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Normal physiologic birth

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077073/student-midwives-perceptions-on-the-organisation-of-maternity-care-and-alternative-maternity-care-models-in-the-netherlands-a-qualitative-study
#1
J Catja Warmelink, T Paul de Cock, Yvonne Combee, Marloes Rongen, Therese A Wiegers, Eileen K Hutton
BACKGROUND: A major change in the organisation of maternity care in the Netherlands is under consideration, going from an echelon system where midwives provide primary care in the community and refer to obstetricians for secondary and tertiary care, to a more integrated maternity care system involving midwives and obstetricians at all care levels. Student midwives are the future maternity care providers and they may be entering into a changing maternity care system, so inclusion of their views in the discussion is relevant...
January 11, 2017: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073296/the-microbiome-and-complement-activation
#2
Alexis B Dunn, Anne L Dunlop, Carol J Hogue, Andrew Miller, Elizabeth J Corwin
Preterm birth (PTB, <37 completed weeks' gestation) is one of the leading obstetrical problems in the United States, affecting approximately one of every nine births. Even more concerning are the persistent racial disparities in PTB, with particularly high rates among African Americans. There are several recognized pathophysiologic pathways to PTB, including infection and/or exaggerated systemic or local inflammation. Intrauterine infection is a causal factor linked to PTB thought to result most commonly from inflammatory processes triggered by microbial invasion of bacteria ascending from the vaginal microbiome...
January 1, 2017: Biological Research for Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28009336/hypocortisolism-and-preterm-birth
#3
S D Karakash, N Tschankoshvili, J Weedon, R M Schwartz, C Kirschbaum, H Minkoff
OBJECTIVE: We sought to determine whether hypocortisolism is associated with preterm birth, using hair cortisol as a marker of long term hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity. STUDY DESIGN: In a prospective, matched, case-control study, 29 women who had a preterm birth at 24-36w5d gestation were compared to 29 women who delivered at term, matched for maternal age, gestational age, and ethnicity. Cases' samples were collected within 72 h of preterm birth and controls at the same gestational age as the corresponding case...
2016: Journal of Neonatal-perinatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28008608/increasing-pulmonary-blood-flow-at-birth-the-nerve-of-the-baby
#4
Noah H Hillman
The transition from a fetus to a newborn infant is one of the most dramatic and important physiologic changes in an individual's life. With the cutting of the umbilical cord, the fetus must almost instantly convert to newborn physiology, which relies on efficient gas exchange in the lungs, energy metabolism in the liver, and thermoregulation through brown fat (Hillman et al., 2012). The most crucial of these physiologic shifts at birth is the transition from the fetal circulator pattern to normal dual ventricular physiology (Hooper et al...
December 23, 2016: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28002805/expression-of-psma-in-tumor-neovasculature-of-high-grade-sarcomas-including-synovial-sarcoma-rhabdomyosarcoma-undifferentiated-sarcoma-and-mpnst
#5
Birthe Heitkötter, Marcel Trautmann, Inga Grünewald, Martin Bögemann, Kambiz Rahbar, Heidrun Gevensleben, Eva Wardelmann, Wolfgang Hartmann, Konrad Steinestel, Sebastian Huss
AIMS: PSMA (prostate specific membrane antigen) is physiologically expressed in normal prostate tissue. It is overexpressed in prostate cancer cells and has been suggested as a target for antibody-based radioligand therapy. As PSMA expression so far has not been systematically analyzed in soft tissue tumors, the current study aims at investigating a large cohort of different subtypes. METHODS AND RESULTS: Immunohistochemistry was used to detect PSMA expression in 779 samples of soft tissue tumors and Ewing sarcoma as a primary bone malignancy...
