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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28335558/modeling-the-development-of-audiovisual-cue-integration-in-speech-perception
#1
Laura M Getz, Elke R Nordeen, Sarah C Vrabic, Joseph C Toscano
Adult speech perception is generally enhanced when information is provided from multiple modalities. In contrast, infants do not appear to benefit from combining auditory and visual speech information early in development. This is true despite the fact that both modalities are important to speech comprehension even at early stages of language acquisition. How then do listeners learn how to process auditory and visual information as part of a unified signal? In the auditory domain, statistical learning processes provide an excellent mechanism for acquiring phonological categories...
March 21, 2017: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334352/the-human-neural-alpha-response-to-speech-is-a-proxy-of-attentional-control
#2
Malte Wöstmann, Sung-Joo Lim, Jonas Obleser
Human alpha (~10 Hz) oscillatory power is a prominent neural marker of cognitive effort. When listeners attempt to process and retain acoustically degraded speech, alpha power enhances. It is unclear whether these alpha modulations reflect the degree of acoustic degradation per se or the degradation-driven demand to a listener's attentional control. Using an irrelevant-speech paradigm and measuring the electroencephalogram (EEG), the current experiment demonstrates that the neural alpha response to speech is a surprisingly clear proxy of top-down control, entirely driven by the listening goals of attending versus ignoring degraded speech...
March 18, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325648/role-of-bromocriptine-in-multi-spectral-manifestations-of-traumatic-brain-injury
#3
Sunil Munakomi, Binod Bhattarai, Bijoy Mohan Kumar
PURPOSE: Despite the prevalence and cost of traumatic brain injury related disabilities, there is paucity in the literature on modern approaches to pharmacotherapy. Medications may promote recovery by enhancing some neurological functions without impacting others. Herein we discussed the role of bromocriptine in neurorehabilitation for patients with traumatic brain injury. METHODS: A cohort comprising of 36 selective nonsurgical cases of traumatic brain injury in minimally conscious state were enrolled in the study...
February 21, 2017: Chinese Journal of Traumatology, Zhonghua Chuang Shang za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321179/neurophysiological-and-behavioral-responses-of-mandarin-lexical-tone-processing
#4
Yan H Yu, Valerie L Shafer, Elyse S Sussman
Language experience enhances discrimination of speech contrasts at a behavioral- perceptual level, as well as at a pre-attentive level, as indexed by event-related potential (ERP) mismatch negativity (MMN) responses. The enhanced sensitivity could be the result of changes in acoustic resolution and/or long-term memory representations of the relevant information in the auditory cortex. To examine these possibilities, we used a short (ca. 600 ms) vs. long (ca. 2,600 ms) interstimulus interval (ISI) in a passive, oddball discrimination task while obtaining ERPs...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320669/regularized-speaker-adaptation-of-kl-hmm-for-dysarthric-speech-recognition
#5
Myungjong Kim, Younggwan Kim, Joohong Yoo, Jun Wang, Hoirin Kim
This paper addresses the problem of recognizing the speech uttered by patients with dysarthria, which is a motor speech disorder impeding the physical production of speech. Patients with dysarthria have articulatory limitation, and therefore, they often have trouble in pronouncing certain sounds, resulting in undesirable phonetic variation. Modern automatic speech recognition systems designed for regular speakers are ineffective for dysarthric sufferers due to the phonetic variation. To capture the phonetic variation, Kullback-Leibler divergence based hidden Markov model (KL-HMM) is adopted, where the emission probability of state is parametrized by a categorical distribution using phoneme posterior probabilities obtained from a deep neural network-based acoustic model...
March 13, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319481/application-of-telepractice-for-head-and-neck-cancer-management-a-review-of-speech-language-pathology-service-models
#6
Elizabeth C Ward, Laurelie R Wall, Clare L Burns, Bena Cartmill, Anne J Hill
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Head and neck cancer (HNC) is a complex and heterogeneous disease, requiring specialist intervention from a multidisciplinary team including speech language pathology (SLP). Unfortunately, multiple patient and service-related challenges exist which currently limit equitable access to SLP support for all individuals. This review highlights the existing evidence for different telepractice models designed to help patients and services optimize management of swallowing and communication disorders arising from HNC...
