Read by QxMD icon Read

Normal physiologic birth

Stine Linding Andersen, Peter Laurberg
Hyperthyroidism in women who are of childbearing age is predominantly of autoimmune origin and caused by Graves' disease. The physiological changes in the maternal immune system during a pregnancy may influence the development of this and other autoimmune diseases. Furthermore, pregnancy-associated physiological changes influence the synthesis and metabolism of thyroid hormones and challenge the interpretation of thyroid function tests in pregnancy. Thyroid hormones are crucial regulators of early development and play an important role in the maintenance of a normal pregnancy and in the development of the fetus, particularly the fetal brain...
2016: International Journal of Women's Health
Ditte Smed Iversen, Julie Støy, Ulla Kampmann, Thomas Schmidt Voss, Lene Ring Madsen, Niels Møller, Per Glud Ovesen
OBJECTIVE: Increasing parity may be a risk factor for the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus and the metabolic alterations during a normal pregnancy induces a prediabetic state; thus, multiple pregnancies may act as a risk factor for development of type 2 diabetes if these physiological alterations in glucose homeostasis are not reversed postpartum. We hypothesize that multiple pregnancies may lead to β-cell exhaustion and that the insulin resistance that occurs during pregnancy may persist after multiple births...
2016: BMJ Open Diabetes Research & Care
Tasuku Nishino, Ryota Matsunaga, Hiroshi Jikihara, Moe Uchida, Akane Maeda, Guangying Qi, Takaya Abe, Hiroshi Kiyonari, Satoshi Tashiro, Kyoko Inagaki-Ohara, Fumio Shimamoto, Hiroaki Konishi
Cardiolipin and phosphatidic acid-binding protein (CLPABP) is a pleckstrin homology domain-containing protein and is localized on the surface of mitochondria of cultured cells as a large protein-RNA complex. To analyze the physiological functions of CLPABP, we established and characterized a CLPABP knockout (KO) mouse. Although expression levels of CLPABP transcripts in the developmental organs were high, CLPABP KO mice were normal at birth and grew normally when young. However, old male mice presented a fatty phenotype, similar to that seen in metabolic syndrome, in parallel with elevated male- and age-dependent CLPABP gene expression...
September 8, 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
D Manousaki, F Rauch, G Chabot, J Dubois, M Fiscaletti, N Alos
OBJECTIVES: Knowledge of physiological variations of bone mineral density (BMD) in newborns and infants is necessary to evaluate pathological changes associated with fractures. Limited reference data for children under 5 years old are available. This study provides normative data of lumbar BMD for the Lunar Prodigy in young children under 5 years old. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: We assessed cross-sectionally 155 healthy children (77 boys, 80% Caucasian), ranging in age from newborn to the age of 5 years...
2016: Journal of Musculoskeletal & Neuronal Interactions
Akshaya P Meher, Nisha Wadhwani, Karuna Randhir, Savita Mehendale, Girija Wagh, Sadhana R Joshi
BACKGROUND: A very large number of fatty acids play wide range of physiological roles in cellular growth and function in placental as well as fetal growth. However, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), in addition to its critical role in cellular membranes, is known to act as a ligand for several nuclear receptors and regulates the activity of transcription factor families like peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor, liver X receptor (LXR), retinoid X receptor (RXR), and sterol regulatory element binding protein (SREBP)...
July 2016: Journal of Clinical Lipidology
Irina Manokhina, Tanjot K Singh, Wendy P Robinson
BACKGROUND: While cell-free placental DNA (cfp-DNA) increases in response to certain pathological conditions, confounding variables, such as placental size, may also contribute to its release. Furthermore, the relationship between cfp-DNA and maternal serum proteins has not been well investigated. OBJECTIVE: To analyze plasma cfp-DNA levels and correlate with measurable placental parameters, maternal serum proteins, or pathologic conditions reflecting placental dysfunction...
August 26, 2016: Fetal Diagnosis and Therapy
Mahin Khatami
Longevity and accumulation of multiple context-dependent signaling pathways of long-standing inflammation (antigen-load or oxidative stress) are the results of decreased/altered regulation of immunity and loss of control switch mechanisms that we defined as Yin and Yang of acute inflammation or immune surveillance. Chronic inflammation is initiated by immune disruptors-induced progressive changes in physiology and function of susceptible host tissues that lead to increased immune suppression and multistep disease processes including carcinogenesis...
