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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143945/one-evidence-of-cocaine-and-amphetamine-regulated-transcript-cart-has-the-bidirectional-effects-on-appetite-in-siberian-sturgeon-acipenser-baerii
#1
Xin Zhang, Yundi Gao, Ni Tang, Jinwen Qi, Yuanbing Wu, Jin Hao, Shuyao Wang, Defang Chen, Zhiqiong Li
Cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART), discovered in 1995, with various biological functions, has received much attention recently due to its role in the regulation of appetite in mammals. However, the function of CART on the appetite control in fish species is still not very clear. In this study, Siberian sturgeon (Acipenser baerii Brandt) cart gene was cloned for the first time, and the cart mRNA levels in 11 feeding-related tissues was investigated. The Siberian sturgeon cart gene sequence was 1459 base pairs (bp), including a 3'-terminal untranslated region (3'-UTR) of 39 bp, a 5'-terminal untranslated region (5'-UTR) of 52 bp, and an open reading frame (ORF) of 348 bp encoding 115 amino acids...
November 16, 2017: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143554/the-octanoylated-energy-regulating-hormone-ghrelin-an-expanded-view-of-ghrelin-s-biological-interactions-and-avenues-for-controlling-ghrelin-signaling
#2
Elizabeth R Cleverdon, Kayleigh R McGovern-Gooch, James L Hougland
Ghrelin is a small peptide hormone that requires a unique post-translational modification, serine octanoylation, to bind and activate the GHS-R1a receptor. Initially demonstrated to stimulate hunger and appetite, ghrelin-dependent signaling is implicated in a variety of neurological and physiological processes influencing diseases such as diabetes, obesity, and Prader-Willi syndrome. In addition to its cognate receptor, recent studies have revealed ghrelin interacts with a range of binding partners within the bloodstream...
November 16, 2017: Molecular Membrane Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138359/comparative-effects-of-intraduodenal-amino-acid-infusions-on-food-intake-and-gut-hormone-release-in-healthy-males
#3
Robert E Steinert, Sina S Ullrich, Nori Geary, Lori Asarian, Marco Bueter, Michael Horowitz, Christine Feinle-Bisset
In contrast to the many studies of the effects of individual amino acids (AAs) on eating, no studies have compared the effects of different AAs on eating and underlying preabsorptive gastrointestinal mechanisms. To compare the effects of intraduodenal infusions of l-tryptophan (TRP), l-leucine (LEU), l-phenylalanine (PHE) and l-glutamine (GLN) on appetite, gastrointestinal hormone responses (including ghrelin, cholecystokinin (CCK), peptide YY (PYY) and glucagon-like peptide-1 [GLP-1]), glycemia (glucagon, insulin and glucose) and test meal size in healthy males, we retrospectively analyzed data from four published independent, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled studies of 90-min intraduodenal infusions of the individual AAs...
November 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131106/gut-microbiota-dependent-modulation-of-energy-metabolism
#4
Christina N Heiss, Louise E Olofsson
The gut microbiota has emerged as an environmental factor that modulates the host's energy balance. It increases the host's ability to harvest energy from the digested food, and produces metabolites and microbial products such as short-chain fatty acids, secondary bile acids, and lipopolysaccharides. These metabolites and microbial products act as signaling molecules that modulate appetite, gut motility, energy uptake and storage, and energy expenditure. Several findings suggest that the gut microbiota can affect the development of obesity...
November 8, 2017: Journal of Innate Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128625/lxr-activation-increases-the-expression-of-gnrh-and-%C3%AE-msh-in-the-rat-hypothalamus-in-vivo
#5
María Sol Kruse, Lucas Gabriel Suarez, Héctor Coirini
Liver X receptors (LXR) are important transcription factors involved in the regulation of carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. Recently, we described LXR receptors expression in the hypothalamus but their function in this brain area remains unknown. Here, we evaluated the function of LXR on the expression of factors produced in the hypothalamus in vitro and in vivo by Western blotting and immunocytochemistry. More precisely we studied the expression of GnRH and GHRH, αMSH and NPY in male Sprague-Dawley rats...
