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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338838/neuronal-populations-in-the-occipital-cortex-of-the-blind-synchronize-to-the-temporal-dynamics-of-speech
#1
Markus Johannes Van Ackeren, Francesca M Barbero, Stefania Mattioni, Roberto Bottini, Olivier Collignon
The occipital cortex of early blind individuals (EB) activates during speech processing, challenging the notion of a hard-wired neurobiology of language. But, at what stage of speech processing do occipital regions participate in EB? Here we demonstrate that parieto-occipital regions in EB enhance their synchronization to acoustic fluctuations in human speech in the theta-range (corresponding to syllabic rate), irrespective of speech intelligibility. Crucially, enhanced synchronization to the intelligibility of speech was selectively observed in primary visual cortex in EB, suggesting that this region is at the interface between speech perception and comprehension...
January 17, 2018: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337239/background-suppression-and-its-relation-to-foreground-processing-of-speech-versus-non-speech-streams
#2
Xiaochen Zhang, Xiaolin Li, Jingjing Chen, Qin Gong
Since sound perception takes place against a background with a certain amount of noise, both speech and non-speech processing involve extraction of target signals and suppression of background noise. Previous works on early processing of speech phonemes largely neglected how background noise is encoded and suppressed. This study aimed to fill in this gap. We adopted an oddball paradigm where speech (vowels) or non-speech stimuli (complex tones) were presented with or without a background of amplitude-modulated noise and analyzed cortical responses related to foreground stimulus processing, including mismatch negativity (MMN), N2b, and P300, as well as neural representations of the background noise, i...
January 11, 2018: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322106/questioning-the-role-of-facebook-in-maintaining-syrian-social-capital-during-the-syrian-crisis
#3
Reem Ramadan
The Syrian crisis is considered the 'world's single largest crisis for almost a quarter of a century that has the biggest refugee population from a single conflict in a generation' (UN High Commissioner for Refugees, 2016). The rapid adoption of Facebook among Syrians questions whether it helps in maintaining the social capital of a war-torn nation and a dispersed Syrian population worldwide. Data was collected by means of a Facebook survey from 964 Syrian users. Results indicated that Facebook enhanced social identity and social capital through facilitating communication, collaboration and resource sharing among dispersed Syrians inside and outside the country...
December 2017: Heliyon
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29285846/development-of-a-modified-swallowing-screening-tool-to-manage-post-extubation-dysphagia
#4
Martin Christensen, Michaela Trapl
Post-extubation dysphagia is a condition that is becoming a growing concern. The condition occurs in 3-62% of extubated patients and can be related to mixed aetiologies, such as neuromuscular impairment, critical illness and laryngeal damage. The risk factors for developing dysphagia in critically ill patients are under-diagnosed and perhaps underestimated. Recent studies recommend the implementation of a standardized swallowing screen to prevent aspiration and decrease pneumonia rate and mortality. The aim of this quality improvement initiative was the development of a bedside swallowing screening tool to assess effective swallowing post-endotracheal extubation...
December 28, 2017: Nursing in Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29283669/systems-thinking-and-systems-based-practice-across-the-health-professions-an-inquiry-into-definitions-teaching-practices-and-assessment
#5
Margaret M Plack, Ellen F Goldman, Andrea R Scott, Christine Pintz, Debra Herrmann, Kathleen Kline, Tracey Thompson, Shelley B Brundage
Phenomenon: Systems thinking is the cornerstone of systems-based practice (SBP) and a core competency in medicine and health sciences. Literature regarding how to teach or apply systems thinking in practice is limited. This study aimed to understand how educators in medicine, physical therapy, physician assistant, nursing, and speech-language pathology education programs teach and assess systems thinking and SBP. APPROACH: Twenty-six educators from seven different degree programs across the five professions were interviewed and program descriptions and relevant course syllabi were reviewed...
December 28, 2017: Teaching and Learning in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29279795/primary-intracranial-leiomyosarcoma-presenting-with-massive-peritumoral-edema-and-mass-effect-case-report-and-literature-review
#6
Sachidanand Gautam, Rajesh K Meena
Background: Primary intracranial leiomyosarcomas (LMSs) are unusual tumors of the central nervous system (CNS) affecting all age groups, and are recently, becoming more prevalent in immunosuppressive conditions such as in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. However, only a few CNS LMS case reports exist in the English literature, on the occurrence of this rare entity in immunocompetent adults. Even, rarer is a purely intraparenchymal occurrence without any dural attachment in afflicted individuals...
