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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142650/early-childhood-development-and-iranian-parents-knowledge-a-qualitative-study
#1
Elham Habibi, Firouzeh Sajedi, Hosein Malek Afzali, Nikta Hatamizadeh, Soheila Shahshahanipour, Frances Page Glascoe
Background: Early childhood is the most important step throughout the lifespan and it is a critical period continuing to the end of 8-year-old. Mothers' knowledge is one of the important aspects of child development. The goals of this study were to determine the situation of knowledge in Iranian parents about the concept and the importance of early childhood development (ECD) and determining the sources of parental knowledge about ECD from the perspective of parents and grandparents. Methods: This qualitative study was conducted based on the directional content analysis in 2016...
2017: International Journal of Preventive Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135872/the-role-of-auditory-evoked-potentials-in-the-context-of-cochlear-implant-provision
#2
Sebastian Hoth, Oliver Christian Dziemba
: Auditory evoked potentials (AEP) are highly demanded during the whole process of equipping patients with cochlear implants (CI). They play an essential role in preoperative diagnostics, intraoperative testing, and postoperative monitoring of auditory performance and success. The versatility of AEP's is essentially enhanced by their property to be evokable by acoustic as well as electric stimuli. Thus, the electric responses of the auditory system following acoustic stimulation and recorded by the conventional surface technique as well as by transtympanic derivation from the promontory (Electrocochleography [ECochG]) are used for the quantitative determination of hearing loss and, additionally, electrically evoked compound actions potentials (ECAP) can be recorded with the intracochlear electrodes of the implant just adjacent to the stimulation electrode to check the functional integrity of the device and its coupling to the auditory system...
December 2017: Otology & Neurotology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29119612/are-you-surprised-to-hear-this-longitudinal-spectral-speech-exposure-in-older-compared-to-middle-aged-normal-hearing-adults
#3
Nathalie Giroud, Ulrike Lemke, Philip Reich, Julia Bauer, Susann Widmer, Martin Meyer
Cognitive abilities such as attention or working memory can support older adults during speech perception. However, cognitive abilities as well as speech perception decline with age, leading to the expenditure of effort during speech processing. This longitudinal study therefore investigated age-related differences in electrophysiological processes during speech discrimination, and assessed the extent of enhancement to such cognitive auditory processes through repeated auditory exposure. For that purpose, accuracy and reaction time were compared between 13 older adults (62-76y) and 15 middle-aged (28-52y) controls in an active oddball paradigm which was administered at three consecutive measurement time points at an interval of two weeks, while EEG was recorded...
November 9, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114770/infant-directed-speech-enhances-attention-to-speech-in-deaf-infants-with-cochlear-implants
#4
Yuanyuan Wang, Tonya R Bergeson, Derek M Houston
Purpose: Both theoretical models of infant language acquisition and empirical studies posit important roles for attention to speech in early language development. However, deaf infants with cochlear implants (CIs) show reduced attention to speech as compared with their peers with normal hearing (NH; Horn, Davis, Pisoni, & Miyamoto, 2005; Houston, Pisoni, Kirk, Ying, & Miyamoto, 2003), which may affect their acquisition of spoken language. The main purpose of this study was to determine (a) whether infant-directed speech (IDS) enhances attention to speech in infants with CIs, as compared with adult-directed speech (ADS), and (b) whether the degree to which infants with CIs pay attention to IDS is associated with later language outcomes...
November 9, 2017: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29108674/effects-of-vocal-function-exercises-a-systematic-review
#5
REVIEW
Vrushali Angadi, Daniel Croake, Joseph Stemple
OBJECTIVES: The purpose of the present review was to systematically analyze the evidence for the effectiveness of vocal function exercises (VFEs) in improving voice production. METHODS: A systematic literature search was performed by two independent reviewers using PubMed and EBSCOHost to access relevant databases and to locate outcome studies that used VFEs as an intervention. Articles that met inclusion criteria were appraised based on the American Speech-Language and Hearing Association's levels of evidence...
November 3, 2017: Journal of Voice: Official Journal of the Voice Foundation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29107704/perceptual-training-enhances-temporal-acuity-for-multisensory-speech
#6
Matthew A De Niear, Pranjal B Gupta, Sarah H Baum, Mark T Wallace
The temporal relationship between auditory and visual cues is a fundamental feature in the determination of whether these signals will be integrated. The window of perceived simultaneity (TBW) is a construct that describes the epoch of time during which asynchronous auditory and visual stimuli are likely to be perceptually bound. Recently, a number of studies have demonstrated the capacity for perceptual training to enhance temporal acuity for audiovisual stimuli (i.e., narrow the TBW). These studies, however, have only examined multisensory perceptual learning that develops in response to feedback that is provided when making judgments on simple, low-level audiovisual stimuli (i...