March 17, 2017: Current Opinion in Otolaryngology & Head and Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319201/recommendations-for-patient-engagement-in-guideline-development-panels-a-qualitative-focus-group-study-of-guideline-na%C3%A3-ve-patients
#7
Melissa J Armstrong, C Daniel Mullins, Gary S Gronseth, Anna R Gagliardi
BACKGROUND: Patient and consumer engagement in clinical practice guideline development is internationally advocated, but limited research explores mechanisms for successful engagement. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the perspectives of potential patient/consumer guideline representatives on topics pertaining to engagement including guideline development group composition and barriers to and facilitators of engagement. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS: Participants were guideline-naïve volunteers for programs designed to link community members to academic research with diverse ages, gender, race, and degrees of experience interacting with health care professionals...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303412/auditory-enhancement-in-cochlear-implant-users-under-simultaneous-and-forward-masking
#8
Heather A Kreft, Andrew J Oxenham
Auditory enhancement is the phenomenon whereby the salience or detectability of a target sound within a masker is enhanced by the prior presentation of the masker alone. Enhancement has been demonstrated using both simultaneous and forward masking in normal-hearing listeners and may play an important role in auditory and speech perception within complex and time-varying acoustic environments. The few studies of enhancement in hearing-impaired listeners have reported reduced or absent enhancement effects under forward masking, suggesting a potentially peripheral locus of the effect...
March 16, 2017: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303288/-technical-advancements-in-cochlear-implants-state-of-the-art
#9
A Büchner, L Gärtner
Twenty years ago, cochlear implants (CI) were indicated only in cases of profound hearing loss or complete deafness. While from today's perspective the technology was clumsy and provided patients with only limited speech comprehension in quiet scenarios, successive advances in CI technology and the consequent substantial hearing improvements over time have since then resulted in continuous relaxation of indication criteria toward residual hearing. While achievements in implant and processor electronics have been one key factor for the ever-improving hearing performance, development of electro-acoustic CI systems-together with atraumatic implantation concepts-has led to enormous improvements in patients with low-frequency residual hearing...
March 16, 2017: HNO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303273/practice-patterns-of-speech-language-pathologists-in-pediatric-vocal-health
#10
Naomi A Hartley, Maia Braden, Susan L Thibeault
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate current practices of speech-language pathologists (SLPs) in the management of pediatric vocal health, with specific analysis of the influence of clinical specialty and workplace setting on management approaches. Method: American Speech-Language-Hearing Association-certified clinicians providing services within the United States (1%-100% voice caseload) completed an anonymous online survey detailing clinician demographics; employment location and service delivery models; approaches to continuing professional development; and specifics of case management, including assessment, treatment, and discharge procedures...
March 16, 2017: American Journal of Speech-language Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301068/characteristics-of-communication-with-older-people-in-home-care-a-qualitative-analysis-of-audio-recordings-of-home-care-visits
#11
Dorte Vesterager Kristensen, Annelie J Sundler, Hilde Eide, Linda Hafskjold, Iren Ruud, Inger K Holmström
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To describe the characteristics of communication practice in home care visits between older people (over 65 years old) and nurse assistants (NAs) and to discuss the findings from a person-centered perspective. BACKGROUND: The older population is increasing worldwide, along with the need for health care services in the person's home. To achieve high-quality care, person-centered communication is crucial. DESIGN: A descriptive design with a qualitative inductive approach was used...
March 16, 2017: Journal of Clinical Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28291212/-surgical-treatment-of-eloquent-brain-area-tumors-using-neurophysiological-mapping-of-the-speech-and-motor-areas-and-conduction-tracts
#12
A A Zuev, E N Korotchenko, D S Ivanova, N V Pedyash, B A Teplykh
AIM: To evaluate the efficacy of intraoperative neurophysiological mapping in removing eloquent brain area tumors (EBATs). MATERIAL AND METHODS: Sixty five EBAT patients underwent surgical treatment using intraoperative neurophysiological mapping at the Pirogov National Medical and Surgical Center in the period from 2014 to 2015. On primary neurological examination, 46 (71%) patients were detected with motor deficits of varying severity. Speech disorders were diagnosed in 17 (26%) patients...
2017: Zhurnal Voprosy Neĭrokhirurgii Imeni N. N. Burdenko
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288518/the-confidence-and-knowledge-of-health-practitioners-when-interacting-with-people-with-aphasia-in-a-hospital-setting
#13
Ashley Cameron, Steven McPhail, Kyla Hudson, Jennifer Fleming, Jennifer Lethlean, Ngang Ju Tan, Emma Finch
PURPOSE: The aim of the study was to describe and compare the confidence and knowledge of health professionals (HPs) with and without specialized speech-language training for communicating with people with aphasia (PWA) in a metropolitan hospital setting. METHODS: Ninety HPs from multidisciplinary teams completed a customized survey to identify their demographic information, knowledge of aphasia, current use of supported conversation strategies and overall communication confidence when interacting with PWA using a 100 mm visual analogue scale (VAS) to rate open-ended questions...