December 2016: Clinical and Translational Medicine
Hannah Kennedy, Tobias B Haack, Verity Hartill, Lavinija Mataković, E Regula Baumgartner, Howard Potter, Richard Mackay, Charlotte L Alston, Siobhan O'Sullivan, Robert McFarland, Grainne Connolly, Caroline Gannon, Richard King, Scott Mead, Ian Crozier, Wandy Chan, Chris M Florkowski, Martin Sage, Thomas Höfken, Bader Alhaddad, Laura S Kremer, Robert Kopajtich, René G Feichtinger, Wolfgang Sperl, Richard J Rodenburg, Jean Claude Minet, Angus Dobbie, Tim M Strom, Thomas Meitinger, Peter M George, Colin A Johnson, Robert W Taylor, Holger Prokisch, Kit Doudney, Johannes A Mayr
We have used whole-exome sequencing in ten individuals from four unrelated pedigrees to identify biallelic missense mutations in the nuclear-encoded mitochondrial inorganic pyrophosphatase (PPA2) that are associated with mitochondrial disease. These individuals show a range of severity, indicating that PPA2 mutations may cause a spectrum of mitochondrial disease phenotypes. Severe symptoms include seizures, lactic acidosis, cardiac arrhythmia, and death within days of birth. In the index family, presentation was milder and manifested as cardiac fibrosis and an exquisite sensitivity to alcohol, leading to sudden arrhythmic cardiac death in the second decade of life...
September 1, 2016: American Journal of Human Genetics
Nicla A Varnier, Sarah Chwah, Trent Miller, Franziska Pettit, Mark Brown, David Rees, Amanda Henry
BACKGROUND: Shortness of breath is a common physiological pregnancy presentation, secondary to both hormonal and mechanical effects. Its pathological causes are common (asthma exacerbation or infection); new-onset cardiac pathology is rarely considered. CASE: JC, a 39-year old G4P2T1, presented at 34 weeks' gestation with shortness of breath unrelieved by salbutamol. History included asthma, poly-drug abuse and smoking. Initial presentation was consistent with asthma exacerbation and she was treated as such...
September 2015: Obstetric Medicine
Ashley E Van Avermaete, Phi T Trac, Theresa W Gauthier, My N Helms
At birth, the lung undergoes a profound phenotypic switch from secretion to absorption, which allows for adaptation to breathing independently. Promoting and sustaining this phenotype is critically important in normal alveolar growth and gas exchange throughout life. Several in vitro studies have characterized the role of key regulatory proteins, signaling molecules, and steroid hormones that can influence the rate of lung fluid clearance. However, in vivo examinations must be performed to evaluate whether these regulatory factors play important physiological roles in regulating perinatal lung liquid absorption...
2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Shannon L Gillespie, Lisa M Christian
BACKGROUND: As a measure of obesity, body mass index (BMI; kg/m(2)) is an imperfect predictor of health outcomes, particularly among African Americans. However, BMI is used to guide prenatal care. We examined racial differences in the predictive value of maternal BMI for physiologic correlates of obesity, serum interleukin (IL)-6 and C-reactive protein (CRP), as well as cesarean section and infant birth weight. METHODS: One hundred five pregnant women (40 European American, 65 African American) were assessed during the second trimester...
August 3, 2016: Journal of Women's Health
Ernest M Graham, Irina Burd, Allen D Everett, Frances J Northington
Recent research in identification of brain injury after trauma shows many possible blood biomarkers that may help identify the fetus and neonate with encephalopathy. Traumatic brain injury shares many common features with perinatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. Trauma has a hypoxic component, and one of the 1st physiologic consequences of moderate-severe traumatic brain injury is apnea. Trauma and hypoxia-ischemia initiate an excitotoxic cascade and free radical injury followed by the inflammatory cascade, producing injury in neurons, glial cells and white matter...
2016: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Ramkumar Menon, John Papaconstantinou
INTRODUCTION: Spontaneous preterm birth (PTB) and preterm premature rupture of the membranes (pPROM) remain as a major clinical and therapeutic problem for intervention and management. Current strategies, based on our knowledge of pathways of preterm labor, have only been effective, in part, due to major gaps in our existing knowledge of risks and risk specific pathways. AREAS COVERED: Recent literature has identified physiologic aging of fetal tissues as a potential mechanistic feature of normal parturition...
