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appetite control

Peng Luo, Shuo Li, Yitai Chen, Yuwen Luo, Yun Li, Kai Wang, Yuxia Huang, Xin Chen
BACKGROUND: Roflumilast, a phosphodiesterase-4 inhibitor recommended by clinical guideline, is always being used in combination with at least one long-acting bronchodilator in patients with stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). However, there are few evidences about whether the combination of roflumilast and long-acting bronchodilators is safer and more effective in patients with moderate-to-very severe stable COPD. In our study, we investigate the effect and safety of roflumilast combined with long-acting bronchodilators on moderate-to-severe stable COPD patients...
September 2016: Journal of Thoracic Disease
Daisy Walter, Petra G A van Boeckel, Marcel J M Groenen, Bas L A M Weusten, Ben J Witteman, Gi Tan, Menno A Brink, Jan Nicolai, Adriaan C Tan, Joyce Alderliesten, Niels G Venneman, Wim Laleman, Jeroen M Jansen, Alexander Bodelier, Frank L Wolters, Laurens A van der Waaij, Ronald Breumelhof, Frans T M Peters, Robbert C H Scheffer, Ewout W Steyerberg, Anne M May, Max Leenders, Meike M C Hirdes, Frank P Vleggaar, Peter D Siersema
OBJECTIVE: For palliation of extrahepatic bile duct obstruction, self-expandable metal stents (SEMS) are superior to plastic stents in terms of stent patency and occurrence of stent dysfunction. We assessed health-related quality of life (HRQoL) after stent placement to investigate whether this also results in a difference in HRQoL between patients treated with a plastic stent or SEMS. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This randomized multicenter trial included 219 patients who were randomized to receive plastic stent (n=73) or SEMS [uncovered (n=75) and covered (n=71); n=146] placement...
October 12, 2016: European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
Heidi C Meyer, David J Bucci
Mounting evidence indicates that adolescents exhibit heightened sensitivity to rewards and reward-related cues compared to adults, and that adolescents are often unable to exert behavioral control in the face of such cues. Moreover, differences in reward processing during adolescence have been linked to heightened risk taking and impulsivity. However, little is known about the processes by which adolescents learn about the appetitive properties of environmental stimuli that signal reward. To address this, Pavlovian conditioning procedures were used to test for differences in excitatory conditioning between adult and adolescent rats using various schedules of reinforcement...
October 11, 2016: Physiology & Behavior
Nicholas J Kelley, Brandon J Schmeichel
Self-control involves the inhibition of dominant response tendencies. Most research on self-control has examined the inhibition of appetitive tendencies, and recent evidence suggests that stimulation to increase right frontal cortical activity helps to inhibit approach-motivated responses. The current experiment paired an approach-avoidance joystick task with transcranial DC stimulation to test the effects of brain stimulation on the inhibition of both approach and avoidance response tendencies. Anodal stimulation over the right/cathodal stimulation over the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (compared to the opposite pattern of stimulation or sham stimulation) caused participants to initiate motive-incongruent movements more quickly, thereby suggesting a shared neural mechanism for the self-control of both approach- and avoidance-motivated impulses...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Experimental Psychology. General
Yan J Bao, Wei Hou, Xiang Y Kong, Liping Yang, Jun Xia, Bao J Hua, Roger Knaggs
BACKGROUND: Cancer pain is an important and distressing symptom that tends to increase in frequency and intensity as the cancer advances. For people with advanced cancer, the prevalence of pain can be as high as 90%. It has been estimated that 30% to 50% of people with cancer categorise their pain as moderate to severe, with between 75% and 90% of people with cancer experiencing pain that they describe as having a major impact on their daily life. Epidemiological studies suggest that approximately 15% of people with cancer pain fail to experience acceptable pain relief with conventional management...
October 11, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Gail Ewing, Clarissa Penfold, John Benson, Ravi Mahadeva, Sophie Howson, Julie Burkin, Sara Booth, Roberta Lovick, David Gilligan, Christopher Todd, Morag Farquhar
CONTEXT: Carers' needs in advanced disease, and specifically in relation to breathlessness, are well evidenced. Publications on educational interventions for carers of patients with advanced disease which focus on symptoms are scarce and absent for breathlessness. OBJECTIVES: To establish current education provided by clinicians for carers of patients with breathlessness in advanced disease, views about educating carers about breathlessness and relevant outcomes for a future randomised controlled trial (RCT) of an educational intervention for carers...
October 7, 2016: Journal of Pain and Symptom Management
Zuleen Delina Fasya Abdul Ghani, Juani Mazmin Husin, Ahmad Hazri Ab Rashid, Khozirah Shaari, Zamri Chik
Piper Betle L. (PB) belongs to the Piperaceae family. The presence of a fairly large quantity of diastase in the betel leaf is deemed to play an important role in starch digestion and calls for the study of weight loss activities and metabolite profile from PB leaf extracts using metabolomics approach to be performed. PB dried leaves were extracted with 70% ethanol and the extracts were subjected to five groups of rats fed with high fat (HF) and standard diet (SD). They were then fed with the extracts in two doses and compared with a negative control group given water only according to the study protocol...
