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appetite control

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919738/long-term-ethanol-self-administration-induces-%C3%AE-fosb-in-male-and-female-adolescent-but-not-in-adult-wistar-rats
#1
Aranza Wille-Bille, Soledad de Olmos, Leonardo Marengo, Florencia Chiner, Ricardo Marcos Pautassi
Early-onset ethanol consumption predicts later development of alcohol use disorders. Age-related differences in reactivity to ethanol's effects may underlie this effect. Adolescent rats are more sensitive and less sensitive than adults to the appetitive and aversive behavioral effects of ethanol, respectively, and more sensitive to the neurotoxic effects of experimenter-administered binge doses of ethanol. However, less is known about age-related differences in the neural consequences of self-administered ethanol...
December 2, 2016: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919389/older-patients-use-of-technology-for-a-post-discharge-nutritional-intervention-a-mixed-methods-feasibility-study
#2
T Lindhardt, M H Nielsen
BACKGROUND: Malnutrition is frequent in older people and a precursor for morbidity and hospitalisation; furthermore low intake and weight loss during and after hospitalisation is well-described. Such patients are often excluded from technology projects on account of lack of skills. This is a barrier for their access to many current and future health care offers. OBJECTIVES: To test the acceptability, feasibility and preliminary efficacy of technology-supported energy- and protein-enforced homedelivered meals for older patients discharged from hospital...
January 2017: International Journal of Medical Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918284/context-specificity-of-both-acquisition-and-extinction-of-a-pavlovian-conditioned-response
#3
Sarah Starosta, Metin Uengoer, Isabelle Bartetzko, Sara Lucke, Onur Güntürkün, Maik C Stüttgen
It is widely held that the extinction of a conditioned response is more context specific than its initial acquisition. One proposed explanation is that context serves to disambiguate the meaning of a stimulus. Using a procedure that equated the learning histories of the contexts, we show that the memory of an appetitive Pavlovian association can be highly context specific despite being unambiguous. This result is inconsistent with predictions of the Rescorla-Wagner model of learning but in line with configural accounts of contextual control of behavior...
November 2016: Learning & Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917799/effect-of-one-unit-blood-donation-on-appetite-related-biomarkers
#4
Husamettin Erdamar, Muzaffer Cakmak
PURPOSE: It is commonly reported that blood donation (BD) leads to an increase in appetite. To investigate this claim, a questionnaire was offered to 306 people who had a history of BD at least once in their life. Following a positive outcome from the questionnaire, we further investigated the impact of BD on appetite. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The questionnaire study consists of a 5-question survey with VAS was performed on 399 volunteers. Later, 108 volunteers were enrolled in a laboratory study...
December 1, 2016: Clinical and Investigative Medicine. Médecine Clinique et Experimentale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916475/effects-of-polydextrose-with-breakfast-or-with-a-midmorning-preload-on-food-intake-and-other-appetite-related-parameters-in-healthy-normal-weight-and-overweight-females-an-acute-randomized-double-blind-placebo-controlled-and-crossover-study
#5
Alvin Ibarra, Kaisa Olli, Wilrike Pasman, Henk Hendriks, Esa Alhoniemi, Ghulam Shere Raza, Karl-Heinz Herzig, Kirsti Tiihonen
Polydextrose (PDX) reduces subsequent energy intake (EI) when administered at midmorning in single-blind trials of primarily normal-weight men. However, it is unclear if this effect also occurs when PDX is given at breakfast time. Furthermore, for ecological validity, it is desirable to study a female population, including those at risk for obesity. We studied the effects of PDX, served as part of a breakfast or midmorning preload, on subsequent EI and other appetite-related parameters in healthy normal-weight and overweight females...
December 1, 2016: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912679/three-pillars-for-the-neural-control-of-appetite
#6
Scott M Sternson, Anne-Kathrin Eiselt
The neural control of appetite is important for understanding motivated behavior along with the present rising prevalence of obesity. Over the past several years, new tools for cell type-specific neuron activity monitoring and perturbation have enabled increasingly detailed analyses of the mechanisms underlying appetite-control systems. Three major neural circuits strongly and acutely influence appetite but with notably different characteristics. Although these circuits interact, they have distinct properties and thus appear to contribute to separate but interlinked processes influencing appetite, thereby forming three pillars of appetite control...
November 28, 2016: Annual Review of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911311/risk-factors-and-pathological-substrates-associated-with-agitation-aggression-in-alzheimer-s-disease-a-preliminary-study-using-nacc-data
#7
Simrin Sennik, Tom A Schweizer, Corinne E Fischer, David G Munoz
BACKGROUND: Neuropsychiatric symptoms are common manifestations of Alzheimer's disease (AD). A number of studies have targeted psychosis, i.e., hallucinations and delusions in AD, but few have assessed agitation/aggression in AD. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the risk factors and pathological substrates associated with presence [A(+)] and absence [A(-)] of agitation/aggression (A) in autopsy-confirmed AD. METHODS: Data was collected from the UDS data as of 2015 on the NACC database...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911086/affective-and-autonomic-responses-to-erotic-images-evidence-of-disgust-based-mechanisms-in-female-sexual-interest-arousal-disorder
#8
Natasha S DePesa, Jeffrey E Cassisi
Disgust has recently been implicated in the development and maintenance of female sexual dysfunction, yet most empirical studies have been conducted with a sexually healthy sample. The current study contributes to the literature by expanding the application of a disgust model of sexual functioning to a clinically relevant sample of women with low sexual desire/arousal and accompanying sexual distress. Young women (mean age = 19.12 years) with psychometrically defined sexual dysfunction (i.e., female sexual interest/arousal disorder [FSIAD] group) and a healthy control group were compared in their affective (i...
