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Normal physiologic birth

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29756966/-may-pregestational-body-mass-index-be-related-to-mother-s-psychological-and-physical-condition-during-pregnancy
#1
Borja Romero-González, Rafael Arcangel Caparrós-González, Helen Strivens Vilchez, María Isabel Peralta-Ramírez
INTRODUCTION: pregestational Body Mass Index (BMI) affects mother's health during and after pregnancy and is related to negative outcomes such as low birth weight and preterm birth. Higher pregestational BMI may increase anxiety, stress and depression. OBJECTIVES: to assess potential differences on stress, psychopathological symptoms and physiological variables during pregnancy, among pregnant women with normal pregestational BMI rates and high pregestational BMI rates...
March 1, 2018: Nutrición Hospitalaria: Organo Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Nutrición Parenteral y Enteral
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29735202/zorro-z-omphaloplasty-repair-for-omphalocele
#2
Michel Jean-Luc, Kassir Rani, Harper Luke, Gavage Laurent, Frade Fernanda, Clermidi Pauline, Sauvat Frederique, Ramful Duksha
PURPOSE: To suggest a novel technique for omphalocele closure which uses the circular base of the umbilical cord, thus allowing for a more physiological healing process and natural-looking scar. METHODS: Among 16 neonates operated for omphalocele between 2011 and 2016, 12 were closed with a one-stage procedure using a Z omphaloplasty (ZORRO). Median gestational age was 36.5 weeks; median birth weight was 3210 g. The umbilical arteries were divided and ligated outside the peritoneal cavity above the parietal musculocutaneous plane...
April 6, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29730657/adolescent-undernutrition-global-burden-physiology-and-nutritional-risks
#3
Parul Christian, Emily R Smith
Adolescents, comprised of 10-19 year olds, form the largest generation of young people in our history. There are an estimated 1.8 billion adolescents in the world, with 90% residing in low- and middle-income countries. The burden of disease among adolescents has its origins in infectious and injury-related causes, but nutritional deficiencies, suboptimal linear growth, and undernutrition are major public health problems, even as overweight may be on the rise in many contexts. Summary and Key Messages: Girls are most vulnerable to the influences of cultural and gender norms, which often discriminate against them...
May 4, 2018: Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676798/afferent-neural-feedback-overrides-the-modulating-effects-of-arousal-hypercapnia-and-hypoxemia-on-neonatal-cardio-respiratory-control
#4
Kathleen J Lumb, Jennifer M Schneider, Thowfique Ibrahim, Anita Rigaux, Shabih U Hasan
KEY POINTS: Evidence at whole animal, organ-system, and cellular and molecular levels suggests that afferent volume feedback is critical for establishment of adequate ventilation at birth. Due to the irreversible nature of vagal ablation studies to date, it was difficult to quantify the roles of afferent volume input, arousal and changes in blood gas tensions on neonatal respiratory control. During reversible perineural vagal block, profound apneas, and hypoxemia and hypercarbia were observed necessitating termination of perineural blockade...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29667718/trajectories-of-psychopathology-in-extremely-low-birth-weight-survivors-from-early-adolescence-to-adulthood-a-20-year-longitudinal-study
#5
Ryan J Van Lieshout, Mark A Ferro, Louis A Schmidt, Michael H Boyle, Saroj Saigal, Katherine M Morrison, Karen J Mathewson
BACKGROUND: Individuals born extremely preterm are exposed to significant perinatal stresses that are associated with an increased risk of psychopathology. However, a paucity of longitudinal studies has prevented the empirical examination of long-term, dynamic effects of perinatal adversity on mental health. Here, internalizing and externalizing problems from adolescence through adulthood were compared in individuals born at extremely low birth weight (ELBW; <1,000 g) and normal birth weight (NBW; >2,500 g)...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29658459/-effect-of-ceftriaxone-on-the-intestinal-epithelium-and-microbiota-in-neonatal-mice
#6
Qun Wan, Ru-Yue Cheng, Jia-Wen Guo, Ke Wang, Xi Shen, Fang-Fang Pu, Ming Li, Fang He
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of ceftriaxone on the intestinal epithelium and microbiota in mice in the early-life stage, as well as the recovery of the intestinal epithelium and reconstruction of intestinal microbiota in adult mice. METHODS: A total of 36 BALB/C neonatal mice were randomly divided into control group and experimental group, with 18 mice in each group. The mice in the experimental group were given ceftriaxone 100 mg/kg every day by gavage within 21 days after birth...
