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Hiromichi Nakahara, Masayori Hagimori, Takahiro Mukai, Osamu Shibata
The property of a newly synthesized tetrazine derivative comprised of double C18-saturated hydrocarbon chain (C18-rTz-C18) has been studied in situ at the air-water interface. C18-rTz-C18 or a gemini amphiphile contributes to restriction of its tetrazine moiety on the interface, which is expected to be used for bioimaging and analytical reagents. Herein, to understand lateral interactions between Tz and biomembrane constituents, we investigated the interfacial behavior of Langmuir monolayers composed of C18-rTz-C18 and biomembrane lipids such as DPPC, DPPG, DPPE, PSM, and Cholesterol (Ch)...
January 17, 2018: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
David Baruc Cruvinel Lima, Ticiana Franco Pereira da Silva, Annice Aquino-Cortez, Johanna Leiva-Revilla, Lúcia Daniel Machado da Silva
Protocols for the cryopreservation of testicular tissue are not yet established. In cats, few studies have been conducted on testicular vitrification using different cryoprotectant associations (CPAs). Thus, the objective of this study was to compare the effect of different CPAs on the vitrification of testicular tissue from prepubertal cats in cryotubes. We used 10 pairs of testicles, with each pair divided into 8 fragments that were distributed into different experimental groups. Two of these fragments were allocated into the control group (CG) and the other six were distributed according to the CPAs to be tested (dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO)/glycerol (GLY), ethylene glycol (EG)/GLY, or DMSO/EG)...
January 5, 2018: Theriogenology
Nicole B Reinke
BACKGROUND: Many pre-registration nursing programs in Australia use distributive models of clinical placement whereby students attend placement on regular days each week of the teaching semester. The use of this model offers practical advantages by increasing the placement offerings, but reduces the weekdays available for students to attend on-campus classes. The impact of introducing this model on the delivery of on-campus classes has not been examined. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to explore the impact of delivering classes using a condensed weekly timetable on the academic achievement, learning experiences and approaches to learning of pre-registration Bachelor of Nursing Science students at an Australian regional university...
December 15, 2017: Nurse Education Today
Monika Kumari, Chi-Hsien Liu, Wei-Chi Wu
Chitosan and its derivatives have shown to be potential gene carriers with biocompatiblility and safety. However, their practical delivery is far from being ideal because of the low transfection efficiency. The present work describes the potential of a natural protein, bovine serum albumin (BSA), conjugated with a natural oligosaccharide, oligochitosan (OC), as a considerable promising approach for a safe and efficient non-viral gene delivery vector. The FTIR spectra proved the effective conjugation of BSA with OC through covalent bond...
March 1, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
Michael Thoss, Ferdinand Evers
Molecular junctions, where single molecules are bound to metal or semiconductor electrodes, represent a unique architecture to investigate molecules in a distinct nonequilibrium situation and, in a broader context, to study basic mechanisms of charge and energy transport in a many-body quantum system at the nanoscale. Experimental studies of molecular junctions have revealed a wealth of interesting transport phenomena, the understanding of which necessitates theoretical modeling. The accurate theoretical description of quantum transport in molecular junctions is challenging because it requires methods that are capable to describe the electronic structure and dynamics of molecules in a condensed phase environment out of equilibrium, in some cases with strong electron-electron and/or electronic-vibrational interaction...
January 21, 2018: Journal of Chemical Physics
Vigdis Bruun-Olsen, Astrid Bergland, Kristi Elisabeth Heiberg
BACKGROUND: Recovery outlooks of physical functioning and quality of life after hip fracture have not changed significantly over the past 25 years. Previous research has mainly dealt with causalities and acute treatment, while the recovery process from the patients' perspective has been less comprehensively described. Expanded knowledge of what the patients consider important in their recovery process may have important consequences for how these patients are treated in the future and thereby on future patient outcomes...
January 19, 2018: BMC Geriatrics
Chiao-Yu Cheng, Rijul Dhanker, Christopher L Gray, Sukrit Mukhopadhyay, Eric R Kennehan, John B Asbury, Anatoliy Sokolov, Noel C Giebink
We report strong coupling between light and polaron optical excitations in a doped organic semiconductor microcavity at room temperature. Codepositing MoO_{3} and the hole transport material 4, 4^{'}-cyclohexylidenebis[N, N-bis(4-methylphenyl)benzenamine] introduces a large hole density with a narrow linewidth optical transition centered at 1.8 eV and an absorption coefficient exceeding 10^{4}  cm^{-1}. Coupling this transition to a Fabry-Pérot cavity mode yields upper and lower polaron polariton branches that are clearly resolved in angle-dependent reflectivity with a vacuum Rabi splitting ℏΩ_{R}>0...