December 2, 2016: Journal of Sex Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902988/smell-and-taste-to-improve-nutrition-in-very-preterm-infants-a-randomized-controlled-pilot-trial
#9
Friederike Beker, Gillian Opie, Elizabeth Noble, Yannan Jiang, Frank H Bloomfield
BACKGROUND: The perception of smell and taste, though present early in development, is not routinely considered in the care of preterm infants. Smell and taste are known to increase gut motility, insulin secretion, and the release of appetite, digestive and metabolic hormones. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to investigate the effect of regular smell and taste on the time from birth to full enteral feeds, and the feasibility of the study protocol in very preterm infants. METHODS: In a randomized controlled trial, infants <29 weeks' postmenstrual age (PA) were assigned to receive either the smell and taste of milk before each feed or to have no exposure to the smell and taste of milk (control)...
December 1, 2016: Neonatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901032/from-the-past-to-future-from-energy-expenditure-to-energy-intake-to-energy-expenditure
#10
REVIEW
M J Müller, C Geisler
Although most recent research on energy balance focusses on energy intake (EI) there is still need to think about both sides of the energy balance. Current research on energy expenditure (EE) relates to metabolic adaptation to negative energy balance, mitochondrial metabolism associated with aging, obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus, the role of EE in hunger and appetite control, non-shivering thermogenesis and brown adipose tissue activity, cellular bioenergetics as a target of obesity treatment and the evolutionary and ecological determinants of EE in humans and other primates...
November 30, 2016: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898967/genomewide-association-analysis-of-growth-traits-in-charolais-beef-cattle
#11
F J Jahuey-Martínez, G M Parra-Bracamonte, A M Sifuentes-Rincón, J C Martínez-González, C Gondro, C A García-Pérez, L A López-Bustamante
The objective of this study was to perform a genomewide association study (GWAS) for growth traits in Charolais beef cattle and to identify SNP markers and genes associated with these traits. Our study included 855 animals genotyped using 76,883 SNP from the GeneSeek Genomic Profiler Bovine HD panel. The examined phenotypic data included birth, weaning, and yearling weights as well as pre- and postweaning ADG. After quality control, 68,337 SNP and 823 animals were retained in the analysis. The association analysis was performed using the principal components method via the egscore function of the GenABEL version 1...
November 2016: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898845/effect-of-sterilization-and-of-dietary-fat-and-carbohydrate-content-on-food-intake-activity-level-and-blood-satiety-related-hormones-in-female-dogs
#12
S Schauf, A Salas-Mani, C Torre, G Bosch, H Swarts, C Castrillo
Animal sterilization is suggested to promote food overconsumption, although it is unknown whether this effect is mediated by variations in satiety-related hormones, which are released in response to food intake. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of sterilization and of the main energy-delivery nutrients, fat and nonstructural carbohydrates, on food intake, blood concentration of satiety-related hormones, and activity level in dogs. In a 2-phase experiment (phase I [Ph.I], 74 d, and Ph.II, 84 d), 12 female Beagle dogs were assigned to a control group (intact in both phases) and a sterilization group (spayed 20 d before Ph...
October 2016: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897393/cancer-anorexia-hypothalamic-activity-and-its-association-with-inflammation-and-appetite-regulating-peptides-in-lung-cancer
#13
Alessio Molfino, Alessandro Iannace, Maria Chiara Colaiacomo, Alessio Farcomeni, Alessandra Emiliani, Gianfranco Gualdi, Alessandro Laviano, Filippo Rossi Fanelli
BACKGROUND: Energy homeostasis is mediated by the hypothalamus, whose inflammation-induced functional derangements contribute to the onset of anorexia in cancer. By using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we determined the patterns of hypothalamic activation after oral intake in anorexic (A), non-anorexic (NA) cancer patients, and in controls (C). METHODS: Lung cancer patients were considered. Hypothalamic activation was recorded in A and NA patients and in C by fMRI, before (T0), immediately after (T1) the administration of an oral nutritional supplement, and after 15 min (T2)...
October 5, 2016: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895562/brain-computation-is-organized-via-power-of-two-based-permutation-logic
#14
Kun Xie, Grace E Fox, Jun Liu, Cheng Lyu, Jason C Lee, Hui Kuang, Stephanie Jacobs, Meng Li, Tianming Liu, Sen Song, Joe Z Tsien
There is considerable scientific interest in understanding how cell assemblies-the long-presumed computational motif-are organized so that the brain can generate intelligent cognition and flexible behavior. The Theory of Connectivity proposes that the origin of intelligence is rooted in a power-of-two-based permutation logic (N = 2 (i) -1), producing specific-to-general cell-assembly architecture capable of generating specific perceptions and memories, as well as generalized knowledge and flexible actions. We show that this power-of-two-based permutation logic is widely used in cortical and subcortical circuits across animal species and is conserved for the processing of a variety of cognitive modalities including appetitive, emotional and social information...