November 9, 2017: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123848/a-case-of-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-with-metformin-associated-lactic-acidosis-initially-presenting-the-appearance-of-a-sulfonylurea-related-hypoglycemic-attack
#6
Kota Nishihama, Kanako Maki, Yuko Okano, Rei Hashimoto, Yasuhiro Hotta, Mei Uemura, Taro Yasuma, Toshinari Suzuki, Toyomi Hayashi, Eiji Ishikawa, Yutaka Yano, Esteban C Gabazza, Masaaki Ito, Yoshiyuki Takei
Case: A 64-year-old Japanese woman with diabetes mellitus was admitted for hypoglycemia. Her diabetes had been under good control with glimepiride, voglibose, exenatide, and metformin for a few years. Although overt proteinuria was observed, the serum creatinine values were within normal range during the routine outpatient follow-up. Hypoglycemic attack caused by glimepiride and loss of appetite by urinary tract infection were diagnosed. Then, metformin-associated lactic acidosis with acute renal failure caused by dehydration was detected...
January 2017: Acute Medicine & Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122953/dietary-weight-loss-induced-changes-in-rbp4-ffa-and-ace-predict-weight-regain-in-people-with-overweight-and-obesity
#7
Roel G Vink, Nadia J Roumans, Edwin C Mariman, Marleen A van Baak
Adipokines and other biomarkers were previously identified with roles in energy expenditure, appetite, satiety, and adiposity. Therefore, we investigated whether dietary weight loss-induced changes in adipokines and other biomarkers known to play a role in weight regulation or energy expenditure could predict weight regain in people with overweight and obesity. In this randomized controlled trial 26 males and 30 females (BMI: 28-35 kg/m(2)) followed either a low-calorie diet (LCD; 1250 kcal/day) for 12 weeks or a very-low-calorie diet (VLCD; 500 kcal/day) for 5 weeks followed by a weight stable period of 4 weeks (dietary intervention (DI) period) and a 9-month follow-up period...
November 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114602/impact-on-quality-of-life-of-imrt-versus-3-d-conformal-radiation-therapy-in-head-and-neck-cancer-patients-a-case-control-study
#8
Edvard Abel, Ewa Silander, Jan Nyman, Mogens Bove, Leif Johansson, Thomas Björk-Eriksson, Eva Hammerlid
Objective: The purpose of this study was to prospectively and longitudinally compare the health-related quality of life (HRQOL) outcomes between head and neck (HN) cancer patients treated with parotid-sparing intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) and patients treated with 3-dimensional conventional radiation therapy (3D-CRT). Methods and materials: Before and up to 12 months after treatment, HRQOL was recorded in patients with HN cancer who were referred to the Department of Oncology at Sahlgrenska University Hospital for curative IMRT...
July 2017: Advances in Radiation Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113807/cyanate-improves-insulin-sensitivity-and-hepatic-steatosis-in-normal-and-high-fat-fed-mice-anorexic-and-antioxidative-effects
#9
Seong Sik Kang, Kyo-Cheol Mun, Ji Hae Seo, Misun Choe, Eunyoung Ha
Obesity is an important contributing factor to progression of chronic kidney disease. Cyanate, known as uremic toxin, is an electrophile produced spontaneously from urea or by myeloperoxidase-catalyzed oxidation of thiocyanate. Herein, we explored metabolic effects of cyanate in normal chow diet (NCD)- and high fat diet (HFD)-fed mice. Mice were treated with cyanate (1 mg/mL in drinking water) and fed NCD or HFD. Peritoneal glucose tolerance test (PGTT) and insulin tolerance test (ITT) were performed. Blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine concentrations were determined...