April 2018: Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29616741/avian-models-and-the-study-of-invariant-asymmetry-how-the-chicken-and-the-egg-taught-us-to-tell-right-from-left
#7
Anne H Monsoro-Burq, Michael Levin
While the external vertebrate body plan appears bilaterally symmetrical with respect to anterior-posterior and dorsal-ventral axes, the internal organs are arranged with a striking and invariant left-right asymmetry. This laterality is important for normal body function, as alterations manifest as numerous human birth defect syndromes. The left-right axis is set up very early during embryogenesis by an initial and still poorly understood break in bilateral symmetry, followed by a cascade of molecular events that was discovered 20 years ago in the chick embryo model...
2018: International Journal of Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29615468/intrahepatic-bile-ducts-guide-establishment-of-the-intrahepatic-nerve-network-in-developing-and-regenerating-mouse-liver
#8
Naoki Tanimizu, Norihisa Ichinohe, Toshihiro Mitaka
Epithelial organs consist of multiple tissue structures such as epithelial sheets, blood vessels, and nerves, which are spatially organized to achieve optimal physiological functions. The hepatic nervous system has been implicated in physiological functions and regeneration of the liver. However, the processes of development and reconstruction of the intrahepatic nerve network and its underlying mechanisms remain unknown. Here we demonstrate that class III β-tubulin (TUBB3)+ nerve fibers are not distributed in intrahepatic tissue at embryonic day 17...
April 3, 2018: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29600242/circulatory-insufficiency-and-hypotension-related-to-the-ductus-arteriosus-in-neonates
#9
REVIEW
Danielle R Rios, Soume Bhattacharya, Philip T Levy, Patrick J McNamara
The biological role of the ductus arteriosus (DA) in neonates varies from an innocent bystander role during normal postnatal transition, to a supportive role when there is compromise to either systemic or pulmonary blood flow, to a pathological state in the presence of hemodynamically significant systemic to pulmonary shunts, as occurs in low birth weight infants. Among a wide array of clinical manifestations arising due to the ductal entity, systemic circulatory insufficiency and hypotension are of significant concern as they are particularly challenging to manage...
2018: Frontiers in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29581963/current-knowledge-and-recent-advances-of-right-ventricular-molecular-biology-and-metabolism-from-congenital-heart-disease-to-chronic-pulmonary-hypertension
#10
REVIEW
Samantha Guimaron, Julien Guihaire, Myriam Amsallem, François Haddad, Elie Fadel, Olaf Mercier
Studies about pulmonary hypertension and congenital heart diseases have introduced the concept of right ventricular remodeling leading these pathologies to a similar outcome: right ventricular failure. However right ventricular remodeling is also a physiological process that enables the normal fetal right ventricle to adapt at birth and gain its adult phenotype. The healthy mature right ventricle is exposed to low pulmonary vascular resistances and is compliant. However, in the setting of chronic pressure overload, as in pulmonary hypertension, or volume overload, as in congenital heart diseases, the right ventricle reverts back to a fetal phenotype to sustain its function...