October 7, 2016: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Sedigheh Babaei, Alberto Sáez, Albert Caballero-Solares, Felipe Fernández, Isabel V Baanante, Isidoro Metón
Endocrine factors released from the central nervous system, gastrointestinal tract, adipose tissue and other peripheral organs mediate the regulation of food intake. Although many studies have evaluated the effect of fed-to-starved transition on the expression of appetite-related genes, little is known about how the expression of appetite-regulating peptides is regulated by the macronutrient composition of the diet. The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of diet composition and nutritional status on the expression of four peptides involved in food intake control in gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata): neuropeptide Y (NPY), ghrelin, cholecystokinin (CCK) and leptin...
October 7, 2016: General and Comparative Endocrinology
Morag K Mansley, Jessica R Ivy, Matthew A Bailey
Hypertension is known as the "silent killer," driving the global public health burden of cardiovascular and renal disease. Blood pressure homeostasis is intimately associated with sodium balance and the distribution of sodium between fluid compartments and within tissues. On a population level, most societies consume 10 times more salt that the 0.5 g required by physiological need. This high salt intake is strongly linked to hypertension and to the World Health Organization targeting a ∼30% relative reduction in mean population salt intake to arrest the global mortality due to cardiovascular disease...
September 2016: KI Rep
Tom J Hazell, Hashim Islam, Jillian R Hallworth, Jennifer L Copeland
Exercise-induced changes in appetite-regulating hormones may be intensity-dependent, however a clear dose-response relationship has not been established. The purpose of this study was to examine changes in anorexigenic markers (total PYY and GLP-1) in response to rest or exercise at submaximal and supramaximal intensities. Ten active males completed four experimental sessions in randomized order: 1) Moderate intensity continuous training (MICT; 30 min cycling at 65% VO2max); 2) High intensity continuous training (HICT; 30 min cycling at 85% VO2max); 3) Sprint interval training (SIT; 6 × 30 s "all-out" cycling bouts with 4 min recovery periods); 4) Control (CTRL; no exercise)...
October 6, 2016: Appetite
Vincent D Costa, Olga Dal Monte, Daniel R Lucas, Elisabeth A Murray, Bruno B Averbeck
Reinforcement learning (RL) theories posit that dopaminergic signals are integrated within the striatum to associate choices with outcomes. Often overlooked is that the amygdala also receives dopaminergic input and is involved in Pavlovian processes that influence choice behavior. To determine the relative contributions of the ventral striatum (VS) and amygdala to appetitive RL, we tested rhesus macaques with VS or amygdala lesions on deterministic and stochastic versions of a two-arm bandit reversal learning task...
September 28, 2016: Neuron
Candida J Rebello, Frank L Greenway
The homeostatic controls over eating are inextricably linked to the reward aspects of eating. The result is an integrated response that coordinates the internal milieu with the prevailing environment. Thus, appetite, which reflects a complex interaction among the external environment, behavioral profile, and subjective states as well as the storage and metabolism of energy, has an important role in the regulation of energy balance. In the prevailing food environment which offers an abundance of food choices it is likely that the motivation to consume from a wide range of delectable foods plays a greater role in contributing to overeating than in the past when the motivation to eat was largely governed by metabolic need...
October 7, 2016: Advances in Therapy
Frédéric Tantot, Shauna L Parkes, Alain R Marchand, Chloé Boitard, Fabien Naneix, Sophie Layé, Pierre Trifilieff, Etienne Coutureau, Guillaume Ferreira
Evidence now indicates that the chronic consumption of high-calorie foods, such as a high-fat diet (HFD), is associated with impaired control over food-seeking, yet the extent of this alteration is not fully understood. Using different reinforcement schedules, we evaluated whether HFD intake from weaning to adulthood modifies instrumental responding and induces a shift from goal-directed actions to habitual responding. We first observed reduced instrumental performance and motivation for a food reward in HFD-fed rats trained under schedules of reinforcement that facilitate habitual responding [Random Interval (RI)]...
October 3, 2016: Appetite
Martina Hinsberger, Leon Holtzhausen, Jessica Sommer, Debra Kaminer, Thomas Elbert, Soraya Seedat, Sarah Wilker, Anselm Crombach, Roland Weierstall
Objective: In an observer-blinded intervention trial, we tested the reduction of posttraumatic stress symptoms, aggressive attitude, and behavior in young males living in a context of ongoing community and gang violence by means of (a) forensic offender rehabilitation narrative exposure therapy (FORNET), and (b) the cognitive-behavioral intervention "Thinking for a Change" (TFAC). A waiting list served as the control condition. Method: A total of 39 young men were included in the data analysis: 15 completed FORNET, 11 underwent cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), and 13 were on a waiting list for later treatment...