2016: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893279/american-alcohol-photo-stimuli-aaps-a-standardized-set-of-alcohol-and-matched-non-alcohol-images
#15
Christopher S Stauffer, Lily Dobberteen, Joshua D Woolley
BACKGROUND: Photographic stimuli are commonly used to assess cue reactivity in the research and treatment of alcohol use disorder. The stimuli used are often non-standardized, not properly validated, and poorly controlled. There are no previously published, validated, American-relevant sets of alcohol images created in a standardized fashion. OBJECTIVES: We aimed to: 1) make available a standardized, matched set of photographic alcohol and non-alcohol beverage stimuli, 2) establish face validity, the extent to which the stimuli are subjectively viewed as what they are purported to be, and 3) establish construct validity, the degree to which a test measures what it claims to be measuring...
November 28, 2016: American Journal of Drug and Alcohol Abuse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892808/self-reported-impulsivity-in-huntington-s-disease-patients-and-relationship-to-executive-dysfunction-and-reward-responsiveness
#16
Patricia L Johnson, Geoffrey F Potts, Juan Sanchez-Ramos, Cynthia R Cimino
INTRODUCTION: Few studies have directly investigated impulsivity in Huntington's disease (HD) despite known changes in dopaminergic and frontal functioning, changes that have been associated with impulsivity in other disorders and in the normal population. This study sought to further categorize impulsivity in HD through examining differences in self-reported impulsivity between community controls and HD patients, the relationship between executive dysfunction and impulsivity, and the relationship of a reward/punishment behavioral inhibition task in relation to these self-report measures...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891086/circuits-regulating-pleasure-and-happiness-mechanisms-of-depression
#17
Anton J M Loonen, Svetlana A Ivanova
According to our model of the regulation of appetitive-searching vs. distress-avoiding behaviors, the motivation to display these essential conducts is regulated by two parallel cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical, re-entry circuits, including the core and the shell parts of the nucleus accumbens, respectively. An entire series of basal ganglia, running from the caudate nucleus on one side, to the centromedial amygdala on the other side, controls the intensity of these reward-seeking and misery-fleeing behaviors by stimulating the activity of the (pre)frontal and limbic cortices...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890592/small-particle-size-lipid-emulsions-satiety-and-energy-intake-in-lean-men
#18
Y K Chan, S C Budgett, A K MacGibbon, S Y Quek, S Kindleysides, S D Poppitt
Lipid emulsions have been proposed to suppress hunger and food intake. Whilst there is no consensus on optimal structural properties or mechanism of action, small particle size (small-PS) stable emulsions may have greatest efficacy. Fabuless®, a commercial lipid emulsion reported in some studies to decrease energy intake (EI), is a small-PS, 'hard' fat emulsion comprising highly saturated palm oil base (PS, 82nm). To determine whether small-PS dairy lipid emulsions can enhance satiety, firstly, we investigated 2 'soft' fat dairy emulsions generated using dairy and soy emulsifying agents (PS, 114nm and 121nm) and a non-emulsified dairy control...
November 24, 2016: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885554/short-term-effects-of-a-green-coffee-extract-garcinia-c-ambogia-and-l-carnitine-containing-chewing-gum-on-snack-intake-and-appetite-regulation
#19
Cecilia Bobillo, Graham Finlayson, Ana Martínez, Daniela Fischman, Analisa Beneitez, Alejandro J Ferrero, Belisario E Fernández, Marcos A Mayer
INTRODUCTION: Different studies have assessed the influence of chewing gum to aid control of appetite and reduce food intake. PURPOSE: The aims of the present study were to evaluate the effects of chewing gum on satiety, food hedonics and snack intake and to explore the potential effects of the combination of Garcinia c ambogia, green coffee extract and L-carnitine on satiety, when administered in a gum format. METHODS: This was a prospective study in which 57 subjects randomly received three kinds of treatments, in a crossover design: (1) active gum; (2) placebo gum; and (3) no gum...
November 24, 2016: European Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884761/assessment-of-the-motivation-to-use-artificial-sweetener-among-individuals-with-an-eating-disorder
#20
Janet Schebendach, Diane A Klein, Laurel E S Mayer, Evelyn Attia, Michael J Devlin, Richard W Foltin, B Timothy Walsh
Eating disorders are associated with a range of abnormalities in eating behavior. Some individuals consume large amounts of non-caloric artificial sweeteners, suggesting abnormalities in appetitive responding. The current study aimed to quantify hedonic and motivating effects of artificial sweetener in individuals with and without an eating disorder. Two laboratory studies were conducted. Hedonic preference was estimated using the number of artificial sweetener packets (0-10) added to unsweetened cherry flavored Kool-Aid (study 1)...
November 21, 2016: Appetite
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