the electronic and optical response of many organic and inorganic semiconductors. Excitons with spatially displaced wave functions of electrons and holes (interlayer excitons) are important for Bose-Einstein condensation, superfluidity, dissipationless current flow, and the light-induced exciton spin Hall effect. Here we report on the discovery of interlayer excitons in a bulk van der Waals semiconductor. They form due to strong localization and spin-valley coupling of charge carriers...
September 21, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935872/bioinspired-fabrication-of-one-dimensional-graphene-fiber-with-collection-of-droplets-application
#7
Yun-Yun Song, Yan Liu, Hao-Bo Jiang, Shu-Yi Li, Cigdem Kaya, Thomas Stegmaier, Zhi-Wu Han, Lu-Quan Ren
We designed a kind of smart bioinspired fiber with multi-gradient and multi-scale spindle knots by combining polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and graphene oxide (GO). Multilayered graphene structures can produce obvious wettability change after laser etching due to increased roughness. We demonstrate that the cooperation between curvature and the controllable wettability play an important role in water gathering, which regulate effectively the motion of tiny water droplets. In addition, due to the effective cooperation of multi-gradient and multi-scale hydrophilic spindle knots, the length of the three-phase contact line (TCL) can be longer, which makes a great contribution to the improvement of collecting efficiency and water-hanging ability...
September 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935776/liquid-phase-condensation-in-cell-physiology-and-disease
#8
REVIEW
Yongdae Shin, Clifford P Brangwynne
Phase transitions are ubiquitous in nonliving matter, and recent discoveries have shown that they also play a key role within living cells. Intracellular liquid-liquid phase separation is thought to drive the formation of condensed liquid-like droplets of protein, RNA, and other biomolecules, which form in the absence of a delimiting membrane. Recent studies have elucidated many aspects of the molecular interactions underlying the formation of these remarkable and ubiquitous droplets and the way in which such interactions dictate their material properties, composition, and phase behavior...
September 22, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935708/unraveling-transcriptome-dynamics-in-human-spermatogenesis
#9
S Z Jan, T L Vormer, A Jongejan, M Röling, S J Silber, D G de Rooij, G Hamer, S Repping, A M M van Pelt
Spermatogenesis is a dynamic developmental process that includes stem cell proliferation and differentiation, meiotic cell divisions and extreme chromatin condensation. Although studied in mice, the molecular control of human spermatogenesis is largely unknown. Here, we developed a protocol that enables next generation sequencing of RNA obtained from pools of 500 individually laser capture microdissected cells of specific germ cell-subtypes from fixed human testis samples. Transcriptomic analyses of these successive germ cell subtypes reveals dynamic transcription of over 4000 genes during human spermatogenesis...
September 21, 2017: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28935594/self-replicating-rna-vaccine-functionality-modulated-by-fine-tuning-of-polyplex-delivery-vehicle-structure
#10
Thomas Démoulins, Thomas Ebensen, Kai Schulze, Pavlos C Englezou, Panagiota Milona, Maria Pelliccia, Carlos A Guzmán, Nicolas Ruggli, Kenneth C McCullough
The major limitations with large and complex self-amplifying RNA vaccines (RepRNA) are RNase-sensitivity and inefficient translation in dendritic cells (DCs). Condensing RepRNA with polyethylenimine (PEI) gave positive in vitro readouts, but was largely inferior to virus-like replicon particles (VRP) or direct electroporation. In the present study, we improved such polyplex formulation and determined that fine-tuning of the polyplex structure is essential for ensuring efficacious translation. Thereby, three parameters dominate: (i) PEI molecular weight (MW); (ii) RepRNA:PEI (weight:weight) ratio; and (iii) inclusion of cell penetrating peptides (CPPs)...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934926/irs-1-py612-and-akt-1-pkb-pt308-phosphorylation-and-antiinflammatory-effect-of-diindolylmethane-in-adipocytes-cocultured-with-macrophages
#11
Lopez-Vazquez Alfonso, Garcia B J Javier, Gonzalez G A Sofía, Urzua L P Ernesto, Del T A Susana, Bueno T M Ruth, Sanchez E Sergio, Munoz V J Francisco, Jave S L Felipe, Armendariz B J Socorro, Bastidas R B Estela
BACKGROUND: 3,3'-Diindolylmethane (DIM) is a condensation product of indole-3-carbinol, a glucosinolate naturally occurring in Brassica genus vegetables. The antiinflammatory properties of DIM through the inhibition of NF-κB, as well as its ameliorating effects on glucose tolerance and hyperglicemic states, have been described. A subclinical proinflammatory profile resultant from the interaction of adipocytes and macrophages have been reported in obesity, affecting the insulin signaling pathway, contributing to insulin resistance...