December 16, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28002412/piezo2-senses-airway-stretch-and-mediates-lung-inflation-induced-apnoea
#6
Keiko Nonomura, Seung-Hyun Woo, Rui B Chang, Astrid Gillich, Zhaozhu Qiu, Allain G Francisco, Sanjeev S Ranade, Stephen D Liberles, Ardem Patapoutian
Respiratory dysfunction is a notorious cause of perinatal mortality in infants and sleep apnoea in adults, but the mechanisms of respiratory control are not clearly understood. Mechanical signals transduced by airway-innervating sensory neurons control respiration; however, the physiological significance and molecular mechanisms of these signals remain obscured. Here we show that global and sensory neuron-specific ablation of the mechanically activated ion channel Piezo2 causes respiratory distress and death in newborn mice...
December 21, 2016: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27988927/cardiac-remodelling-in-a-baboon-model-of-intrauterine-growth-restriction-mimics-accelerated-ageing
#7
Anderson H Kuo, Cun Li, Jinqi Li, Hillary F Huber, Peter W Nathanielsz, Geoffrey D Clarke
KEY POINTS: Rodent models of intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) successfully identify mechanisms that can lead to short-term and long-term detrimental cardiomyopathies but differences between rodent and human cardiac physiology and placental-fetal development indicate a need for models in precocial species for translation to human development. We developed a baboon model for IUGR studies using a moderate 30% global calorie restriction of pregnant mothers and used cardiac magnetic resonance imaging to evaluate offspring heart function in early adulthood...
November 6, 2016: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27974134/setting-the-stage-for-health-salutogenesis-in-midwifery-professional-knowledge-in-three-european-countries
#8
Claudia Meier Magistretti, Soo Downe, Bengt Lindstrøm, Marie Berg, Katharina Tritten Schwarz
There is a lack of systematic evidence concerning health orientation in maternity practice in the current climate of risk avoidance. The midwifery professional project is orientated toward the preservation of normal physiological processes during the maternity episode. This study investigates accounts of midwives who were working in health-orientated birth settings, to examine if and how they frame a health orientation in professional practice. Twenty-seven narrative interviews were conducted with midwives working in pre-, peri-, and postnatal care in different maternity care settings in Switzerland, Austria, and Germany...
2016: International Journal of Qualitative Studies on Health and Well-being
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27940961/imps-an-rna-binding-protein-family-that-provides-a-link-between-stem-cell-maintenance-in-normal-development-and-cancer
#9
REVIEW
Nils Degrauwe, Mario-Luca Suvà, Michalina Janiszewska, Nicolo Riggi, Ivan Stamenkovic
IMPs, also known as insulin-like growth factor 2 (IGF2) messenger RNA (mRNA)-binding proteins (IGF2BPs), are highly conserved oncofetal RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) that regulate RNA processing at several levels, including localization, translation, and stability. Three mammalian IMP paralogs (IMP1-3) have been identified that are expressed in most organs during embryogenesis, where they are believed to play an important role in cell migration, metabolism, and stem cell renewal. Whereas some IMP2 expression is retained in several adult mouse organs, IMP1 and IMP3 are either absent or expressed at very low levels in most tissues after birth...
November 15, 2016: Genes & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27939485/postpartum-physiology-psychology-and-paediatric-follow-up-study-p4-study-study-protocol
#10
Gregory K Davis, Lynne Roberts, George Mangos, Amanda Henry, Franziska Pettit, Anthony O'Sullivan, Caroline S E Homer, Maria Craig, Samuel B Harvey, Mark A Brown
BACKGROUND: Women who have had hypertension in pregnancy are at greater risk of long term cardiovascular disease (CVD). Little is known about their cardiovascular risk postpartum or the effects on the woman's mental health and the outcomes of their infants. In this project we will study the physiological and psychological health of women and the physical health and development of their infants six months, two years and five years after birth. We will establish normal blood pressure (BP) and metabolic function for women who were normotensive in pregnancy and use these to assess women who had gestational hypertension (GH) or preeclampsia (PE)...