March 13, 2017: Disability and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28286368/a-sound-therapy-based-intervention-to-expand-the-auditory-dynamic-range-for-loudness-among-persons-with-sensorineural-hearing-losses-case-evidence-showcasing-treatment-efficacy
#14
REVIEW
Craig Formby, LaGuinn P Sherlock, Monica L Hawley, Susan L Gold
Case evidence is presented that highlights the clinical relevance and significance of a novel sound therapy-based treatment. This intervention has been shown to be efficacious in a randomized controlled trial for promoting expansion of the dynamic range for loudness and increased sound tolerance among persons with sensorineural hearing losses. Prior to treatment, these individuals were unable to use aided sound effectively because of their limited dynamic ranges. These promising treatment effects are shown in this article to be functionally significant, giving rise to improved speech understanding and enhanced hearing aid benefit and satisfaction, and, in turn, to enhanced quality of life posttreatment...
February 2017: Seminars in Hearing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28277334/social-and-quality-of-life-impact-using-a-voice-prosthesis-after-laryngectomy
#15
Lizz Summers
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review is intended to give an up-to-date overview of key developments in the evidence base relating specifically to the social and quality of life (QOL) impact of using a voice prosthesis, with reflections on the impact on clinical practice. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent studies have shed light on the role of social support on psychological adjustment after laryngectomy, developing the existing evidence base on psychological sequelae. Investigations into the relationship between voice intensity/intelligibility and voice handicap/QOL may suggest a relationship for some patients, and current tools for measuring these constructs are evaluated...
March 8, 2017: Current Opinion in Otolaryngology & Head and Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275715/matched-behavioral-and-neural-adaptations-for-low-sound-level-echolocation-in-a-gleaning-bat-antrozous-pallidus
#16
Kevin R Measor, Brian C Leavell, Dustin H Brewton, Jeffrey Rumschlag, Jesse R Barber, Khaleel A Razak
In active sensing, animals make motor adjustments to match sensory inputs to specialized neural circuitry. Here, we describe an active sensing system for sound level processing. The pallid bat uses downward frequency-modulated (FM) sweeps as echolocation calls for general orientation and obstacle avoidance. The bat's auditory cortex contains a region selective for these FM sweeps (FM sweep-selective region, FMSR). We show that the vast majority of FMSR neurons are sensitive and strongly selective for relatively low levels (30-60 dB SPL)...
January 2017: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28269593/smartphone-based-real-time-speech-enhancement-for-improving-hearing-aids-speech-perception
#17
Yu Rao, Yiya Hao, Issa M S Panahi, Nasser Kehtarnavaz
In this paper, the development of a speech processing pipeline on smartphones for hearing aid devices (HADs) is presented. This pipeline is used for noise suppression and speech enhancement (SE) to improve speech quality and intelligibility. The proposed method is implemented to run in real-time on Android smartphones. The results of the testing conducted indicate that the proposed method suppresses the noise and improves the perceptual quality of speech in terms of three objective measures of perceptual evaluation of speech quality (PESQ), noise attenuation level (NAL), and the coherent speech intelligibility index (CSD)...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28269091/improving-quality-and-intelligibility-of-speech-using-single-microphone-for-the-broadband-fmri-noise-at-low-snr
#18
Chetan Vahanesa, Chandan K A Reddy, Issa M S Panahi
Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) is used in many diagnostic procedures for neurological related disorders. Strong broadband acoustic noise generated during fMRI scan interferes with the speech communication between the physician and the patient. In this paper, we propose a single microphone Speech Enhancement (SE) technique which is based on the supervised machine learning technique and a statistical model based SE technique. The proposed algorithm is robust and computationally efficient and has capability to run in real-time...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28269090/two-microphones-spectral-coherence-based-speech-enhancement-for-hearing-aids-using-smartphone-as-an-assistive-device
#19
Chandan K A Reddy, Yiya Hao, Issa Panahi
In this paper, we present a new Speech Enhancement (SE) technique capable of running on a smartphone, as an assistive device for hearing aids (HAs). The developed method incorporates the coherence between the speech and noise signals to obtain a SE gain function which is used in conjunction with the gain function obtained by Spectral Subtraction using adaptive gain averaging. SE using coherence based gain function is found to suppress the background noise well, while inducing speech distortion. On the other hand, SE using Spectral Subtraction improves speech quality with tolerable speech distortion, but introduces background musical noise for certain noise types...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28268433/automatic-switching-between-noise-classification-and-speech-enhancement-for-hearing-aid-devices
#20
Fatemeh Saki, Nasser Kehtarnavaz
This paper presents a voice activity detector (VAD) for automatic switching between a noise classifier and a speech enhancer as part of the signal processing pipeline of hearing aid devices. The developed VAD consists of a computationally efficient feature extractor and a random forest classifier. Previously used signal features as well as two newly introduced signal features are extracted and fed into the classifier to perform automatic switching. This switching approach is compared to two popular VADs. The results obtained indicate the introduced approach outperforms these existing approaches in terms of both detection rate and processing time...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
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