October 6, 2016: Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice and Policy
B Paolini, P E Maltese, I Del Ciondolo, D Tavian, S Missaglia, C Ciuoli, M Zuntini, S Cecchin, M Bertelli, G Pompucci
Obesity is a major public health concern; despite evidence of high heritability, the genetic causes of obesity remain unclear. In this study, we assessed the presence of mutations in three genes involved in the hypothalamic leptin-melanocortin regulation pathway (leptin, LEP; leptin receptor, LEPR; and melanocortin-4 receptor, MC4R), which is important for energy homeostasis in the body, in a group of patients with severe obesity. For this study, we selected 77 patients who had undergone bariatric surgery and had a pre-operative body mass index (BMI) >35 kg/m(2), early onset and a family history of being overweight...
August 19, 2016: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
Dominika Głąbska, Dominika Guzek, Paulina Zakrzewska, Dariusz Włodarek, Gustaw Lech
BACKGROUND: The main symptom of ulcerative colitis is diarrhoea, which is often accompanied by painful tenesmus and faecal blood and mucus. It sometimes co-occurs with abdominal pain, fever, feeling of fatigue, loss of appetite and weight loss. Some dietary factors have been indicated as important in the treatment of ulcerative colitis. The aim of the study was to analyse the association between retinoid intake (total vitamin A, retinol, β-carotene, α-carotene, β-cryptoxanthin, lycopene, lutein and zeaxanthin) and ulcerative colitis symptoms (abdominal pain, faecal blood, faecal mucus, faecal pus) in individuals with ulcerative colitis in remission...
September 30, 2016: Nutrients
Valéria Leme Gonçalves Panissa, Ursula Ferreira Julio, Felipe Hardt, Carolina Kurashima, Fábio Santos Lira, Monica Yuri Takito, Emerson Franchini
The aim of this study was to compare the effects of exercise intensity on appetite control: relative energy intake (energy intake minus the energy expenditure of exercise; REI), hunger scores, and appetite-regulating hormones in men and women. Eleven men and 9 women were submitted to 4 experimental sessions: high-intensity intermittent all-out exercise (HIIE-A) for 60 × 8 s interspersed by 12 s of passive recovery; high-intensity intermittent exercise (HIIE) at 100% of maximal load attained in incremental test; steady-state exercise at 60% of maximal load, matched by work done; and a control session...
July 7, 2016: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
Kenji Ikeda, Masatoshi Kudo, Seiji Kawazoe, Yukio Osaki, Masafumi Ikeda, Takuji Okusaka, Toshiyuki Tamai, Takuya Suzuki, Takashi Hisai, Seiichi Hayato, Kiwamu Okita, Hiromitsu Kumada
BACKGROUND: Lenvatinib is an oral inhibitor of vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 1-3, fibroblast growth factor receptor 1-4, platelet-derived growth factor receptor alpha, RET, and KIT. This phase 2, single-arm, open-label multicenter study evaluated lenvatinib in advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). METHODS: Patients with histologically/clinically confirmed advanced HCC who did not qualify for surgical resection or local therapies received lenvatinib at a dosage of 12 mg once daily (QD) in 28-day cycles...
October 4, 2016: Journal of Gastroenterology
Mesfin Yimam, Ping Jiao, Mei Hong, Lidia Brownell, Young-Chul Lee, Eu-Jin Hyun, Hyun-Jin Kim, Tae-Woo Kim, Jeong-Bum Nam, Mi-Ran Kim, Qi Jia
Background. Obesity and its comorbidities continue to challenge the world at an alarming rate. Although the long term solution lies on lifestyle changes in the form of dieting and exercising, drug, medical food, or dietary supplement interventions are required for those who are already obese. Here we describe a standardized blend composed of extracts from three medicinal plants: Morus alba, Yerba mate, and Magnolia officinalis for appetite suppression and metabolic disorders management. Method. Extracts were standardized to yield a composition designated as UP601...
2016: Journal of Obesity
Yumi Takemura, Masaya Sasaki, Kenichi Goto, Azusa Takaoka, Akiko Ohi, Mika Kurihara, Naoko Nakanishi, Yasutaka Nakano, Jun Hanaoka
This study aimed to investigate the energy metabolism of patients with lung cancer and the relationship between energy metabolism and proinflammatory cytokines. Twenty-eight patients with lung cancer and 18 healthy controls were enrolled in this study. The nutritional status upon admission was analyzed using nutritional screening tools and laboratory tests. The resting energy expenditure and respiratory quotient were measured using indirect calorimetry, and the predicted resting energy expenditure was calculated using the Harris-Benedict equation...
September 2016: Journal of Clinical Biochemistry and Nutrition
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