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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107709/quantification-of-fatty-acids-in-the-muscle-of-antarctic-fish-trematomus-bernacchii-by-gas-chromatography-mass-spectrometry-optimization-of-the-analytical-methodology
#1
C Truzzi, S Illuminati, A Annibaldi, M Antonucci, G Scarponi
This work presents data on the quantification of fatty acids (FAs, in terms of mass unit per tissue weight) in the muscle of Trematomus bernacchii, a key species in Antarctica, often used as bioindicator for contamination studies. Modifications in fatty acids content should be considered a useful biomarker to study how contaminants affect Antarctic biota. Until now, very few studies quantified fatty acids of muscle of T. bernacchii, and only as percentage of a single fatty acid on total lipids. To perform the quantification of fatty acids, we used an analytical method based on a fast microwave-assisted extraction of lipids from a lyophilized sample, a base-catalyzed trans-esterification of lipid extract to obtain Fatty Acids Methyl Esters (FAMEs), and a separation and identification of FAMEs by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry...
December 31, 2016: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107465/lead-exposure-induces-weight-gain-in-adult-rats-accompanied-by-dna-hypermethylation
#2
Honglin Sun, Ningjian Wang, Xiaomin Nie, Li Zhao, Qin Li, Zhen Cang, Chi Chen, Meng Lu, Jing Cheng, Hualing Zhai, Fangzhen Xia, Lin Ye, Yingli Lu
OBJECTIVE: Previous studies have revealed the association of lead (Pb) exposure with obesity. DNA methylation alteration has been suggested to be one of the regulatory mechanisms of obesity. We aimed to explore whether Pb exposure is related with weight gain and DNA methylation alteration. METHODS: Male adult 8 week Wistar rats were divided into 5 groups: the normal chow diet (NCD); the NCD+0.05%Pb; the NCD+0.15%Pb; the NCD+0.45%Pb and the high fat diet. Rats were exposed to different dosages of Pb through drinking water for 21 weeks...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106818/potential-benefits-and-harms-of-intermittent-energy-restriction-and-intermittent-fasting-amongst-obese-overweight-and-normal-weight-subjects-a-narrative-review-of-human-and-animal-evidence
#3
REVIEW
Michelle Harvie, Anthony Howell
Intermittent energy restriction (IER) has become popular as a means of weight control amongst people who are overweight and obese, and is also undertaken by normal weight people hoping spells of marked energy restriction will optimise their health. This review summarises randomised comparisons of intermittent and isoenergetic continuous energy restriction for weight loss to manage overweight and obesity. It also summarises the potential beneficial or adverse effects of IER on body composition, adipose stores and metabolic effects from human studies, including studies amongst normal weight subjects and relevant animal experimentation...
January 19, 2017: Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105810/urea-anions-simple-fast-and-selective-catalysts-for-ring-opening-polymerizations
#4
Binhong Lin, Robert M Waymouth
Aliphatic polyesters and polycarbonates are a class of biorenewable, biocompatible, and biodegradable materials. One of the most powerful methods for accessing these materials is the ring-opening polymerization (ROP) of cyclic monomers. Here we report that the deprotonation of ureas generates a class of versatile catalysts that are simultaneously fast and selective for the living ring-opening polymerization of several common monomers, including lactide, δ-valerolactone, ε-caprolactone, a cyclic carbonate, and a cyclic phosphoester...
January 20, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105114/in-utero-exposure-to-di-2-ethylhexyl-phthalate-induces-metabolic-disorder-and-increases-fat-accumulation-in-visceral-depots-of-c57bl-6j-mice-offspring
#5
Hailun Gu, Yali Liu, Wei Wang, Lifeng Ding, Weiping Teng, Li Liu
Excessive visceral fat accumulation is associated with metabolic disorders. Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), a candidate environmental obesogen, affects lipid metabolism and adipogenesis. Perinatal exposure to DEHP may be associated with metabolic disorders of dams and offspring. The aim of the present study was to explore the effects of exposure of pregnant dams to DEHP on the metabolism and fat distribution of their offspring, and to determine the mechanisms for these effects. Pregnant C57BL/6J mice were administered DEHP via gavage (0...
