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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29153361/noise-reduction-angiographic-imaging-technology-reduces-radiation-dose-during-bronchial-artery-embolization
#1
C Spink, M Avanesov, T Schmidt, M Grass, G Schoen, G Adam, A Koops, H Ittrich, P Bannas
PURPOSE: Comparison of radiation doses in patients undergoing angiographic bronchial artery embolization (BAE) before and after a noise reduction imaging technology upgrade. METHODS: We performed a retrospective study of 70 patients undergoing BAE. Procedures were performed before (n=32) and after (n=38) the technology upgrade containing additional filters and improved image-processing. Cumulative air kerma (AK), cumulative dose area product (DAP), number of exposure frames, total fluoroscopy time and amount of contrast agent were recorded...
December 2017: European Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151547/-the-effect-of-reconstruction-method-on-the-ability-to-analyze-of-ffr-using-ct
#2
Hidekazu Inage, Yosuke Kogure, Kanako Kumamaru, Shinichiro Fujimoto, Kazuhisa Takamura, Yuko Kawaguchi, Htun Han Ni, Haruyoshi Hoshito
BACKGROUND: Invasive-fractional flow reserve (FFR) is the reference standard to evaluate functional ischemia of coronary arteries, and is used to decide if percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty is necessary. Recently, computed tomography-derived FFR (CT-FFR) is emerged as an alternative non-invasive method. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effect of reconstruction methods and image parameters on the accuracy of CT-FFR calculation. METHODS: A total of 26 segments in the consecutive 10 coronary CT angiography (CCTA) studies were evaluated...
2017: Nihon Hoshasen Gijutsu Gakkai Zasshi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150766/spinobot-an-mri-guided-needle-positioning-system-for-spinal-cellular-therapeutics
#3
Alexander Squires, John N Oshinski, Nicholas M Boulis, Zion Tsz Ho Tse
The neurodegenerative disease amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) results in the death of motor neurons in voluntary muscles. There are no cures for ALS and few available treatments. In studies with small animal models, injection of cellular therapeutics into the anterior horn of the spinal cord has been shown to inhibit the progression of ALS. It was hypothesized that spinal injection could be made faster and less invasive with the aid of a robot. The robotic system presented-SpinoBot-uses MRI guidance to position a needle for percutaneous injection into the spinal cord...
November 17, 2017: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150051/glutamate-is-down-regulated-and-tinnitus-loudness-levels-decreased-following-rtms-over-auditory-cortex-of-the-left-hemisphere-a-prospective-randomized-single-blinded-sham-controlled-cross-over-study
#4
Anthony T Cacace, Jiani Hu, Stephen Romero, Yang Xuan, Robert F Burkard, Richard S Tyler
Using a prospective randomized single-blinded sham-controlled cross-over design, we studied the efficacy of low frequency (1-Hz) repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) over auditory cortex of the left temporal lobe as an experimental treatment modality for noise-induced tinnitus. Pre/post outcome measures for sham vs. active rTMS conditions included differential changes in tinnitus loudness, self-perceived changes in the Tinnitus Handicap Questionnaire (THQ), and neurochemical changes of brain metabolite concentrations using single voxel proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H-MRS) obtained from left and right auditory cortical areas...
November 14, 2017: Hearing Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147735/reduction-of-metallic-artifacts-of-the-post-treatment-intracranial-aneurysms-effects-of-single-energy-metal-artifact-reduction-algorithm
#5
Yu-Ning Pan, Ge Chen, Ai-Jing Li, Zhao-Qian Chen, Xiang Gao, Yi Huang, Bradley Mattson, Shan Li
PURPOSE: This study evaluated the quality of computed tomography (CT) and CT angiography images generated using the single-energy metal artifact reduction (SEMAR) algorithm during perfusion examination in patients who had undergone reconstruction with neurosurgical clipping or endovascular coiling for treatment of aneurysms. METHODS: A total of 55 patients with implanted intracranial clips or coils (24 men and 31 women; mean age 60.15 ± 15.86 years) underwent perfusion studies evaluated by CT and CT angiography with a 320-row CT scanner...