September 21, 2017: Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28934608/chemical-free-fabrication-of-n-p-dual-doped-honeycomb-like-carbon-as-an-efficient-electrocatalyst-for-oxygen-reduction
#12
Lianwen Zhu, Jun Wu, Qiao Zhang, Xiangkui Li, Yiming Li, Xuebo Cao
Heteroatom-doped nanoporous carbons are now emerging as alternatives to platinum and its alloys as electrocatalysts to facilitate oxygen reduction reaction in metal-air batteries and fuel cells. However, the synthesis of nanoporous carbons usually involve in complicated procedures and intensive chemicals, which may dramatically raise their manufacture cost that even surpasses that of precious platinum. Herein, we demonstrate the single-step, chemical-free fabrication of N, P dualdoped honeycomb carbon that has hierarchically porous structure and oxygen electrocatalysis activity close to the benchmark Pt/C...
August 23, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933839/flexible-and-comprehensive-implementation-of-md-pmm-approach-in-a-general-and-robust-code
#13
Oliver Carrillo-Parramon, Sara Del Galdo, Massimiliano Aschi, Giordano Mancini, Andrea Amadei, Vincenzo Barone
The Perturbed Matrix Method (PMM) approach to be used in combination with Molecular Dynamics (MD) trajectories (MD-PMM) has been recoded from scratch, improved in several aspects, and implemented in the Gaussian suite of programs for allowing user friendly and yet flexible tool to estimate quantum chemistry observables in complex systems in condensed phases. Particular attention has been devoted to a description of rigid and flexible quantum centers together with powerful essential dynamics and clustering approaches...
September 21, 2017: Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933288/stem-cell-differentiation-stage-factors-and-their-role-in-triggering-symmetry-breaking-processes-during-cancer-development-a-quantum-field-theory-model-for-reprogramming-cancer-cells-to-healthy-phenotypes
#14
Pier Mario Biava, Fabio Burigana, Roberto Germano, Philip Kurian, Claudio Verzegnassi, Giuseppe Vitiello
A long history of research has pursued the use of embryonic factors isolated during cell differentiation processes for the express purpose of transforming cancer cells back to healthy phenotypes. Recent results have clarified that the substances present at different stages of cell differentiation-which we call stem cell differentiation stage factors (SCDSFs)-are proteins with low molecular weight and nucleic acids that regulate genomic expression. The present review summarizes how these substances, taken at different stages of cellular maturation, are able to retard proliferation of many human tumor cell lines and thereby reprogram cancer cells to healthy phenotypes...
September 20, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28933078/-advance-in-biosynthesis-of-terpenoid-indole-alkaloids-and-its-regulation-in-catharanthus-roseus
#15
Xue-Jun Kuang, Cai-Xia Wang, Li-Qiu Zou, Xiao-Xuan Zhu, Chao Sun
Catharanthus roseus can produce a variety of terpenoid indole alkaloids (TIA), most of which exhibit strong pharmacological activities. Hence, biosynthesis and regulation of TIA have received recent attention. 3α (S)-strictosidine is an important node in TIA biosynthesis, which is a condensation product of secologanin and tryptamine. The former is produced in iridoid pathway, and the latter is produced in indole pathway. Vindoline and catharanthine, which are produced respectively by 3α (S)-strictosidine via multi-step enzymatic reaction, can form α-3, 4-anhydrovinblastine by the condensation reaction...
