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Normal physiologic birth

Joachim Woelfle, Anders Lindberg, Ferah Aydin, Ken K Ong, Cecilia Camacho-Hubner, Bettina Gohlke
Background: Whether children with chromosomal disorders of growth and puberty are affected by secular trends (STs) as observed in the general population remains unanswered, but this question has relevance for expectations of spontaneous development and treatment responses. Objectives: The aim of the study was to evaluate STs in birth parameters, growth, and pubertal development in girls with Turner syndrome (TS). Study design: Retrospective analysis of KIGS data (Pfizer International Growth Database)...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
R M Tribe, P D Taylor, N M Kelly, D Rees, J Sandall, H P Kennedy
Caesarean section and instrumental delivery rates are increasing in many parts of the world due to a range of cultural and medical reasons, with limited consideration as to how 'mode of delivery' may impact on childhood and long-term health. However, babies born particularly by pre-labour caesarean section appear to have a subtly different physiology to those born by normal vaginal delivery, with both acute and chronic complications such as respiratory and other morbidities being apparent. It has been hypothesised that inherent mechanisms within the process of labour and vaginal delivery, far from being a passive mechanical process by which the fetus and placenta are expelled from the birth canal, may trigger certain protective developmental processes permissive for normal immunological and physiological development of the fetus postnatally...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Physiology
Birthe Heitkötter, Konrad Steinestel, Marcel Trautmann, Inga Grünewald, Peter Barth, Heidrun Gevensleben, Martin Bögemann, Eva Wardelmann, Wolfgang Hartmann, Kambiz Rahbar, Sebastian Huss
Aim: PSMA (prostate-specific membrane antigen) is physiologically expressed in normal prostate tissue and over expressed in prostate cancer cells, therefore constituting a potential target for antibody-based radioligand therapy. Very recent imaging findings reported PSMA-PET/CT uptake in various thyroid lesions. We were therefore encouraged to systematically analyse PSMA expression in different benign and malignant thyroid lesions. Methods: Immunohistochemistry was used to detect PSMA expression in 101 thyroid lesions, while neovasculature was identified by CD34 immunostaining...
February 9, 2018: Oncotarget
Marie-José Lecomte, Chloé Bertolus, Nélina Ramanantsoa, Françoise Saurini, Jacques Callebert, Catherine Sénamaud-Beaufort, Maud Ringot, Thomas Bourgeois, Boris Matrot, Corinne Collet, Jeannette Nardelli, Jacques Mallet, Guilan Vodjdani, Jorge Gallego, Jean-Marie Launay, Sylvie Berrard
Pituitary growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) are anabolic hormones whose physiological roles are particularly important during development. The activity of the GH/IGF-1 axis is controlled by complex neuroendocrine systems including two hypothalamic neuropeptides, GH-releasing hormone (GHRH) and somatostatin (SRIF), and a gastrointestinal hormone, ghrelin. The neurotransmitter acetylcholine (ACh) is involved in tuning GH secretion, and its GH-stimulatory action has mainly been shown in adults but is not clearly documented during development...
March 2, 2018: Endocrinology
Anne M Ambia, Jamie L Morgan, C Edward Wells, Scott W Roberts, Monika Sanghavi, David B Nelson, F Gary Cunningham
BACKGROUND: Adverse maternal outcomes associated with chronic hypertension include accelerated hypertension and resultant target organ damage. One example is long-standing hypertension leading to maternal cardiac dysfunction. Our group has previously identified that features of such injury manifest as cardiac remodeling with left ventricular hypertrophy. Moreover, these features of cardiac remodeling identified in women with chronic hypertension during pregnancy were associated with adverse perinatal outcomes...
March 2, 2018: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
R Olivera, L N Moro, R Jordan, N Pallarols, A Guglielminetti, C Luzzani, S G Miriuka, G Vichera
Introduction: Cell plasticity is crucial in cloning to allow an efficient nuclear reprogramming and healthy offspring. Hence, cells with high plasticity, such as multipotent mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), may be a promising alternative for horse cloning. In this study, we evaluated the use of bone marrow-MSCs (BM-MSCs) as nuclear donors in horse cloning, and we compared the in vitro and in vivo embryo development with respect to fibroblasts. Materials and methods: Zona-free nuclear transfer was performed using BM-MSCs (MSC group, n=3432) or adult fibroblasts (AF group, n=4527)...
