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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777704/dietary-mung-bean-protein-reduces-high-fat-diet-induced-weight-gain-by-modulating-host-bile-acid-metabolism-in-a-gut-microbiota-dependent-manner
#1
Akiho Nakatani, Xuan Li, Junki Miyamoto, Miki Igarashi, Hitoshi Watanabe, Asuka Sutou, Keita Watanabe, Takayasu Motoyama, Nobuhiko Tachibana, Mitsutaka Kohno, Hiroshi Inoue, Ikuo Kimura
The 8-globulin-rich mung bean protein (MPI) suppresses hepatic lipogenesis in rodent models and reduces fasting plasma glucose and insulin levels in obese adults. However, its effects on mitigating high fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity and the mechanism underlying these effects remain to be elucidated. Herein, we examined the metabolic phenotype, intestinal bile acid (BA) pool, and gut microbiota of conventionally raised (CONV-R) male C57BL/6 mice and germ-free (GF) mice that were randomized to receive either regular HFD or HFD containing mung bean protein isolate (MPI) instead of the dairy protein present in regular HFD...
May 16, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777240/serum-25-hydroxyvitamin-d-and-cardiovascular-disease-risk-factors-in-women-with-excessive-weight-gain-during-pregnancy-and-in-their-offspring-at-age-5-6-years
#2
Gemma Carreras-Badosa, Cristina Armero-Bujaldón, Laia Solé-Amat, Anna Prats-Puig, Ferran Díaz-Roldán, Pilar Soriano-Rodriguez, Francis de Zegher, Lourdes Ibañez, Judit Bassols, Abel López-Bermejo
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVE: Low 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels [25(OH)D] may increase the risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD). In pregnant women excessive weight gain and 25(OH)D deficiency are common complications and both could have deleterious consequences on their children. We aimed to study the relationship between serum 25(OH)D and CVD risk factors in pregnant women and in their offspring at school age. SUBJECTS/METHODS: Fasting serum 25(OH)D and its bioavailable fraction were quantified in 310 healthy pregnant women [with adequate (n = 113), insufficient (n = 113) and excessive (n = 84) weight gain]...
May 17, 2018: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777116/genetic-risk-score-of-common-genetic-variants-for-impaired-fasting-glucose-and-newly-diagnosed-type-2-diabetes-influences-oxidative-stress
#3
Minjoo Kim, Minkyung Kim, Limin Huang, Sun Ha Jee, Jong Ho Lee
We tested the hypothesis that the cumulative effects of common genetic variants related to elevated fasting glucose are collectively associated with oxidative stress. Using 25 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), a weighted genetic risk score (wGRS) was constructed by summing nine risk alleles based on nominal significance and a consistent effect direction in 1,395 controls and 718 patients with impaired fasting glucose (IFG) or newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes. All the participants were divided into the following three groups: low-wGRS, middle-wGRS, and high-wGRS groups...
May 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776867/a-semi-automated-algorithm-for-hypothalamus-volumetry-in-3-tesla-magnetic-resonance-images
#4
Julia Wolff, Stephanie Schindler, Christian Lucas, Anne-Sophie Binninger, Luise Weinrich, Jan Schreiber, Ulrich Hegerl, Harald E Möller, Marco Leitzke, Stefan Geyer, Peter Schönknecht
The hypothalamus, a small diencephalic gray matter structure, is part of the limbic system. Volumetric changes of this structure occur in psychiatric diseases, therefore there is increasing interest in precise volumetry. Based on our detailed volumetry algorithm for 7 Tesla magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), we developed a method for 3 Tesla MRI, adopting anatomical landmarks and work in triplanar view. We overlaid T1-weighted MR images with gray matter-tissue probability maps to combine anatomical information with tissue class segmentation...
May 1, 2018: Psychiatry research. Neuroimaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775431/national-health-and-nutrition-examination-survey-estimation-procedures-2011-2014
#5
Te-Ching Chen, Jennifer D Parker, Jason Clark, Hee-Choon Shin, Jennifer R Rammon, Vicki L Burt
This report describes the methods used to create NHANES 2011-2014 sample weights and variance units for the public-use data files, including sample weights for selected subsamples, such as the fasting subsample. The impacts of sample design changes on estimation for NHANES 2011-2014 and the addition of the NHANES National Youth Fitness Survey (NNYFS) 2012 are described. Approaches that data users can employ to modify sample weights when combining survey cycles or when combining subsamples are also included.