July 26, 2016: Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Targets
K M Levett, C A Smith, A Bensoussan, H G Dahlen
OBJECTIVE: to gain insight into the experiences of women, partners and midwives who participated in the Complementary Therapies for Labour and Birth Study, an evidence based complementary medicine (CM) antenatal education course. DESIGN: qualitative in-depth interviews and a focus group as part of the Complementary Therapies for Labour and Birth Study. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: thirteen low risk primiparous women and seven partners who had participated in the study group of a randomised controlled trial of the complementary therapies for labour and birth study, and 12 midwives caring for these women...
September 2016: Midwifery
Andrew T Lovering, Jonathan E Elliott, James T Davis
The foramen ovale, which is part of the normal fetal cardiopulmonary circulation, fails to close after birth in ∼35% of the population and represents a potential source of right-to-left shunt. Despite the prevalence of patent foramen ovale (PFO) in the general population, cardiopulmonary, exercise, thermoregulatory, and altitude physiologists may have underestimated the potential effect of this shunted blood flow on normal physiological processes in otherwise healthy humans. Because this shunted blood bypasses the respiratory system, it would not participate in either gas exchange or respiratory system cooling and may have impacts on other physiological processes that remain undetermined...
August 1, 2016: Journal of Applied Physiology
Alison G Paquette, E Andres Houseman, Benjamin B Green, Corina Lesseur, David A Armstrong, Barry Lester, Carmen J Marsit
The placenta regulates the in utero environment and functionally impacts fetal development. Candidate gene studies identified variation in placental DNA methylation is associated with newborn neurologic and behavioral outcomes including movement quality, lethargic behavior, attention, and arousal. We sought to identify novel regions of variable DNA methylation associated with newborn attention, lethargy, quality of movement, and arousal by performing an epigenome-wide association study in 335 infants from a US birth cohort...
August 2, 2016: Epigenetics: Official Journal of the DNA Methylation Society
Peter G Wells, Shama Bhatia, Danielle M Drake, Lutfiya Miller-Pinsler
In utero exposure of mouse progeny to alcohol (ethanol, EtOH) and methamphetamine (METH) causes substantial postnatal neurodevelopmental deficits. One emerging pathogenic mechanism underlying these deficits involves fetal brain production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) that alter signal transduction, and/or oxidatively damage cellular macromolecules like lipids, proteins, and DNA, the latter leading to altered gene expression, likely via non-mutagenic mechanisms. Even physiological levels of fetal ROS production can be pathogenic in biochemically predisposed progeny, and ROS formation can be enhanced by drugs like EtOH and METH, via activation/induction of ROS-producing NADPH oxidases (NOX), drug bioactivation to free radical intermediates by prostaglandin H synthases (PHS), and other mechanisms...
June 2016: Birth Defects Research. Part C, Embryo Today: Reviews
Laura A Zinsser, Kathrin Stoll, Mechthild M Gross
OBJECTIVE: supporting healthy and normal physiological birth is part of the global maternity care agenda. Rising rates of interventions have been attributed to several factors, including characteristics, attitudes and preferences of childbearing women and their care providers. In this paper, the application of a scale that measures midwives' attitudes towards supporting normal labour and birth is described as well as factors that are associated with favourable attitudes, such as general self-efficacy, years in midwifery practice, and primary practice setting...
August 2016: Midwifery
Jean N Cheong, James S M Cuffe, Andrew J Jefferies, Karen M Moritz, Mary E Wlodek
KEY POINTS: Women born small are at an increased risk of developing pregnancy complications. Stress may further increase a woman's likelihood for an adverse pregnancy. Adverse pregnancy adaptations can lead to long-term diseases even after her pregnancy. The current study investigated the effects of stress during pregnancy on the long-term adrenal, metabolic and cardio-renal health of female rats that were born small. Stress programmed increased adrenal Mc2r gene expression, a higher insulin secretory response to glucose during intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test (+36%) and elevated renal creatinine clearance after pregnancy...
June 12, 2016: Journal of Physiology
Will S Kurtz, Charles J Glueck, Robert K Hutchins, Robert A Sisk, Ping Wang
BACKGROUND: Ocular vascular occlusion (OVO), first diagnosed during or immediately after giving birth, often reflects superposition of the physiologic thrombophilia of pregnancy on previously undiagnosed underlying familial or acquired thrombophilia associated with spontaneous abortion, eclampsia, or maternal thrombosis. SPECIFIC AIM: We describe OVO, first diagnosed during pregnancy or immediately postpartum, in three young females (ages 32, 35, 40) associated with previously undiagnosed familial thrombophilia...
2016: Clinical Ophthalmology
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"