2018: Stem Cells and Cloning: Advances and Applications
Cristiano Cuppini, Barry E Stein, Benjamin A Rowland
The ability to integrate information across its multiple senses enhances the brain's ability to detect, localize, and identify external events. This process has been well-documented in single neurons in the superior colliculus (SC), which synthesize concordant combinations of visual, auditory, and/or somatosensory signals to enhance the vigor of their responses. This increases the physiological salience of cross-modal events and, in turn, the speed and accuracy of SC-mediated behavioral responses to them. However, this capability is not an innate feature of the circuit, and only develops postnatally after the animal acquires sufficient experience with covariant cross-modal events to form links between their modality-specific components...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Honghao Yu, Weihu Long, Xuezeng Zhang, Kaixiang Xu, Jianxiong Guo, Heng Zhao, Honghui Li, Yubo Qing, Weirong Pan, Baoyu Jia, Hong-Ye Zhao, Xingxu Huang, Hong-Jiang Wei
BACKGROUND: Laron syndrome is an autosomal disease resulting from mutations in the growth hormone receptor (GHR) gene. The only therapeutic treatment for Laron syndrome is recombinant insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I), which has been shown to have various side effects. The improved Laron syndrome models are important for better understanding the pathogenesis of the disease and developing corresponding therapeutics. Pigs have become attractive biomedical models for human condition due to similarities in anatomy, physiology, and metabolism relative to humans, which could serve as an appropriate model for Laron syndrome...
February 27, 2018: Journal of Translational Medicine
Kiran S More, Pankaj Sakhuja, Regan E Giesinger, Joseph Y Ting, Matthew Keyzers, Jesal N Sheth, Anie Lapointe, Amish Jain, Aideen M Moore, Steven P Miller, Patrick J McNamara
OBJECTIVE:  This article compares hemodynamic characteristics of neonates with hypoxic ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) receiving therapeutic hypothermia (TH) with normal versus abnormal brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). METHODS:  Serial echocardiography (echo) was performed within 24 hours, after 48 to 72 hours of cooling, within 24 hours of normothermia, and after starting feeds. Pulmonary hemodynamics, cardiac output, and ventricular function were evaluated...
February 23, 2018: American Journal of Perinatology
Anara Karaca, Vijayram Reddy Malladi, Yan Zhu, Olta Tafaj, Elena Paltrinieri, Joy Y Wu, Qing He, Murat Bastepe
GNAS mutations leading to constitutively active stimulatory G protein alpha-subunit (Gsα) cause different tumors, fibrous dysplasia of bone, and McCune-Albright syndrome, which are typically not associated with short stature. Enhanced signaling of the parathyroid hormone/parathyroid hormone-related peptide receptor, which couples to multiple G proteins including Gsα, leads to short bones with delayed endochondral ossification. It has remained unknown whether constitutive Gsα activity also impairs bone growth...
February 20, 2018: Bone
Ashok Daniel Prabakaran, Jimsheena Valiyakath Karakkat, Ranjit Vijayan, Jisha Chalissery, Marwa F Ibrahim, Suneesh Kaimala, Ernest A Adeghate, Ahmed Hasan Al-Marzouqi, Suraiya Anjum Ansari, Mensah-Brown Epk, Bright Starling Emerald
Although the existence of a close relationship between the early maternal developmental environment, fetal size at birth and the risk of developing disease in adulthood has been suggested, most studies, however, employed experimentally induced intrauterine growth restriction as model to link this with later adult disease. Since embryonic size variation occurs under normal growth and differentataion as well, elucidating the molecular mechanisms underlying these changes and their relevance to later adult disease risk becomes important...
January 30, 2018: Disease Models & Mechanisms
Torvid Kiserud, Alexandra Benachi, Kurt Hecher, Rogelio González Perez, José Carvalho, Gilda Piaggio, Lawrence D Platt
Ultrasound biometry is an important clinical tool for the identification, monitoring, and management of fetal growth restriction and development of macrosomia. This is even truer in populations in which perinatal morbidity and mortality rates are high, which is a reason that much effort is put onto making the technique available everywhere, including low-income societies. Until recently, however, commonly used reference ranges were based on single populations largely from industrialized countries. Thus, the World Health Organization prioritized the establishment of fetal growth charts for international use...
February 2018: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
Erin Landau-Crangle, Niels Rochow, Tanis R Fenton, Kai Liu, Anaam Ali, Hon Yiu So, Gerhard Fusch, Michael L Marrin, Christoph Fusch
BACKGROUND: Growth of preterm infants is monitored using fetal charts despite individual trajectories being downshifted postnatally by adaptational processes. The study aims to compare different approaches to create individualized postnatal trajectories. METHODS: Three approaches to achieve growth similar to healthy term infants at 42+0/7 weeks postmenstrual age (PMA) on World Health Organization growth standards (WHOGS) (target weight) were tested by comparing trajectories obtained by: 1) following birth percentiles (Birth-Weight-Percentile Approach); 2) following percentiles achieved at day of life 21 (Postnatal-Percentile Approach); 3) using day-specific fetal median growth velocities starting at day of life 21 (Fetal-Median-Growth Approach [FMGA])...