January 2018: Vital and Health Statistics. Series 2, Data Evaluation and Methods Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29774758/evaluation-of-natural-bv-as-a-novel-feed-additive-in-fast-growing-broilers
#6
Da Hye Kim, Sang Mi Han, Moung Cheul Keum, Sang Lee, Byoung Ki An, Sang-Rak Lee, Kyung-Woo Lee
1. The present study was designed to evaluate purified bee venom (BV) as an alternative to antibiotics in broiler chickens. The experimental treatment diets were formulated by adding BV into a maize-soybean meal-based diet to give 0, 10, 50, 100, and 500 μg BV per kg of diet. 2. Dietary BV quadratically improved (P<0.05) feed conversion ratio and increased body weight gain at 1-21 days as level in diet increased. Higher BV levels lowered relative weight of spleen (linear and quadratic, P<0.05), bursa of Fabricius (quadratic, P<0...
May 18, 2018: British Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773934/iglarlixi-a-new-once-daily-fixed-ratio-combination-of-basal-insulin-glargine-and-lixisenatide-for-the-management-of-type-2-diabetes
#7
Debbie Hinnen, Jodi Strong
Background: Patients with type 2 diabetes require treatment intensification to maintain glycemic control. Clinician reluctance, patient injection fears, hypoglycemia, weight gain, or other objections may lead to clinical inertia, whereby therapy is not intensified and patients live with uncontrolled hyperglycemia and increased risk for complications. Initiation of injectable therapy with a glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1 receptor agonist and/or basal insulin is a recommended option for patients with type 2 diabetes inadequately controlled on one or more oral agents...
May 2018: Diabetes Spectrum: a Publication of the American Diabetes Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29772667/evaluation-of-energy-expenditure-and-oxidation-of-energy-substrates-in-adult-males-after-intake-of-meals-with-varying-fat-and-carbohydrate-content
#8
Edyta Adamska-Patruno, Lucyna Ostrowska, Anna Golonko, Barbara Pietraszewska, Joanna Goscik, Adam Kretowski, Maria Gorska
Obesity is a result of positive energy balance. The aim of this study was to measure (in crossover trials) the energy expenditure and oxidation of glucose and lipids, both at the fasting state and after an intake of meals with a varying macronutrient content, in normal-weight and overweight/obese people. In the study, 46 healthy adult males (23 with normal body weight and 23 overweight/obese), aged 21⁻58, were examined. During two consecutive visits, subjects received isocaloric standardized meals (450 kcal) with different content of basic nutrients...
May 16, 2018: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29771336/fto-is-a-transcriptional-repressor-to-auto-regulate-its-own-gene-and-potentially-associated-with-homeostasis-of-body-weight
#9
Shu-Jing Liu, Hui-Ling Tang, Qian He, Ping Lu, Tao Fu, Xu-Ling Xu, Tao Su, Mei-Mei Gao, Shumin Duan, Yan Luo, Yue-Sheng Long
Fat mass and obesity-associated (FTO) protein is a ferrous ion (Fe2+)/2-oxoglutarate (2-OG)-dependent demethylase preferentially catalyzing m6A sites in RNA. The FTO gene is highly expressed in the hypothalamus with fluctuation in response to various nutritional conditions, which is believed to be involved in the control of whole body metabolism. However, the underlying mechanism in response to different nutritional cues remains poorly understood. Here we show that ketogenic diet-derived ketone body β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) transiently increases FTO expression in both mouse hypothalamus and cultured cells...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Molecular Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29770581/effect-of-static-compression-loads-on-intervertebral-disc-an-in-vivo-bent-rat-tail-model
#10
Wei Xia, Lin-Lin Zhang, Jun Mo, Wen Zhang, Hai-Tao Li, Zong-Ping Luo, Hui-Lin Yang
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate how well different magnitudes of compression-induced degenerative changes using a bent rat tail model simulated human lumbar lordosis. It has been shown that compression plays an important role in intervertebral disc degeneration (IDD). METHODS: Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 25) were instrumented with a special compressive apparatus that was used to bend the intervertebral disc between the 8th and the 10th caudal vertebral bodies using two Kirschner wires inserted percutaneously into the middle of two tail vertebrae...