2018: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29541059/secular-trends-on-birth-parameters-growth-and-pubertal-timing-in-girls-with-turner-syndrome
#11
Joachim Woelfle, Anders Lindberg, Ferah Aydin, Ken K Ong, Cecilia Camacho-Hubner, Bettina Gohlke
Background: Whether children with chromosomal disorders of growth and puberty are affected by secular trends (STs) as observed in the general population remains unanswered, but this question has relevance for expectations of spontaneous development and treatment responses. Objectives: The aim of the study was to evaluate STs in birth parameters, growth, and pubertal development in girls with Turner syndrome (TS). Study design: Retrospective analysis of KIGS data (Pfizer International Growth Database)...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29533463/parturition-and-the-perinatal-period-can-mode-of-delivery-impact-on-the-future-health-of-the-neonate
#12
R M Tribe, P D Taylor, N M Kelly, D Rees, J Sandall, H P Kennedy
Caesarean section and instrumental delivery rates are increasing in many parts of the world for a range of cultural and medical reasons, with limited consideration as to how 'mode of delivery' may impact on childhood and long-term health. However, babies born particularly by pre-labour caesarean section appear to have a subtly different physiology from those born by normal vaginal delivery, with both acute and chronic complications such as respiratory and cardio-metabolic morbidities being apparent. It has been hypothesized that inherent mechanisms within the process of labour and vaginal delivery, far from being a passive mechanical process by which the fetus and placenta are expelled from the birth canal, may trigger certain protective developmental processes permissive for normal immunological and physiological development of the fetus postnatally...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29515776/neovascular-psma-expression-is-a-common-feature-in-malignant-neoplasms-of-the-thyroid
#13
Birthe Heitkötter, Konrad Steinestel, Marcel Trautmann, Inga Grünewald, Peter Barth, Heidrun Gevensleben, Martin Bögemann, Eva Wardelmann, Wolfgang Hartmann, Kambiz Rahbar, Sebastian Huss
Aim: PSMA (prostate-specific membrane antigen) is physiologically expressed in normal prostate tissue and over expressed in prostate cancer cells, therefore constituting a potential target for antibody-based radioligand therapy. Very recent imaging findings reported PSMA-PET/CT uptake in various thyroid lesions. We were therefore encouraged to systematically analyse PSMA expression in different benign and malignant thyroid lesions. Methods: Immunohistochemistry was used to detect PSMA expression in 101 thyroid lesions, while neovasculature was identified by CD34 immunostaining...
February 9, 2018: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29509880/acetylcholine-modulates-the-hormones-of-the-growth-hormone-insulinlike-growth-factor-1-axis-during-development-in-mice
#14
Marie-José Lecomte, Chloé Bertolus, Nélina Ramanantsoa, Françoise Saurini, Jacques Callebert, Catherine Sénamaud-Beaufort, Maud Ringot, Thomas Bourgeois, Boris Matrot, Corinne Collet, Jeannette Nardelli, Jacques Mallet, Guilan Vodjdani, Jorge Gallego, Jean-Marie Launay, Sylvie Berrard
Pituitary growth hormone (GH) and insulinlike growth factor (IGF)-1 are anabolic hormones whose physiological roles are particularly important during development. The activity of the GH/IGF-1 axis is controlled by complex neuroendocrine systems including two hypothalamic neuropeptides, GH-releasing hormone (GHRH) and somatostatin (SRIF), and a gastrointestinal hormone, ghrelin. The neurotransmitter acetylcholine (ACh) is involved in tuning GH secretion, and its GH-stimulatory action has mainly been shown in adults but is not clearly documented during development...
April 1, 2018: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29505770/perinatal-outcomes-associated-with-abnormal-cardiac-remodeling-in-women-with-treated-chronic-hypertension
#15
Anne M Ambia, Jamie L Morgan, C Edward Wells, Scott W Roberts, Monika Sanghavi, David B Nelson, F Gary Cunningham
BACKGROUND: Adverse maternal outcomes associated with chronic hypertension include accelerated hypertension and resultant target organ damage. One example is long-standing hypertension leading to maternal cardiac dysfunction. Our group has previously identified that features of such injury manifest as cardiac remodeling with left ventricular hypertrophy. Moreover, these features of cardiac remodeling identified in women with chronic hypertension during pregnancy were associated with adverse perinatal outcomes...