February 8, 2018: JPEN. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
Peter Rotwein
Recent advances in genetics present unique opportunities for enhancing knowledge about human physiology and disease susceptibility. Understanding this information at the individual gene level is challenging, and requires extracting, collating and interpreting data from a variety of public genetic repositories. Here I illustrate this challenge by analyzing the gene for human insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2) through the lens of several databases. IGF2, a 67-amino acid secreted peptide, is essential for normal prenatal growth, and is involved in other physiological and pathophysiological processes in humans...
February 2, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Gianluigi Ardissino, Francesca Tel, Ilaria Possenti, Mariangela Pavesi, Michela Perrone, Giulia Forni, Patrizia Salice, Lorenzo Colombo, Stefano Ghirardello, Bianca Castiglione, Dario Consonni, Laura Baca, Daniela Li Vecchi, Giancarlo la Marca, Fabio Mosca
It is well known that the nephron endowment of healthy subjects is highly variable and that individual nephron mass has potentially important implications both in health and disease. However, nephron count is technically impossible in living subjects. Based on the observation of an increase in serum creatinine (sCr) in otherwise healthy newborns with solitary kidney during the physiological perinatal dehydration, we hypothesized that perinatal sCr might be helpful in identifying healthy subjects with a reduced nephron mass...
February 1, 2018: European Journal of Pediatrics
Carlos Salomon, Zarin Nuzhat, Christopher L Dixon, Ramkumar Menon
Parturition is defined as the action or process of giving birth to offspring. Normal term human parturition ensues following the maturation of fetal organ systems typically between 37 and 40 weeks of gestation. Our conventional understanding of how parturition initiation is signaled revolves around feto-maternal immune and endocrine changes occurring in the intrauterine cavity. These changes in turn correlate with the sequence of fetal growth and development. These important physiological changes also result in homeostatic imbalances which result in heightened inflammatory signaling...
January 25, 2018: Current Pharmaceutical Design
Priscilla J Hall, Jennifer Whitman Foster, Kathryn M Yount, Bonnie Mowinski Jennings
OBJECTIVE: To explore the complexity of women's birth experiences in the context in which they occur and to describe how these influence women's well-being in labor. DESIGN: Qualitative method with a phenomenological approach, following the analysis principles of van Manen. PARTICIPANTS AND SETTING: Eight women from different ethnic and socioeconomic backgrounds in Atlanta, Georgia, United States with a recent, healthy birth were interviewed twice about their experience of the labor journey...
March 2018: Midwifery
Kristine Kjer Byberg, Ingvild Bruun Mikalsen, Geir Egil Eide, Michele R Forman, Pétur Benedikt Júlíusson, Knut Øymar
BACKGROUND: An association between body weight in childhood and subsequent lung function and asthma has been suggested, but few longitudinal studies exist. Our aim was to explore whether weight-related anthropometric measurements through childhood were associated with lung function in late childhood. METHODS: From an original nested case-control study, a cohort study was conducted, where lung function was measured in 463 children aged 12.8 years, and anthropometry was measured at several ages from birth through 12...
January 19, 2018: BMC Pulmonary Medicine
Clare Davison, Clare Davison, Sadie Geraghty, Sara Morris
OBJECTIVE: To generate new knowledge that describes and explains the views and understanding, regarding midwifery and normal birth, that newly enrolled midwifery students hold at the commencement of their midwifery education. DESIGN: A qualitative descriptive approach was used in conjunction with an anonymous questionnaire. SETTING: A tertiary University in Western Australia FINDINGS: Eighteen postgraduate midwifery students (PG), and twenty undergraduate midwifery students (UG), completed the questionnaire...
December 26, 2017: Midwifery
Elizabeth Chodzaza, Elaine Haycock-Stuart, Aisha Holloway, Rosemary Mander
OBJECTIVE: to explore Malawian midwives decision making when caring for women during the first stage of labour in the hospital setting. DESIGN AND METHODS: this focused ethnographic study examined the decision making process of 9 nurse-midwives with varying years of clinical experience in the real world setting of an urban and semi urban hospital from October 2013 to May 2014.This was done using 27 participant observations and 27 post-observation in-depth interviews over a period of six months...
December 6, 2017: Midwifery
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