January 5, 2018: Physical Review Letters
M Klaas, H Flayac, M Amthor, I G Savenko, S Brodbeck, T Ala-Nissila, S Klembt, C Schneider, S Höfling
We study the influence of spatial confinement on the second-order temporal coherence of the emission from a semiconductor microcavity in the strong coupling regime. The confinement, provided by etched micropillars, has a favorable impact on the temporal coherence of solid state quasicondensates that evolve in our device above threshold. By fitting the experimental data with a microscopic quantum theory based on a quantum jump approach, we scrutinize the influence of pump power and confinement and find that phonon-mediated transitions are enhanced in the case of a confined structure, in which the modes split into a discrete set...
January 5, 2018: Physical Review Letters
G Cao, J Terzic, H D Zhao, H Zheng, L E De Long, Peter S Riseborough
Electrical control of structural and physical properties is a long-sought, but elusive goal of contemporary science and technology. We demonstrate that a combination of strong spin-orbit interactions (SOI) and a canted antiferromagnetic Mott state is sufficient to attain that goal. The antiferromagnetic insulator Sr_{2}IrO_{4} provides a model system in which strong SOI lock canted Ir magnetic moments to IrO_{6} octahedra, causing them to rigidly rotate together. A novel coupling between an applied electrical current and the canting angle reduces the Néel temperature and drives a large, nonlinear lattice expansion that closely tracks the magnetization, increases the electron mobility, and precipitates a unique resistive switching effect...
January 5, 2018: Physical Review Letters
Patrick D Ellis Fisher, Qi Shen, Bernice Akpinar, Luke K Davis, Kenny Kwok Hin Chung, David Baddeley, Andela Saric, Thomas J Melia, Bart W Hoogenboom, Chenxiang Lin, C Patrick Lusk
Nuclear pore complexes (NPCs) form gateways that control molecular exchange between the nucleus and the cytoplasm. They impose a diffusion barrier to macromolecules and enable the selective transport of nuclear transport receptors with bound cargo. The underlying mechanisms that establish these permeability properties remain to be fully elucidated, but require unstructured nuclear pore proteins rich in Phe-Gly (FG)-repeat domains of different types, such as FxFG and GLFG. While physical modeling and in vitro approaches have provided a framework for explaining how the FG network contributes to the barrier and transport properties of the NPC, it remains unknown whether the number and/or the spatial positioning of different FG-domains along a cylindrical, ~40 nm diameter transport channel contributes to their collective properties and function...
January 19, 2018: ACS Nano
Quentin R Johnson, Barmak Mostofian, Gabriel Fuente Gomez, Jeremy C Smith, Xiaolin Cheng
Carotenoids have been found to be important in improving the integrity of biomembranes in eukaryotes. However, the molecular details of how carotenoids modulate the physical properties of biomembranes are unknown. To this end, we have conducted a series of molecular dynamics simulations of different biologically-relevant membranes in the presence of carotenoids. The carotenoid effect on the membrane was found to be specific to the identity of the carotenoid and the composition of the membrane itself. Therefore, different classes of carotenoids produce a different effect on the membrane, and different membrane phases are affected differently by carotenoids...
January 19, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Mehak Nawaz Khan, Abdul Majeed Khan, Hamid Ullah, Sajjad Hussain, Azim Khan Khattak
A Schiff base 3 has been synthesized by equimolar reaction (condensation) of sulfonamide i.e. sulfamethoxypyridazine 1 and substituted aromatic aldehyde i.e. 2-Hydroxy-1-Napthalene aldehyde 2. The synthesized Schiff base 3 and its Metal (II) complexes were characterized by its physical, analytical (CHN analysis) and spectral (UV & IR) analysis. The Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli bacterial strains were used for antibacterial activity of Sulfamethoxypyridazine 1, its Schiff base 3 and its transition metal (II) complexes 4-8...
January 2018: Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Hidetsugu Sakaguchi, Hiroomi Chono
The Rayleigh-Taylor instability is a gravitational instability in two fluids where the heavier fluid is set over the lighter fluid. The instability occurs both in classical fluids and quantum fluids. We numerically study the Rayleigh-Taylor instability using coupled Gross-Pitaevskii equations for two-component Bose-Einstein condensates. We carry out numerical simulations that the heavier component is set in a torus initially which is surrounded by the lighter component. When the torus falls, the Rayleigh-Taylor instability develops and a sagging pattern appears...