October 28, 2017: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29105665/s-ketamine-induced-nmda-receptor-blockade-during-natural-speech-production-and-its-implications-for-formal-thought-disorder-in-schizophrenia-a-pharmaco-fmri-study
#7
Arne Nagels, Maurice Cabanis, Andrea Oppel, Andre Kirner-Veselinovic, Christian Schales, Tilo Kircher
Structural and functional changes in the lateral temporal language areas have been related to formal thought disorder (FTD) in schizophrenia. Continuous, natural speech production activates the right lateral temporal lobe in schizophrenia, as opposed to the left in healthy subjects. Positive and negative FTD can be elicited in healthy subjects by glutamatergic NMDA blockade with ketamine. It is unclear, whether the glutamate system is related to the reversed hemispheric lateralization during speaking in patients...
November 6, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102808/causal-cortical-dynamics-of-a-predictive-enhancement-of-speech-intelligibility
#8
Giovanni M Di Liberto, Edmund C Lalor, Rebecca E Millman
Speech perception may be underpinned by a hierarchical cortical system, which attempts to match "external" incoming sensory inputs with "internal" top-down predictions. Prior knowledge modulates internal predictions of an upcoming stimulus and exerts its effects in temporal and inferior frontal cortex. Here, we used source-space magnetoencephalography (MEG) to study the spatiotemporal dynamics underpinning the integration of prior knowledge in the speech processing network. Prior knowledge was manipulated to i) increase the perceived intelligibility of speech sentences, and ii) dissociate the perceptual effects of changes in speech intelligibility from acoustical differences in speech stimuli...
November 2, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29092591/continued-search-for-better-prediction-of-aided-speech-understanding-in-multi-talker-environments
#9
Jing Xia, Sridhar Kalluri, Christophe Micheyl, Ervin Hafter
To better understand issues of hearing-aid benefit during natural listening, this study examined the added demand placed by the goal of understanding speech over the more typically studied goal of simply recognizing speech sounds. The study compared hearing-aid benefit in two conditions, and examined factors that might account for the observed benefits. In the phonetic condition, listeners needed only identify the correct sound to make a correct response. In the semantic condition, listeners had to understand what they had heard to respond correctly, because the answer did not include any keywords from the spoken speech...
October 2017: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29082797/adaptive-equipment-use-by-people-with-motor-neuron-disease-in-australia-a-prospective-observational-consecutive-cohort-study
#10
Karol A Connors, Lisa M Mahony, Prue Morgan
PURPOSE: People with motor neuron sisease require adaptive equipment to enhance life quality. This study aimed to examine total and concurrent equipment items prescribed with phenotype consideration. METHODS: A prospective, observational consecutive cohort study was undertaken. Data regarding Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Functional Rating Scale-Revised, phenotype, symptom onset and Functional Independence Measure (inpatients only) was recorded. Equipment utilized was coded by therapist as: speech devices; transfer devices; mobility devices (including power wheelchairs); orthoses; activities of daily living equipment; assisted technology and home modification equipment...
October 28, 2017: Disability and Rehabilitation. Assistive Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29075748/intelligibility-of-noise-adapted-and-clear-speech-in-child-young-adult-and-older-adult-talkers
#11
Rajka Smiljanic, Rachael C Gilbert
Purpose: This study examined intelligibility of conversational and clear speech sentences produced in quiet and in noise by children, young adults, and older adults. Relative talker intelligibility was assessed across speaking styles. Method: Sixty-one young adult participants listened to sentences mixed with speech-shaped noise at -5 dB signal-to-noise ratio. The analyses examined percent correct scores across conversational, clear, and noise-adapted conditions and the three talker groups...
November 9, 2017: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29069292/task-modulated-cortical-representations-of-natural-sound-source-categories
#12
Jens Hjortkjær, Tanja Kassuba, Kristoffer H Madsen, Martin Skov, Hartwig R Siebner
In everyday sound environments, we recognize sound sources and events by attending to relevant aspects of an acoustic input. Evidence about the cortical mechanisms involved in extracting relevant category information from natural sounds is, however, limited to speech. Here, we used functional MRI to measure cortical response patterns while human listeners categorized real-world sounds created by objects of different solid materials (glass, metal, wood) manipulated by different sound-producing actions (striking, rattling, dropping)...
October 23, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29068860/validating-a-method-to-assess-lipreading-audiovisual-gain-and-integration-during-speech-reception-with-cochlear-implanted-and-normal-hearing-subjects-using-a-talking-head
#13
Stefan Schreitmüller, Miriam Frenken, Lüder Bentz, Magdalene Ortmann, Martin Walger, Hartmut Meister
OBJECTIVES: Watching a talker's mouth is beneficial for speech reception (SR) in many communication settings, especially in noise and when hearing is impaired. Measures for audiovisual (AV) SR can be valuable in the framework of diagnosing or treating hearing disorders. This study addresses the lack of standardized methods in many languages for assessing lipreading, AV gain, and integration. A new method is validated that supplements a German speech audiometric test with visualizations of the synthetic articulation of an avatar that was used, for it is feasible to lip-sync auditory speech in a highly standardized way...