November 4, 2017: Chemico-biological Interactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110749/salivary-leptin-and-tas1r2-tas1r3-polymorphisms-are-related-to-sweet-taste-sensitivity-and-carbohydrate-intake-from-a-buffet-meal-in-healthy-young-adults
#10
Pengfei Han, Russell S J Keast, Eugeni Roura
The influence of sweet taste sensitivity on food intake is not well understood. We investigated the involvement of salivary leptin and SNP of the sweet taste receptor genes (TAS1R2/TAS1R3) on sweet taste sensitivity, sensory-specific satiety (SSS) and macronutrient intake in healthy human adults. In all, nineteen high sweet sensitivity (HS) and eleven low sweet sensitivity (LS) subjects were classified based on the sweetness perception of one solution (9 mm sucrose) forced-choice triangle test. All participants completed a randomised crossover design experiment where they consumed one of three iso-energetic soup preloads differing in primary taste quality (sweet, non-sweet taste-control or no-taste energy-control)...
November 7, 2017: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29105627/macrophage-related-cytokine-expressions-in-depression-mouse-model-induced-by-chronic-unpredictable-mild-stress
#11
Shoulian Zhu, Lejing Li, Ying Li, Wenyuan Cao
Depression is characterized by mental retardation, interest blank, hypoactivity, anxiety, appetite loss, sexual dysfunction, sleep disorders and other symptoms. The incidence of depressed patients has demonstrated an upward trend in recent years. Antidepressant drugs are commonly used in modern medicine, but they have the side effect of drug resistance. This study aims to explore the effect of acupuncture stimulation on expressions of macrophage-related cytokines in mice with depression induced by chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS), and to explore the underlying immunological mechanism...
September 2017: Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29098187/review-the-role-of-cannabinoids-on-esophageal-function-what-we-know-thus-far
#12
REVIEW
Jonathan Gotfried, Rahul Kataria, Ron Schey
The endocannabinoid system (ECS) primarily consists of cannabinoid receptors (CBRs), endogenous ligands, and enzymes for endocannabinoid biosynthesis and inactivation. Although the presence of CBRs, both CB1 and CB2, as well as a third receptor (G-protein receptor 55 [GPR55]), has been established in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, few studies have focused on the role of cannabinoids on esophageal function. To date, studies have shown their effect on GI motility, inflammation and immunity, intestinal and gastric acid secretion, nociception and emesis pathways, and appetite control...
2017: Cannabis and Cannabinoid Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097594/aversive-learning-of-odor-heat-associations-in-ants
#13
Lucie Desmedt, David Baracchi, Jean-Marc Devaud, Martin Giurfa, Patrizia d'Ettorre
Ants have recently emerged as useful models for the study of olfactory learning. In this framework, the development of a protocol for the appetitive conditioning of the maxilla-labium extension response (MaLER) provided the possibility of studying Pavlovian odor-food learning in a controlled environment. Here we extend these studies by introducing the first Pavlovian aversive learning protocol for harnessed ants in the laboratory. We worked with carpenter ants Camponotus aethiops and first determined the capacity of different temperatures applied to the body surface to elicit the typical aversive mandible opening response (MOR)...
November 2, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29090299/effects-of-the-physical-form-and-the-degree-of-saturation-of-oil-on-postprandial-plasma-triglycerides-glycemia-and-appetite-of-healthy-chinese-adults
#14
Sze-Yen Tan, Elaine Peh, Phei Ching Siow, Alejandro G Marangoni, Christiani Jeyakumar Henry
Ethylcellulose (EC) forms a complex oleogel network that entraps lipids. The digestibility of an oleogel is influenced by the types of oils used in its preparation. This randomised, controlled, crossover study aimed to compare lipidemic, glycemic, and appetitive responses to a test meal alone (no oil control), or to palm oil (PO, 22.25 g), rice bran oil (RBO, 22.25 g), palm oleogel (PG, 22.25 g oil + 2.75 g EC), or rice bran oleogel (RBG, 22.25 g oil + 2.75 g EC). Eighteen healthy Chinese males (age: 28 ± 6 years, weight: 65...