November 16, 2017: Clinical Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29147469/non-pharmacologic-interventions-to-improve-sleep-of-medicine-inpatients-a-controlled-study
#6
Selina Dobing, Anita Dey, Finlay McAlister, Jennifer Ringrose
Background: Sleep quality in hospitalized medicine patients is poor, with environmental factors among the most frequently cited reasons. Objective: We tested the efficacy of a non-pharmacologic intervention on the sleep quality of medicine inpatients. Design/Methods: A controlled study to evaluate our non-pharmacologic multidisciplinary 'TUCK-in' protocol (which includes timed lights-off periods, minimizing night-time noise, distribution of earplugs at bedtime, cued toileting before bedtime, and identification and reduction of modifiable interruptions) was deployed on two of five identical medicine wards...
2017: Journal of Community Hospital Internal Medicine Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142279/modifying-response-times-in-the-simon-task-with-transcranial-random-noise-stimulation
#7
James Robert McIntosh, Carsten Mehring
Perceptual decisions pervade our every-day lives, and can align or conflict with inbuilt biases. We investigated these conflicting biases by applying transcranial random noise stimulation (tRNS) while subjects took part in a visual Simon task - a paradigm where irrelevant spatial cues influence the response times of subjects to relevant colour cues. We found that tRNS reduces the response time of subjects independent of the congruence between spatial and colour cues, but dependent on the baseline response time, both between subjects and across conditions within subjects...
November 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142096/novel-ca-2-dependent-mechanisms-regulate-spontaneous-release-at-excitatory-synapses-onto-ca1-pyramidal-cells
#8
Walter E Babiec, Thomas J O'Dell
Although long thought to simply be a source of synaptic noise, spontaneous, action-potential independent release of neurotransmitter from presynaptic terminals has multiple roles in synaptic function. We explored whether and to what extent the two predominantly proposed mechanisms for explaining spontaneous release, stochastic activation of voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels (VGCCs) or activation of Ca(2+)-sensing receptors (CaSRs) by extracelluar Ca(2+), played a role in the sensitivity of spontaneous release to the level of extracellular Ca(2+) concentration at excitatory synapses at CA1 pyramidal cells of the adult, male mouse hippocampus...
November 15, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140117/comparison-of-radiation-dose-and-image-quality-of-abdominopelvic-ct-using-iterative-aidr-3d-and-conventional-reconstructions
#9
Caroline Duarte de Mello-Amoedo, Aparecido Nakano Martins, Adriano Tachibana, Daniella Ferraro Pinho, Ronaldo Hueb Baroni
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study is to compare radiation dose and image quality of abdominopelvic CT studies reconstructed with iterative and conventional techniques. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This retrospective study enrolled 99 patients who underwent abdominopelvic CT examinations with the portal venous phase images reconstructed with both filtered back projection and Adaptive Iterative Dose Reduction 3D (AIDR 3D) at different time points. Subjective assessment of image quality was performed by two radiologists who scored axial images for overall quality, sharpness, noise, and acceptability in a blinded fashion...
November 15, 2017: AJR. American Journal of Roentgenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135850/incorporating-nurse-input-and-evidence-into-a-newly-designed-unit-to-improve-patient-and-nursing-outcomes
#10
Jennifer Tafelmeyer, Robin Wicks, Jeannine Brant, Laurie Smith
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to identify processes, outcomes, and lessons learned from designing a new evidence-based unit. A research study was conducted simultaneously to rigorously measure changes in patient and staff outcomes. BACKGROUND: Nursing leadership and frontline nursing engagement are critical in evidence-based design to promote positive outcomes and workflow. METHODS: Quality indicators were tracked premove and postmove...