2017: Surgical Neurology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29246484/testing-native-language-neural-commitment-at-the-brainstem-level-a-cross-linguistic-investigation-of-the-association-between-frequency-following-response-and-speech-perception
#7
Luodi Yu, Yang Zhang
A current topic in auditory neurophysiology is how brainstem sensory coding contributes to higher-level perceptual, linguistic and cognitive skills. This cross-language study was designed to compare frequency following responses (FFRs) for lexical tones in tonal (Mandarin Chinese) and non-tonal (English) language users and test the correlational strength between FFRs and behavior as a function of language experience. The behavioral measures were obtained in the Garner paradigm to assess how lexical tones might interfere with vowel category and duration judgement...
December 12, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228195/structural-connectivity-of-right-frontal-hyperactive-areas-scales-with-stuttering-severity
#8
Nicole E Neef, Alfred Anwander, Christoph Bütfering, Carsten Schmidt-Samoa, Angela D Friederici, Walter Paulus, Martin Sommer
A neuronal sign of persistent developmental stuttering is the magnified coactivation of right frontal brain regions during speech production. Whether and how stuttering severity relates to the connection strength of these hyperactive right frontal areas to other brain areas is an open question. Scrutinizing such brain-behaviour and structure-function relationships aims at disentangling suspected underlying neuronal mechanisms of stuttering. Here, we acquired diffusion-weighted and functional images from 31 adults who stutter and 34 matched control participants...
December 8, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224769/evaluation-of-speech-reception-threshold-in-noise-in-young-cochlear%C3%A2-nucleus%C3%A2-system-6-implant-recipients-using-two-different-digital-remote-microphone-technologies-and-a-speech-enhancement-sound-processing-algorithm
#9
Sergio Razza, Monica Zaccone, Aannalisa Meli, Eliana Cristofari
OBJECTIVE: Children affected by hearing loss can experience difficulties in challenging and noisy environments even when deafness is corrected by Cochlear implant (CI) devices. These patients have a selective attention deficit in multiple listening conditions. At present, the most effective ways to improve the performance of speech recognition in noise consists of providing CI processors with noise reduction algorithms and of providing patients with bilateral CIs. The aim of this study was to compare speech performances in noise, across increasing noise levels, in CI recipients using two kinds of wireless remote-microphone radio systems that use digital radio frequency transmission: the Roger Inspiro accessory and the Cochlear Wireless Mini Microphone accessory...
December 2017: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214551/keeping-it-together-semantic-coherence-stabilizes-phonological-sequences-in-short-term-memory
#10
Nicola Savill, Rachel Ellis, Emma Brooke, Tiffany Koa, Suzie Ferguson, Elena Rojas-Rodriguez, Dominic Arnold, Jonathan Smallwood, Elizabeth Jefferies
Our ability to hold a sequence of speech sounds in mind, in the correct configuration, supports many aspects of communication, but the contribution of conceptual information to this basic phonological capacity remains controversial. Previous research has shown modest and inconsistent benefits of meaning on phonological stability in short-term memory, but these studies were based on sets of unrelated words. Using a novel design, we examined the immediate recall of sentence-like sequences with coherent meaning, alongside both standard word lists and mixed lists containing words and nonwords...
December 6, 2017: Memory & Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204664/-central-and-peripheral-aspects-of-noise-induced-hearing-loss
#11
REVIEW
D Basta, M Gröschel, A Ernst
Noise is an important socioeconomic problem in industrialized countries. Development of efficient treatment options for the audiological phenomena resulting from noise-induced hearing loss requires in-depth understanding of the underlying damage mechanisms causing peripheral and central nervous changes. Mechanical damage, ischemia and excitotoxicity are mainly responsible for noise-induced cell death and biophysical changes in the cochlea. Auditory synaptopathy is an additional consequence. Besides these cochlear pathologies, noise exposure leads to extensive changes within the central auditory pathway...
December 4, 2017: HNO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29203648/musical-training-sharpens-and-bonds-ears-and-tongue-to-hear-speech-better
#12
Yi Du, Robert J Zatorre
The idea that musical training improves speech perception in challenging listening environments is appealing and of clinical importance, yet the mechanisms of any such musician advantage are not well specified. Here, using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we found that musicians outperformed nonmusicians in identifying syllables at varying signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs), which was associated with stronger activation of the left inferior frontal and right auditory regions in musicians compared with nonmusicians...
December 4, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201333/development-of-the-arabic-voice-pathology-database-and-its-evaluation-by-using-speech-features-and-machine-learning-algorithms
#13
Tamer A Mesallam, Mohamed Farahat, Khalid H Malki, Mansour Alsulaiman, Zulfiqar Ali, Ahmed Al-Nasheri, Ghulam Muhammad
A voice disorder database is an essential element in doing research on automatic voice disorder detection and classification. Ethnicity affects the voice characteristics of a person, and so it is necessary to develop a database by collecting the voice samples of the targeted ethnic group. This will enhance the chances of arriving at a global solution for the accurate and reliable diagnosis of voice disorders by understanding the characteristics of a local group. Motivated by such idea, an Arabic voice pathology database (AVPD) is designed and developed in this study by recording three vowels, running speech, and isolated words...