May 2018: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29497320/bone-marrow-mesenchymal-stem-cells-as-nuclear-donors-improve-viability-and-health-of-cloned-horses
#16
R Olivera, L N Moro, R Jordan, N Pallarols, A Guglielminetti, C Luzzani, S G Miriuka, G Vichera
Introduction: Cell plasticity is crucial in cloning to allow an efficient nuclear reprogramming and healthy offspring. Hence, cells with high plasticity, such as multipotent mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), may be a promising alternative for horse cloning. In this study, we evaluated the use of bone marrow-MSCs (BM-MSCs) as nuclear donors in horse cloning, and we compared the in vitro and in vivo embryo development with respect to fibroblasts. Materials and methods: Zona-free nuclear transfer was performed using BM-MSCs (MSC group, n=3432) or adult fibroblasts (AF group, n=4527)...
2018: Stem Cells and Cloning: Advances and Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29496891/development-of-the-mechanisms-governing-midbrain-multisensory-integration
#17
Cristiano Cuppini, Barry E Stein, Benjamin A Rowland
The ability to integrate information across multiple senses enhances the brain's ability to detect, localize, and identify external events. This process has been well documented in single neurons in the superior colliculus (SC), which synthesize concordant combinations of visual, auditory, and/or somatosensory signals to enhance the vigor of their responses. This increases the physiological salience of crossmodal events and, in turn, the speed and accuracy of SC-mediated behavioral responses to them. However, this capability is not an innate feature of the circuit and only develops postnatally after the animal acquires sufficient experience with covariant crossmodal events to form links between their modality-specific components...
April 4, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29482569/generation-of-ghr-modified-pigs-as-laron-syndrome-models-via-a-dual-sgrnas-cas9-system-and-somatic-cell-nuclear-transfer
#18
Honghao Yu, Weihu Long, Xuezeng Zhang, Kaixiang Xu, Jianxiong Guo, Heng Zhao, Honghui Li, Yubo Qing, Weirong Pan, Baoyu Jia, Hong-Ye Zhao, Xingxu Huang, Hong-Jiang Wei
BACKGROUND: Laron syndrome is an autosomal disease resulting from mutations in the growth hormone receptor (GHR) gene. The only therapeutic treatment for Laron syndrome is recombinant insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I), which has been shown to have various side effects. The improved Laron syndrome models are important for better understanding the pathogenesis of the disease and developing corresponding therapeutics. Pigs have become attractive biomedical models for human condition due to similarities in anatomy, physiology, and metabolism relative to humans, which could serve as an appropriate model for Laron syndrome...
February 27, 2018: Journal of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29475200/cardiovascular-associations-with-abnormal-brain-magnetic-resonance-imaging-in-neonates-with-hypoxic-ischemic-encephalopathy-undergoing-therapeutic-hypothermia-and-rewarming
#19
Kiran S More, Pankaj Sakhuja, Regan E Giesinger, Joseph Y Ting, Matthew Keyzers, Jesal N Sheth, Anie Lapointe, Amish Jain, Aideen M Moore, Steven P Miller, Patrick J McNamara
OBJECTIVE:  This article compares hemodynamic characteristics of neonates with hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) receiving therapeutic hypothermia (TH) with normal versus abnormal brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). METHODS:  Serial echocardiography (echo) was performed within 24 hours, after 48 to 72 hours of cooling, within 24 hours of normothermia, and after starting feeds. Pulmonary hemodynamics, cardiac output, and ventricular function were evaluated...
February 23, 2018: American Journal of Perinatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29471062/constitutive-stimulatory-g-protein-activity-in-limb-mesenchyme-impairs-bone-growth
#20
Anara Karaca, Vijayram Reddy Malladi, Yan Zhu, Olta Tafaj, Elena Paltrinieri, Joy Y Wu, Qing He, Murat Bastepe
GNAS mutations leading to constitutively active stimulatory G protein alpha-subunit (Gsα) cause different tumors, fibrous dysplasia of bone, and McCune-Albright syndrome, which are typically not associated with short stature. Enhanced signaling of the parathyroid hormone/parathyroid hormone-related peptide receptor, which couples to multiple G proteins including Gsα, leads to short bones with delayed endochondral ossification. It has remained unknown whether constitutive Gsα activity also impairs bone growth...
May 2018: Bone
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