October 2016: Pregnancy Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27928435/a-debate-about-ultrasound-and-anatomic-aspects-of-the-cervix-in-spontaneous-preterm-birth
#11
REVIEW
Bohîlțea Re, Munteanu O, Turcan N, Baros A, Bodean O, Voicu D, Cîrstoiu Mm
Preterm birth is the legal first global cause of neonatal death. The cervix has two roles: it has to stay closed to allow the fetus to undergo a normal development during gestation, and at term, the cervix has to dilate under the pressure of uterine contractions to allow the delivery. The purpose of this article is to establish if the ultrasound measured length of the cervix and its appearance are predictive for the spontaneous preterm birth. Cervical insufficiency can be described by painless cervical dilatation leading to pregnancy losses/ births, with no other risk factors present...
October 2016: Journal of Medicine and Life
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917473/maternal-deprivation-alters-expression-of-neural-maturation-gene-tbr1-in-the-amygdala-paralaminar-nucleus-in-infant-female-macaques
#12
Danielle M de Campo, Judy L Cameron, Joseph M Miano, David A Lewis, Karoly Mirnics, Julie L Fudge
Early parental loss is associated with social-emotional dysregulation and amygdala physiologic changes. Previously, we examined whole amygdala gene expression in infant monkeys exposed to early maternal deprivation. Here, we focus on an amygdala region with immature neurons at birth: the paralaminar nucleus (PL). We hypothesized that 1) the normal infant PL is enriched in a subset of neural maturation (NM) genes compared to a nearby amygdala subregion; and 2) maternal deprivation would downregulate expression of NM transcripts (mRNA)...
December 4, 2016: Developmental Psychobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907096/global-deletion-of-tspo-does-not-affect-the-viability-and-gene-expression-profile
#13
Huaishan Wang, Kangle Zhai, Yingchao Xue, Jia Yang, Qi Yang, Yi Fu, Yu Hu, Fang Liu, Weiqing Wang, Lianxian Cui, Hui Chen, Jianmin Zhang, Wei He
Translocator Protein (18kDa, TSPO) is a mitochondrial outer membrane transmembrane protein. Its expression is elevated during inflammation and injury. However, the function of TSPO in vivo is still controversial. Here, we constructed a TSPO global knockout (KO) mouse with a Cre-LoxP system that abolished TSPO protein expression in all tissues and showed normal phenotypes in the physiological condition. The birth rates of TSPO heterozygote (Het) x Het or KO x KO breeding were consistent with Mendel's Law, suggesting a normal viability of TSPO KO mice at birth...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871462/placental-expression-of-dna-methyltransferase-1-dnmt1-gender-specific-relation-with-human-placental-growth
#14
A Mukhopadhyay, G Ravikumar, H Meraaj, P Dwarkanath, A Thomas, J Crasta, T Thomas, A V Kurpad, T S Sridhar
AIMS: Placental physiology and morphology is critically regulated by DNA methylation. As such, placental global DNA methylation and transcript abundance of placental DNA methyltransferases (DNMT1 and DNMT3A) may relate to placental and fetal growth in human pregnancies. We aimed to test correlations of human fetoplacental parameters and birth weight with the placental expression of DNA methyltransferases (DNMT1 and DNMT3A) and placental global methylation. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Placentae (n = 109) were collected from small- (SGA) and appropriate- (AGA) for gestational age full-term singleton pregnancies (n = 56 SGA and 53 AGA)...
December 2016: Placenta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853703/deciphering-pro-lymphangiogenic-programs-during-mammary-involution-and-postpartum-breast-cancer
#15
REVIEW
Virginia F Borges, Alan M Elder, Traci R Lyons
Postpartum breast cancers are a highly metastatic subset of young women's breast cancers defined as breast cancers diagnosed in the postpartum period or within 5 years of last child birth. Women diagnosed with postpartum breast cancer are nearly twice as likely to develop metastasis and to die from breast cancer when compared with nulliparous women. Additionally, epidemiological studies utilizing multiple cohorts also suggest that nearly half of all breast cancers in women aged <45 qualify as postpartum cases...