2017: Journal of Healthcare Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29195469/comparison-of-a-target-equalization-cancellation-approach-and-a-localization-approach-to-source-separation
#14
Jing Mi, Matti Groll, H Steven Colburn
Interaural differences are important for listeners to be able to maintain focus on a sound source of interest in the presence of multiple sources. Because interaural differences are sound localization cues, most binaural-cue-based source separation algorithms attempt separation by localizing each time-frequency (T-F) unit to one of the possible source directions using interaural differences. By assembling T-F units that are assigned to one direction, the sound stream from that direction is enhanced. In this paper, a different type of binaural cue for source-separation purposes is proposed...
November 2017: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29188166/tractography-for-optic-radiation-preservation-in-transcortical-approaches-to-intracerebral-lesions
#15
Vijay Agarwal, James G Malcolm, Gustavo Pradilla, Daniel L Barrow
We present a case of intraventricular meningioma resected via a transcortical approach using tractography for optic radiation and arcuate fasciculus preservation. We include a review of the literature. A 54-year-old woman with a history of breast cancer presented with gait imbalance. Workup revealed a mass in the atrium of the left lateral ventricle consistent with a meningioma. Whole brain automated diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) was used to plan a transcortical resection while sparing the optic radiations and arcuate fasciculus...
September 28, 2017: Curēus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29182947/low-level-neural-auditory-discrimination-dysfunctions-in-specific-language-impairment-a-review-on-mismatch-negativity-findings
#16
REVIEW
Teija Kujala, Miika Leminen
In specific language impairment (SLI), there is a delay in the child's oral language skills when compared with nonverbal cognitive abilities. The problems typically relate to phonological and morphological processing and word learning. This article reviews studies which have used mismatch negativity (MMN) in investigating low-level neural auditory dysfunctions in this disorder. With MMN, it is possible to tap the accuracy of neural sound discrimination and sensory memory functions. These studies have found smaller response amplitudes and longer latencies for speech and non-speech sound changes in children with SLI than in typically developing children, suggesting impaired and slow auditory discrimination in SLI...
October 24, 2017: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29179910/meaning-in-meaninglessness-the-propensity-to-perceive-meaningful-patterns-in-coincident-events-and-randomly-arranged-stimuli-is-linked-to-enhanced-attention-in-early-sensory-processing
#17
Christian Rominger, Günter Schulter, Andreas Fink, Elisabeth M Weiss, Ilona Papousek
Perception of objectively independent events or stimuli as being significantly connected and the associated proneness to perceive meaningful patterns constitute part of the positive symptoms of schizophrenia, which are associated with altered attentional processes in lateralized speech perception. Since perceiving meaningful patterns is to some extent already prevalent in the general population, the aim of the study was to investigate whether the propensity to experience meaningful patterns in co-occurring events and random stimuli may be associated with similar altered attentional processes in lateralized speech perception...
November 24, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29173717/the-future-of-pediatric-speech-language-pathology-in-a-more-collaborative-world
#18
REVIEW
Alan W Dow, Carole K Ivey, Brian B Shulman
Examining interprofessional practice through the lens of speech-language pathology identifies a number of challenges to and opportunities for interprofessional practice. While practitioners believe they practice interprofessionally, health services are often distributed across a network within which collaboration can falter. Certain professions, like speech-language pathology, are well-positioned to work across this network and improve care. Barriers to collaboration are interpersonal, structural, regulatory, and governmental...
February 2018: Pediatric Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164962/upholding-the-human-right-of-children-in-new-zealand-experiencing-communication-difficulties-to-voice-their-needs-and-dreams
#19
Elizabeth Doell, Sally Clendon
New Zealand Ministry of Education's proposal for an updated service to support children experiencing communication difficulties provides an opportunity to consider the essential criteria required for children to express their opinion, information and ideas as outlined under Article 19 of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. This commentary begins with a summary of key policies that provide strategic direction for enhancing children's rights to be actively involved in the development of services designed to support them and to communicate and participate in inclusive environments...
November 22, 2017: International Journal of Speech-language Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163132/the-influence-of-negative-emotion-on-cognitive-and-emotional-control-remains-intact-in-aging
#20
Artyom Zinchenko, Christian Obermeier, Philipp Kanske, Erich Schröger, Arno Villringer, Sonja A Kotz
Healthy aging is characterized by a gradual decline in cognitive control and inhibition of interferences, while emotional control is either preserved or facilitated. Emotional control regulates the processing of emotional conflicts such as in irony in speech, and cognitive control resolves conflict between non-affective tendencies. While negative emotion can trigger control processes and speed up resolution of both cognitive and emotional conflicts, we know little about how aging affects the interaction of emotion and control...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
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