December 2016: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104918/triglycerides-glucose-index-is-a-useful-surrogate-marker-of-insulin-resistance-among-adolescents
#6
B Kang, Y Yang, E Y Lee, H K Yang, H-S Kim, S-Y Lim, J-H Lee, S-S Lee, B-K Suh, K-H Yoon
OBJECTIVES: Our aim was to investigate the association between the triglycerides/glucose index (TyG index) and the homeostasis model assessment-estimated insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) in the prediction of insulin resistance (IR) among adolescents. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study among 221 Korean adolescents (168 males and 53 females aged 9-13 years) from May to June 2014 in Chung-ju city. The TyG index was calculated as ln [triglycerides (mg/dl) × fasting glucose (mg/dl)/2]...
January 20, 2017: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104438/safety-of-externally-stimulated-intracranial-electrodes-during-functional-mri-at-1-5t
#7
Pallab K Bhattacharyya, Jeffery Mullin, Bryan S Lee, Jorge A Gonzalez-Martinez, Stephen E Jones
Surgical resection of the epileptogenic zone (EZ) is a potential cure for medically refractory focal epilepsy. Proper identification of the EZ is essential for such resection. Synergistic application of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) simultaneously with stimulation of a single externalized intracranial stereotactic EEG (SEEG) electrode has the potential to improve identification of the EZ. While most EEG-fMRI studies use the electrodes passively to record electrical activity, it is possible to stimulate the brain using the electrodes by connecting them with conducting cables to the stimulation hardware...
January 16, 2017: Magnetic Resonance Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104241/cardiovascular-and-metabolic-profiles-of-offspring-conceived-by-assisted-reproductive-technologies-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#8
Xiao-Yan Guo, Xin-Mei Liu, Li Jin, Ting-Ting Wang, Kamran Ullah, Jian-Zhong Sheng, He-Feng Huang
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate cardiovascular and metabolic features of offspring conceived by in vitro fertilization/intracytoplasmic sperm injection (IVF-ICSI). DESIGN: Literature review and meta-analysis. SETTING: Not applicable. PATIENT(S): Offspring from IVF-ICSI versus natural conception. INTERVENTION(S): None. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): Systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP and DBP), cardiovascular function, body mass index (BMI), and lipid and glucose profiles...
January 16, 2017: Fertility and Sterility
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103963/sex-differences-in-early-life-programming-of-the-hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal-axis-in-humans-suggest-increased-vulnerability-in-females-a-systematic-review
#9
T Carpenter, S M Grecian, R M Reynolds
Fetal glucocorticoid overexposure is a key mechanism linking early development with later-life disease. In humans, low birth weight associates with increased fasting cortisol, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis reactivity, and with cardiovascular risk and cognitive decline. As there are sex differences in these adult diseases, we hypothesized that there may be sex differences in programming of the HPA axis in response to prenatal stressors. We conducted a systematic review following Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies in Epidemiology and Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis...
January 20, 2017: Journal of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103031/-watching-the-dark-state-in-ultrafast-nonadiabatic-photoisomerization-process-of-a-light-driven-molecular-rotary-motor
#10
Xiaojuan Pang, Xueyan Cui, Deping Hu, Chenwei Jiang, Di Zhao, Zhenggang Lan, Fu-Li Li
Photoisomerization dynamics of a light-driven molecular rotary motor, 9-(2-methyl-2,3-dihydro-1H-cyclopenta[a]naphthalen-1-ylidene)-9H-fluorene, is investigated with trajectory surface-hopping dynamics at the semi-empirical OM2/MRCI level. The rapid population decay of the S1 excited state for the M isomer is observed, with two different decay timescales (500 fs and 1.0 ps). By weighting the contributions of fast and slow decay trajectories, the averaged lifetime of the S1 excited state is about 710 fs. The calculated quantum yield of the M-to-P photoisomerization of this molecular rotary motor is about 59...