November 1, 2017: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29080906/the-5-ht2c-receptor-agonist-meta-chlorophenylpiperazine-mcpp-reduces-palatable-food-consumption-and-bold-fmri-responses-to-food-images-in-healthy-female-volunteers
#15
Jason M Thomas, Colin T Dourish, Jeremy Tomlinson, Zaki Hassan-Smith, Peter C Hansen, Suzanne Higgs
RATIONALE: Brain 5-HT2C receptors form part of a neural network that controls eating behaviour. 5-HT2C receptor agonists decrease food intake by activating proopiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus, but recent research in rodents has suggested that 5-HT2C receptor agonists may also act via dopaminergic circuitry to reduce the rewarding value of food and other reinforcers. No mechanistic studies on the effects of 5-HT2C agonists on food intake in humans have been conducted to date...
October 28, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29074473/is-laser-acupuncture-an-effective-complementary-therapy-for-obesity-management-a-systematic-review-of-clinical-trials
#16
Nazli Namazi, Kajal Khodamoradi, Bagher Larijani, Mohammad Hossein Ayati
BACKGROUND: Complementary therapies may increase the success rate of weight loss via a calorie-restricted diet. Acupuncture is a popular complementary therapy for obesity management. To our knowledge, no studies have summarised the effects of laser acupuncture (LA) on obesity. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy of LA, in particular with respect to its impact on anthropometric features and appetite in obese adults, by conducting a systematic review of previous clinical trials...
October 26, 2017: Acupuncture in Medicine: Journal of the British Medical Acupuncture Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29073744/a-retrospective-study-of-long-acting-risperidone-use-to-support-treatment-adherence-in-youth-with-conduct-disorder
#17
Sevcan Karakoç Demirkaya, Hatice Aksu, Börte Gürbüz Özgür
Objective: Risperidone has been widely used to control aggression and conduct disorder (CD) in youth; however, treatment compliance is a major problem in CD. Our aim is to evaluate the effectiveness and tolerability of long-acting risperidone (LAR) in treating nonadherent cases. Methods: The medical records of children and adolescents who had CD and were nonadherent to conventional drugs and psychosocial interventions (and therefore taking LAR) were reviewed. Informed consent on offlabel use of LAR was obtained from the parents...
November 30, 2017: Clinical Psychopharmacology and Neuroscience: the Official Scientific Journal of the Korean College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29072515/interactions-between-metabolic-reward-and-cognitive-processes-in-appetite-control-implications-for-novel-weight-management-therapies
#18
Suzanne Higgs, Maartje S Spetter, Jason M Thomas, Pia Rotshtein, Michelle Lee, Manfred Hallschmid, Colin T Dourish
Traditional models of appetite control have emphasised the role of parallel homeostatic and hedonic systems, but more recently the distinction between independent homeostatic and hedonic systems has been abandoned in favour of a framework that emphasises the cross talk between the neurochemical substrates of the two systems. In addition, evidence has emerged more recently, that higher level cognitive functions such as learning, memory and attention play an important role in everyday appetite control and that homeostatic signals also play a role in cognition...
October 1, 2017: Journal of Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29072167/effect-of-whey-protein-supplementation-on-long-and-short-term-appetite-a-meta-analysis-of-randomized-controlled-trials
#19
Mehdi Mollahosseini, Sakineh Shab-Bidar, Mohammad Hossein Rahimi, Kurosh Djafarian
Specific components of dairy, such as whey proteins may have beneficial effects on body composition by suppressing appetite, although the findings of existing studies have been inconsistent. Therefore, a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials was performed to investigate effect of whey protein supplementation on long and short term appetite. A systematic search was conducted to identify eligible publications. Means and SDs for hunger, fullness, satiety, desire to eat and prospective consumption of food, before and after intervention, were extracted and then composite appetite score (CAS) calculated...
August 2017: Clinical Nutrition ESPEN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29071480/obesity-appetite-and-the-prefrontal-cortex
#20
REVIEW
Marci E Gluck, Pooja Viswanath, Emma J Stinson
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Obesity is a chronic illness and its prevalence is growing worldwide and numerous factors play a role in the regulation of food intake. The prefrontal cortex (PFC) is involved in high-order executive function, regulation of limbic reward regions, and the inhibition of impulsive behaviors. Understanding the role of the PFC in the control of appetite regulation may contribute to a greater understanding of the etiology of obesity and could improve weight loss outcomes...
October 25, 2017: Current Obesity Reports
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