November 2017: Physical Review. E
E S Benilov, M S Benilov
We derive a kinetic equation for rarefied diatomic gases whose molecules have a permanent dipole moment. Estimating typical parameters of such gases, we show that quantum effects cannot be neglected when describing the rotation of molecules, which we thus approximate by quantum rotators. The intermolecular potential is assumed to involve an unspecified short-range repulsive component and a long-range dipole-dipole Coulomb interaction. In the kinetic equation derived, the former and the latter give rise, respectively, to the collision integral and a self-consistent electric field generated collectively by the dipoles (as in the Vlasov model of plasma)...
October 2017: Physical Review. E
Yuta Yoshimoto, Takuma Hori, Ikuya Kinefuchi, Shu Takagi
We investigate the effect of capillary condensation on gas diffusivity in porous media composed of randomly packed spheres with moderate wettability. To simulate capillary phenomena at the pore scale while retaining complex pore networks of the porous media, we employ density functional theory (DFT) for coarse-grained lattice gas models. The lattice DFT simulations reveal that capillary condensations preferentially occur at confined pores surrounded by solid walls, leading to the occlusion of narrow pores. Consequently, the characteristic lengths of the partially wet structures are larger than those of the corresponding dry structures with the same porosities...
October 2017: Physical Review. E
Robert J N Baldock, Noam Bernstein, K Michael Salerno, Lívia B Pártay, Gábor Csányi
The nested sampling algorithm has been shown to be a general method for calculating the pressure-temperature-composition phase diagrams of materials. While the previous implementation used single-particle Monte Carlo moves, these are inefficient for condensed systems with general interactions where single-particle moves cannot be evaluated faster than the energy of the whole system. Here we enhance the method by using all-particle moves: either Galilean Monte Carlo or the total enthalpy Hamiltonian Monte Carlo algorithm, introduced in this paper...
October 2017: Physical Review. E
M V Ushcats, L A Bulavin, V M Sysoev, S Yu Ushcats
For realistic interaction models, which include both molecular attraction and repulsion (e.g., Lennard-Jones, modified Lennard-Jones, Morse, and square-well potentials), the asymptotic behavior of the virial expansions for pressure and density in powers of activity has been studied taking power terms of high orders into account on the basis of the known finite-order irreducible integrals as well as the recent approximations of infinite irreducible series. Even in the divergence region (at subcritical temperatures), this behavior stays thermodynamically adequate (in contrast to the behavior of the virial equation of state with the same set of irreducible integrals) and corresponds to the beginning of the first-order phase transition: the divergence yields the jump (discontinuity) in density at constant pressure and chemical potential...
December 2017: Physical Review. E
Natalia Vladimirova
Here we study how coherence appears in a system driven by noise at small scales. In the wave turbulence modeled by the Gross-Pitaevskii or the nonlinear Schrödinger equation, we observe states with correlation scales smaller than the system size but much larger than the excitation scale. We call a such state precondensate to distinguish it from condensate defined as a systemwide coherent state. Both condensate and precondensate are characterized by large-scale phase coherence and a narrow distribution of amplitudes...
December 2017: Physical Review. E
S K Ivanov, A M Kamchatnov, T Congy, N Pavloff
We provide a classification of the possible flows of two-component Bose-Einstein condensates evolving from initially discontinuous profiles. We consider the situation where the dynamics can be reduced to the consideration of a single polarization mode (also denoted as "magnetic excitation") obeying a system of equations equivalent to the Landau-Lifshitz equation for an easy-plane ferromagnet. We present the full set of one-phase periodic solutions. The corresponding Whitham modulation equations are obtained together with formulas connecting their solutions with the Riemann invariants of the modulation equations...
December 2017: Physical Review. E
Raphael Schiedung, Reza Darvishi Kamachali, Ingo Steinbach, Fathollah Varnik
The multi-phase-field approach is generalized to treat capillarity-driven diffusion parallel to the surfaces and phase boundaries, i.e., the boundaries between a condensed phase and its vapor and the boundaries between two or multiple condensed phases. The effect of capillarity is modeled via curvature dependence of the chemical potential whose gradient gives rise to diffusion. The model is used to study thermal grooving on the surface of a polycrystalline body. Decaying oscillations of the surface profile during thermal grooving, postulated by Hillert long ago but reported only in few studies so far, are observed and discussed...
July 2017: Physical Review. E
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