December 2017: Journal of Nursing Administration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130539/sources-of-systematic-error-in-proton-density-fat-fraction-pdff-quantification-in-the-liver-evaluated-from-magnitude-images-with-different-numbers-of-echoes
#11
Mark Bydder, Gavin Hamilton, Ludovic de Rochefort, Ajinkya Desai, Elhamy R Heba, Rohit Loomba, Jeffrey B Schwimmer, Nikolaus M Szeverenyi, Claude B Sirlin
The purpose of this work was to investigate sources of bias in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) liver fat quantification that lead to a dependence of the proton density fat fraction (PDFF) on the number of echoes. This was a retrospective analysis of liver MRI data from 463 subjects. The magnitude signal variation with TE from spoiled gradient echo images was curve fitted to estimate the PDFF using a model that included monoexponential R2 * decay and a multi-peak fat spectrum. Additional corrections for non-exponential decay (Gaussian), bi-exponential decay, degree of fat saturation, water frequency shift and noise bias were introduced...
November 12, 2017: NMR in Biomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128542/truncated-rap-music-trap-music-for-meg-and-eeg-source-localization
#12
Niko Mäkelä, Matti Stenroos, Jukka Sarvas, Risto J Ilmoniemi
Electrically active brain regions can be located applying MUltiple SIgnal Classification (MUSIC) on magneto- or electroencephalographic (MEG; EEG) data. We introduce a new MUSIC method, called truncated recursively-applied-and-projected MUSIC (TRAP-MUSIC). It corrects a hidden deficiency of the conventional RAP-MUSIC algorithm, which prevents estimation of the true number of brain-signal sources accurately. The correction is done by applying a sequential dimension reduction to the signal-subspace projection...
November 8, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127389/high-brightness-laser-imaging-with-tunable-speckle-reduction-enabled-by-electroactive-micro-optic-diffusers
#13
Hamid Farrokhi, Thazhe Madam Rohith, Jeeranan Boonruangkan, Seunghwoi Han, Hyunwoong Kim, Seung-Woo Kim, Young-Jin Kim
High coherence of lasers is desirable in high-speed, high-resolution, and wide-field imaging. However, it also causes unavoidable background speckle noise thus degrades the image quality in traditional microscopy and more significantly in interferometric quantitative phase imaging (QPI). QPI utilizes optical interference for high-precision measurement of the optical properties where the speckle can severely distort the information. To overcome this, we demonstrated a light source system having a wide tunability in the spatial coherence over 43% by controlling the illumination angle, scatterer's size, and the rotational speed of an electroactive-polymer rotational micro-optic diffuser...
November 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29125334/submillisievert-chest-dual-energy-computed-tomography-a-pilot-study
#14
Rodrigo Canellas, Jeanne B Ackman, Subba R Digumarthy, Melissa Price, Alexi Otrakji, Shaunagh McDermott, Amita Sharma, Mannudeep K Kalra
OBJECTIVE: To assess if diagnostic dual energy CT of the chest can be achieved at submillisievert doses (sub-mSv). METHODS: Our IRB-approved prospective study included 20 patients who were scanned on dual-source MDCT. All patients gave written informed consent for acquisition of additional image series at reduced radiation dose on a dual-source MDCT (80/140kV) within 10 seconds after the standard of care acquisition. Dose reduction was achieved by reducing the quality reference mAs, with combined angular exposure control...
November 10, 2017: British Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124547/online-reduction-of-artifacts-in-eeg-of-simultaneous-eeg-fmri-using-reference-layer-adaptive-filtering-rlaf
#15
David Steyrl, Gunther Krausz, Karl Koschutnig, Günter Edlinger, Gernot R Müller-Putz
Simultaneous electroencephalography (EEG) and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) allow us to study the active human brain from two perspectives concurrently. Signal processing based artifact reduction techniques are mandatory for this, however, to obtain reasonable EEG quality in simultaneous EEG-fMRI. Current artifact reduction techniques like average artifact subtraction (AAS), typically become less effective when artifact reduction has to be performed on-the-fly. We thus present and evaluate a new technique to improve EEG quality online...