November 2016: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932470/crystal-structures-of-pure-3-4-bromo-2-chloro-phen-yl-1-pyridin-4-yl-benzo-4-5-imidazo-1-2-d-1-2-4-triazin-4-3h-one-and-contaminated-with-3-4-bromo-phen-yl-1-pyridin-4-yl-benzo-4-5-imidazo-1-2-d-1-2-4-triazin-4-3h-one
#16
Kanan Wahedy, Bassam Abu Thaher, Dieter Schollmeyer, Ihab Almasri, Rami Morjan, Basem Qeshta, Hans-Peter Deigner
The side product of the cyclo-condensation reaction between ethyl benzimidazole-2-carboxyl-ate and the nitrile imine of the corresponding hydrazonyl chloride, C20H11BrClN5O, crystallized in two crystal forms. Form (1) is a co-crystal of the target compound (without any chlorine substituent) and a side product containing a Cl atom in position 2 of the bromo-phenyl group, C20H12BrN5O·0.143C20H11BrClN5O. (2) contains the pure side product. The slightly different conformation of the ring systems leads to a different packing of (1) and (2), but both crystal structures are dominated by π-π inter-actions...
September 1, 2017: Acta Crystallographica. Section E, Crystallographic Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932467/crystal-structure-and-dft-study-of-e-n-2-1h-indol-3-yl-eth-yl-1-anthracen-9-yl-methanimine
#17
Md Serajul Haque Faizi, Necmi Dege, Sergey Malinkin, Tetyana Yu Sliva
The title compound, C25H20N2, (I), was synthesized from the condensation reaction of anthracene-9-carbaldehyde and tryptamine in dry ethanol. The indole ring system (r.m.s. deviation = 0.016 Å) makes a dihedral angle of 63.56 (8)° with the anthracene ring (r.m.s. deviation = 0.023 Å). There is a short intra-molecular C-H⋯N inter-action present, and a C-H⋯π inter-action involving the two ring systems. In the crystal, the indole H atom forms an inter-molecular N-H⋯π inter-action, linking mol-ecules to form chains along the b-axis direction...
September 1, 2017: Acta Crystallographica. Section E, Crystallographic Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932214/succinyl-coa-mesaconate-coa-transferase-and-mesaconyl-coa-hydratase-enzymes-of-the-methylaspartate-cycle-in-haloarcula-hispanica
#18
Farshad Borjian, Ulrike Johnsen, Peter Schönheit, Ivan A Berg
Growth on acetate or other acetyl-CoA-generating substrates as a sole source of carbon requires an anaplerotic pathway for the conversion of acetyl-CoA into cellular building blocks. Haloarchaea (class Halobacteria) possess two different anaplerotic pathways, the classical glyoxylate cycle and the novel methylaspartate cycle. The methylaspartate cycle was discovered in Haloarcula spp. and operates in ∼40% of sequenced haloarchaea. In this cycle, condensation of one molecule of acetyl-CoA with oxaloacetate gives rise to citrate, which is further converted to 2-oxoglutarate and then to glutamate...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931458/redox-active-reactions-in-denitrification-provided-by-biochars-pyrolyzed-at-different-temperatures
#19
Guanhong Chen, Zhirong Zhang, Zhiyuan Zhang, Renduo Zhang
The aim of this study was to investigate the role of redox-active components of biochar in the denitrification processes and N2O reduction. Both biochars pyrolyzed at 300 and 800°C were separated into two redox-active components (i.e., dissolved aromatic moieties and condensed aromatic structure), then applied to study the reduction process of denitrifying bacteria from a paddy soil. Results demonstrated three main pathways of the biochar redox-active components for the denitrification processes and N2O reduction...
September 17, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930466/a-stereoselective-michael-mannich-annelation-strategy-for-the-construction-of-novel-tetrahydrocarbazoles
#20
David R Williams, Seth A Bawel, Richard N Schaugaard
A novel annelation strategy has been devised for stereoselective synthesis of tetrahydrocarbazoles. The pathway features a regio- and stereocontrolled condensation of indole and its substituted derivatives with electron-deficient 1,3-dienes via a Michael-Mannich reaction sequence. An extension of this method to include cross-conjugated allenes as substrates also results in a Michael-Mannich-Michael cascade, incorporating 2 equiv of indole with increasing product complexity. The formal 4π + 2π cyclization describes a concise route to polycyclic alkaloids of this family...
September 20, 2017: Organic Letters
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