October 24, 2017: Ear and Hearing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29067896/why-do-children-pay-more-attention-to-grammatical-morphemes-at-the-ends-of-sentences
#14
Megha Sundara
Children pay more attention to the beginnings and ends of sentences rather than the middle. In natural speech, ends of sentences are prosodically and segmentally enhanced; they are also privileged by sensory and recall advantages. We contrasted whether acoustic enhancement or sensory and recall-related advantages are necessary and sufficient for the salience of grammatical morphemes at the ends of sentences. We measured 22-month-olds' listening times to grammatical and ungrammatical sentences with third person singular -s...
October 25, 2017: Journal of Child Language
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29067134/attention-is-shaped-by-semantic-level-of-event-structure-during-speech-comprehension-an-electroencephalogram-study
#15
Xiaoqing Li, Yuping Zhang, Lin Li, Haiyan Zhao, Xiufang Du
The present electroencephalogram study used an attention probe paradigm to investigate how semantic and acoustic structures constrain temporal attention during speech comprehension. Spoken sentences were used as stimuli, with each one containing a four-character critical phrase, of which the third character was the target character. We manipulated not only the semantic relationship between the target character and the immediately preceding two characters, but also the presence/absence of a pitch accent on the first character...
October 2017: Cognitive Neurodynamics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29062690/paroxysmal-dysphasia-in-a-68%C3%A2-year-old-man-enhancing-the-mri-spectrum
#16
Ugur Sener, William O Tatum, Alfredo Quinones-Hinojosa, Deependra Mahato, Anteneh M Feyissa
Brain tumor-related epilepsy is a common complication of primary and metastatic brain tumors with seizures often representing the first manifestation of the tumor. The size and location of the tumor can make detection of epileptiform discharges on scalp electroencephalogram and safe surgical resection challenging. We describe a case of a patient with glioblastoma multiforme presenting as dominant temporal lobe epilepsy. Seizures were manifest as episodes of speech arrest on a background of long-standing history of episodic speech difficulty and headache...
2017: Epilepsy & Behavior Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29056453/audiomotor-perceptual-training-enhances-speech-intelligibility-in-background-noise
#17
Jonathon P Whitton, Kenneth E Hancock, Jeffrey M Shannon, Daniel B Polley
Sensory and motor skills can be improved with training, but learning is often restricted to practice stimuli. As an exception, training on closed-loop (CL) sensorimotor interfaces, such as action video games and musical instruments, can impart a broad spectrum of perceptual benefits. Here we ask whether computerized CL auditory training can enhance speech understanding in levels of background noise that approximate a crowded restaurant. Elderly hearing-impaired subjects trained for 8 weeks on a CL game that, like a musical instrument, challenged them to monitor subtle deviations between predicted and actual auditory feedback as they moved their fingertip through a virtual soundscape...
November 6, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050393/distinct-processing-of-ambiguous-speech-in-people-with-non-clinical-auditory-verbal-hallucinations
#18
Ben Alderson-Day, César F Lima, Samuel Evans, Saloni Krishnan, Pradheep Shanmugalingam, Charles Fernyhough, Sophie K Scott
Auditory verbal hallucinations (hearing voices) are typically associated with psychosis, but a minority of the general population also experience them frequently and without distress. Such 'non-clinical' experiences offer a rare and unique opportunity to study hallucinations apart from confounding clinical factors, thus allowing for the identification of symptom-specific mechanisms. Recent theories propose that hallucinations result from an imbalance of prior expectation and sensory information, but whether such an imbalance also influences auditory-perceptual processes remains unknown...
September 1, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049603/enhancing-auditory-selective-attention-using-a-visually-guided-hearing-aid
#19
Gerald Kidd
Purpose: Listeners with hearing loss, as well as many listeners with clinically normal hearing, often experience great difficulty segregating talkers in a multiple-talker sound field and selectively attending to the desired "target" talker while ignoring the speech from unwanted "masker" talkers and other sources of sound. This listening situation forms the classic "cocktail party problem" described by Cherry (1953) that has received a great deal of study over the past few decades. In this article, a new approach to improving sound source segregation and enhancing auditory selective attention is described...
October 17, 2017: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039045/do-age-and-linguistic-background-alter-the-audiovisual-advantage-when-listening-to-speech-in-the-presence-of-energetic-and-informational-masking
#20
Meital Avivi-Reich, Klajdi Puka, Bruce A Schneider
We examined how the type of masker presented in the background affected the extent to which visual information enhanced speech recognition, and whether the effect was dependent on or independent of age and linguistic competence. In the present study, young speakers of English as a first language (YEL1) and English as a second language (YEL2), as well as older speakers of English as a first language (OEL1), were asked to complete an audio (A) and an audiovisual (AV) speech recognition task in which they listened to anomalous target sentences presented against a background of one of three masker types (noise, babble, and competing speech)...
October 16, 2017: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
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