January 19, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101489/correction-of-hypothyroidism-leads-to-change-in-lean-body-mass-without-altering-insulin-resistance
#11
Sangeetha Sirigiri, Suresh Vaikkakara, Alok Sachan, P V L N Srinivasarao, Sunil Epuri, Sailaja Anantarapu, Arun Mukka, Srinivasa Rao Chokkapu, Ashok Venkatanarasu, Ravi Poojari
BACKGROUND: Hypothyroidism is associated with insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, and abnormal body composition. This study assessed changes in body composition and insulin resistance after thyroxine (T4) replacement in overt hypothyroidism. METHODS: In this prospective longitudinal study carried out in a tertiary care center, adult nondiabetic patients with overt hypothyroidism were rendered euthyroid on T4. Anthropometry including skinfold thickness (SFT) at the triceps and subscapularis was recorded...
December 2016: European Thyroid Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101317/corticotropin-releasing-factor-overexpression-in-mice-abrogates-sex-differences-in-body-weight-visceral-fat-and-food-intake-response-to-a-fast-and-alters-levels-of-feeding-regulatory-hormones
#12
Lixin Wang, Miriam Goebel-Stengel, Pu-Qing Yuan, Andreas Stengel, Yvette Taché
BACKGROUND: Corticotropin-releasing factor overexpressing (CRF-OE) male mice showed an inhibited feeding response to a fast, and lower plasma acyl ghrelin and Fos expression in the arcuate nucleus compared to wild-type (WT) mice. We investigated whether hormones and hypothalamic feeding signals are impaired in CRF-OE mice and the influence of sex. METHODS: Male and female CRF-OE mice and WT littermates (4-6 months old) fed ad libitum or overnight fasted were assessed for body, adrenal glands and perigonadal fat weights, food intake, plasma hormones, blood glucose, and mRNA hypothalamic signals...
2017: Biology of Sex Differences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099133/association-between-screen-time-and-snack-consumption-in-children-and-adolescents-the-caspian-iv-study
#13
Roya Kelishadi, Nafiseh Mozafarian, Mostafa Qorbani, Mohammad Reza Maracy, Mohammad Esmaeil Motlagh, Saeid Safiri, Gelayol Ardalan, Hamid Asayesh, Fatemeh Rezaei, Ramin Heshmat
BACKGROUND: The relationship between screen time (ST) and the frequency of snack consumption in a national sample of Iranian children and adolescents was assessed. The present nationwide survey was conducted on 14,880 school students living in urban and rural areas of 30 provinces in Iran. Trained healthcare providers conducted the physical examination and completed the questionnaire of the World Health Organization - Global School-Based Student Health Survey (WHO-GSHS). METHODS: The association between ST (total time spent watching TV and using a computer in leisure time) and the frequency of snack consumption was determined using ordinal logistic regression analysis...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism: JPEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099127/prevalence-risk-factors-and-consequences-of-overweight-and-obesity-among-schoolchildren-a-cross-sectional-study-in-kashmir-india
#14
Mohd Ashraf Ganie, Gulzar Ahmad Bhat, Ishfaq Ahmad Wani, Aafia Rashid, Showkat Ali Zargar, Bashir Ahmad Charoo, Zaffar Amin Shah, Syed Mudassar
BACKGROUND: Obesity among children and adolescents is a growing public health problem. The objective of this study was to evaluate the prevalence, risk factors and metabolic consequences of obesity among schoolchildren from Kashmir, India. METHODS: The study subjects (n=2024) included 870 boys and 1154 girls, aged between 6 and 18 years. Data were collected by interviewer-administered questionnaires. Information was obtained about different lifestyles, anthropometric parameters and dietary habits...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism: JPEM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099022/molecular-weight-dependence-of-interdiffusion-and-adhesion-of-polymers-at-short-contact-times
#15
Robert Gurney, Anastase Henry, Regis Schach, Anke Lindner, Costantino Creton
The self-adhesion and subsequent debonding of thin layers of three linear and monodisperse random copolymers of styrene-butadiene (SBR) with molecular weights varying between 30 and 75 times the average molecular weight between entanglements Me was investigated using a carefully controlled tack adhesion testing device in conjunction with a fast camera setup over a range of contact times tc (10 ms to 10 s) much shorter in comparison to the terminal relaxation times of the polymers. The evolution of the stress-strain curves and debonding mechanisms with increasing contact time was examined, and the work required to debond the layers was found to be strongly dependent on molecular weight at long contact times, but not at short contact times...