November 9, 2017: Brain Topography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29122761/effect-of-an-arm-traction-device-on-image-quality-and-radiation-exposure-during-neck-ct-a-prospective-study
#16
Y J Choi, J H Lee, D H Yoon, H J Kim, K J Seo, K-H Do, J H Baek
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The image quality of neck CT is frequently disturbed by streak artifact from the shoulder girdles. Our aim was to determine the effects of an arm traction device on image quality and radiation exposure in neck CT. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients with lymphoma with complete remission who were scheduled to undergo 2 consecutive follow-up neck CT scans for surveillance within a 1-year interval were enrolled in this prospective study. They underwent 2 consecutive neck CT scans (intervention protocol: patients with an arm traction device; standard protocol: no positioning optimization) on the same CT system...
November 9, 2017: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121608/synthesis-of-tetrahexahedral-au-pd-core-shell-nanocrystals-and-reduction-of-graphene-oxide-for-the-electrochemical-detection-of-epinephrine
#17
Wenhao Dong, Yipeng Ren, Zhixue Bai, Jun Jiao, Yuan Chen, Bingkai Han, Qiang Chen
An innovative epinephrine sensor was fabricated by integrating tetrahexahedral (THH) Au-Pd core-shell nanocrystals on reduced graphene oxide (rGO) nanosheets. Furthermore, the nanocomposites combined the large specific areas of rGO with the high-index facets and excellent electrocatalytic activity of the THH Au-Pd nanocrystals, and the nanocomposites were an essential adapter for detecting epinephrine. In the present work, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were used to identify and characterize these unique nanocomposites, and the results revealed that a unique THH Au-Pd/rGO core-shell nanostructure was synthesized successfully...
October 31, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121409/image-quality-and-dose-for-a-multi-source-cone-beam-ct-extremity-scanner
#18
Grace Jianan Gang, Wojciech Zbijewski, Mahadevappa Mahesh, Gaurav Thawait, Nathan Packard, John Yorkston, Shadpour Demehri, Jeffrey Harrold Siewerdsen
PURPOSE: This work investigates the dose characteristics and image quality of a multi-source cone-beam CT scanner dedicated for extremity imaging. METHODS: The scanner has an x-ray source with three separate anode-cathode units evenly distributed along the longitudinal direction. A nominal scan protocol fires the three sources sequentially, and a total of 600 projections (200 for each source) are acquired over a source-detector orbit of 210(o) . Dose was measured using a Farmer chamber in three CTDI phantoms stacked end-to-end...
November 9, 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29120665/screening-for-lung-cancer-using-sub-millisievert-chest-ct-with-iterative-reconstruction-algorithm-image-quality-and-nodule-detectability
#19
Zhang Miao, Qi Weiwei, Sun Ye, Jiang Yan, Liu Xiaoyi, Nan Hong
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the image quality and nodules detectability using ultra-low dose (ULD) protocol with iterative model reconstruction (IMR) algorithm when compared to routine low dose (LD) chest CT in lung cancer screening. METHODS: Chest CT scans were acquired using a 256-slice scanner for 300 subjects. The scan protocol for ULD group was 120kVp/17mAs while the LD group was 120kVp/30mAs. All images were reconstructed with filtered back projection (FBP), hybrid iterative reconstruction (HIR) and IMR algorithms...
November 9, 2017: British Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118850/study-of-in-vitro-transcriptional-binding-effects-and-noise-using-constitutive-promoters-combined-with-up-element-sequences-in-escherichia-coli
#20
Qiang Yan, Stephen S Fong
Background: UP elements (upstream element) are DNA sequences upstream of a promoter that interact with the α-subunit of RNA polymerase (RNAP) and can affect transcription by altering the binding RNAP to DNA. However, details of UP element and binding affinity effects on transcriptional strength are unclear. Results: Here, we investigated the effects of UP element sequences on gene transcription, binding affinity, and gene expression noise. Addition of UP elements resulted in increased gene expression (maximum 95...
2017: Journal of Biological Engineering
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