2016: Frontiers in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834785/physiological-effects-of-a%C3%A2-single-chest-physiotherapy-session-in-mechanically-ventilated-and-extubated-preterm-neonates
#16
Y Mehta, J Shetye, R Nanavati, A Mehta
OBJECTIVE: To assess the changes on various physiological cardio-respiratory parameters with a single chest physiotherapy session in mechanically ventilated and extubated preterm neonates with respiratory distress syndrome. STUDY DESIGN: This is a prospective observational study in a neonatal intensive care unit setting. Sixty preterm neonates with respiratory distress syndrome, thirty mechanically ventilated and thirty extubated preterm neonates requiring chest physiotherapy were enrolled in the study...
2016: Journal of Neonatal-perinatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27810937/deficiency-of-cpeb2-confined-choline-acetyltransferase-expression-in-the-dorsal-motor-nucleus-of-vagus-causes-hyperactivated-parasympathetic-signaling-associated-bronchoconstriction
#17
Yen-Ting Lai, Chun-Kuei Su, Si-Tse Jiang, Ya-Jen Chang, Alan Chuan-Ying Lai, Yi-Shuian Huang
: Cytoplasmic polyadenylation element binding protein 2 (CPEB2) is an RNA-binding protein and translational regulator. To understand the physiological function of CPEB2, we generated CPEB2 knock-out (KO) mice and found that most died within 3 d after birth. CPEB2 is highly expressed in the brainstem, which controls vital functions, such as breathing. Whole-body plethysmography revealed that KO neonates had aberrant respiration with frequent apnea. Nevertheless, the morphology and function of the respiratory rhythm generator and diaphragm neuromuscular junctions appeared normal...
December 14, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27788418/principles-of-physiological-breech-birth-practice-a-delphi-study
#18
Shawn Walker, Mandie Scamell, Pam Parker
OBJECTIVE: to establish a multi-professional consensus on shared principles underlying the practice of physiological breech birth. DESIGN: three-round Delphi e-survey. SETTING: multi-national. PARTICIPANTS: a panel of thirteen obstetricians and thirteen midwives, experienced in facilitating physiological breech births in varied settings, and involving varied maternal birthing positions, and two service user representatives...
December 2016: Midwifery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27698567/managing-hyperthyroidism-in-pregnancy-current-perspectives
#19
Stine Linding Andersen, Peter Laurberg
Hyperthyroidism in women who are of childbearing age is predominantly of autoimmune origin and caused by Graves' disease. The physiological changes in the maternal immune system during a pregnancy may influence the development of this and other autoimmune diseases. Furthermore, pregnancy-associated physiological changes influence the synthesis and metabolism of thyroid hormones and challenge the interpretation of thyroid function tests in pregnancy. Thyroid hormones are crucial regulators of early development and play an important role in the maintenance of a normal pregnancy and in the development of the fetus, particularly the fetal brain...
2016: International Journal of Women's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27648289/parity-and-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-a-study-of-insulin-resistance-and-%C3%AE-cell-function-in-women-with-multiple-pregnancies
#20
Ditte Smed Iversen, Julie Støy, Ulla Kampmann, Thomas Schmidt Voss, Lene Ring Madsen, Niels Møller, Per Glud Ovesen
OBJECTIVE: Increasing parity may be a risk factor for the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus and the metabolic alterations during a normal pregnancy induces a prediabetic state; thus, multiple pregnancies may act as a risk factor for development of type 2 diabetes if these physiological alterations in glucose homeostasis are not reversed postpartum. We hypothesize that multiple pregnancies may lead to β-cell exhaustion and that the insulin resistance that occurs during pregnancy may persist after multiple births...
2016: BMJ Open Diabetes Research & Care
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