January 18, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098516/germacrone-attenuates-hyperlipidemia-and-improves-lipid-metabolism-in-high-fat-diet-induced-obese-c57bl-6j-mice
#16
Yuan-Ri Guo, Se-Young Choung
We previously showed that Aster spathulifolius Maxim extract (ASE) reduced body weight gain and serum and liver lipid levels and significantly suppressed serum insulin and leptin concentrations in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese rats. Germacrone (GM) was identified as a potent bioactive constituent of ASE. In this study, we hypothesized that GM can attenuate hyperlipidemia by alleviating fatty acid (FA) synthesis/uptake and improve lipid metabolism by stimulating FA β-oxidation in HFD-induced obese C57BL/6J mice...
January 2017: Journal of Medicinal Food
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098052/effect-of-maternal-dietary-counselling-during-the-1st-year-of-life-on-glucose-profile-and-insulin-resistance-at-the-age-of-8-years-a-randomised-field-trial
#17
Cintia S Costa, Paula D B Campagnolo, L H Lumey, Marcia R Vitolo
Education interventions that stimulate complementary feeding practices can improve the nutritional status of children and may protect against future chronic diseases. We assessed the long-term effectiveness of dietary intervention during the 1st year of life on insulin resistance levels, and investigated the relationship between insulin resistance and weight changes over time. A randomised field trial was conducted among 500 mothers who gave birth to full-term infants between October 2001 and June 2002 in a low-income area in São Leopoldo, Brazil...
January 18, 2017: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096081/mice-with-hyperbilirubinemia-due-to-gilbert-s-syndrome-polymorphism-are-resistant-to-hepatic-steatosis-by-decreased-serine-73-phosphorylation-of-ppar%C3%AE
#18
Terry D Hinds, Peter A Hosick, Michael W Hankins, Andrea Nestor-Kalinoski, David E Stec
Gilbert's syndrome is derived from a polymorphism (TA repeat) in the hepatic UGT1A1 gene which results in decreased conjugation and increased levels of unconjugated bilirubin. Recently, we have shown that bilirubin binds directly to the fat burning nuclear peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα). Additionally, we have shown that serine 73 phosphorylation (Ser(P)(73)) of PPARα decreases activity by reducing its protein levels and transcriptional activity. The aim of this study was to determine if humanized mice with the Gilbert's polymorphism (HuUGT*28) have increased PPARα activation and reduced hepatic fat accumulation...
January 17, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095965/vamonos-veterans-affairs-metabolism-obstructed-and-non-obstructed-sleep-study-effects-of-cpap-therapy-on-glucose-metabolism-in-patients-with-obstructive-sleep-apnea
#19
Octavian C Ioachimescu, Jeremy Anthony, Tina Constantin, Mary-Margaret Ciavatta, Kandace McCarver, Mary Ellen Sweeney
STUDY OBJECTIVES: Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are prevalent disorders that pose increased risk of cardiovascular disease and death. The objective of this study was to clarify if continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy for OSA affects T2DM control and emergence. METHODS: Point-of-care, comparative effectiveness study; cross-sectional and longitudinal analyses. RESULTS: Our cohort included 928 consecutive patients; 13% were women; 36% were Caucasians and 61% African-Americans...
January 11, 2017: Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine: JCSM: Official Publication of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095377/associations-of-maternal-leptin-with-neonatal-adiposity-differ-according-to-pregravid-weight
#20
Julie Patenaude, Guillaume Lacerte, Marilyn Lacroix, Laetitia Guillemette, Catherine Allard, Myriam Doyon, Marie-Claude Battista, Julie Moreau, Julie Ménard, Jean-Luc Ardilouze, Patrice Perron, Marie-France Hivert
BACKGROUND: During pregnancy, maternal circulating leptin is released by maternal adipose tissue and the placenta, and may have a role in fetal development. OBJECTIVES: We investigated maternal leptinemia and glycemia associations with neonatal adiposity, taking into account pregravid weight status. METHODS: We included 235 pregnant women from the Genetics of Glucose Regulation in Gestation and Growth prospective cohort with data: blood samples collected during the 2nd trimester, an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), and the measured leptin and glucose levels...
January 18, 2017: Neonatology
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