May 16, 2018: Orthopaedic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769702/fine-mapping-of-98-obesity-loci-in-mexican-children
#11
Hsin Yen Liu, Akram Alyass, Arkan Abadi, Jesus Peralta-Romero, Fernando Suarez, Jaime Gomez-Zamudio, Astride Audirac, Esteban J Parra, Miguel Cruz, David Meyre
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Mexico has one of the highest prevalence of childhood obesity in the world. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) for obesity have identified multiple single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in populations of European, East Asian, and African descent. The contribution of these loci to obesity in Mexican children is unclear. We assessed the transferability of 98 obesity loci in Mexican children and fine-mapped the association signals. SUBJECTS/METHODS: The study included 405 and 390 Mexican children with normal weight and obesity...
March 12, 2018: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769503/vitamin-d-status-in-newly-diagnosed-type-2-diabetes-patients-attending-in-a-tertiary-hospital-of-bangladesh
#12
M S Alam, M Kamrul-Hasan, S T Kalam, S Selim, F Akter, M Saifuddin
Vitamin D deficiency is common in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Vitamin D status may have a causal role in the onset of T2DM and may influence glycaemic control in these patients. However, data on vitamin D status among Bangladeshi T2DM patients are scarce. The present cross-sectional study was done among newly diagnosed 50 T2DM patients attending outpatient department of Comilla Diabetic Hospital, Bangladesh to address this lacuna. Serum 25(OH)D was measured in all and classified as normal (≥30ng/mL), insufficient (>20 to 29...
April 2018: Mymensingh Medical Journal: MMJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29769449/fatty-acid-receptor-modulator-pbi-4050-inhibits-kidney-fibrosis-and-improves-glycemic-control
#13
Yan Li, Sungjin Chung, Zhilian Li, Jessica M Overstreet, Lyne Gagnon, Brigitte Grouix, Martin Leduc, Pierre Laurin, Ming-Zhi Zhang, Raymond C Harris
Extensive kidney fibrosis occurs in several types of chronic kidney diseases. PBI-4050, a potentially novel first-in-class orally active low-molecular weight compound, has antifibrotic and antiinflammatory properties. We examined whether PBI-4050 affected the progression of diabetic nephropathy (DN) in a mouse model of accelerated type 2 diabetes and in a model of selective tubulointerstitial fibrosis. eNOS-/- db/db mice were treated with PBI-4050 from 8-20 weeks of age (early treatment) or from 16-24 weeks of age (late treatment)...
May 17, 2018: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768729/adaptive-changes-in-pancreas-post-roux-en-y-gastric-bypass-induced-weight-loss
#14
A Lautenbach, M Wernecke, N Riedel, J Veigel, J Yamamura, S Keller, R Jung, P Busch, O Mann, F K Knop, J J Holst, J J Meier, J Aberle
AIMS: Obesity has been shown to trigger adaptive increases in pancreas parenchymal and fat volume. Consecutively, pancreatic steatosis may lead to beta-cell dysfunction. However, it is not known, whether the pancreatic tissue components decrease with weight loss and pancreatic steatosis is reversible following RYGB. Therefore, the objective of the study was to investigate the effects of RYGB-induced weight loss on pancreatic volume and glucose homeostasis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 11 patients were recruited in the Obesity Centre of the University Medical Centre Hamburg-Eppendorf...
May 16, 2018: Diabetes/metabolism Research and Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768699/near-infrared-spectrometry-allows-fast-and-extensive-predictions-of-functional-traits-from-dry-leaves-and-branches
#15
Flávia R C Costa, Carla Lang, Danilo R A Almeida, Carolina V Castilho, Lourens Poorter
The linking of individual functional traits to ecosystem processes is the basis for making generalizations in ecology, but the measurement of individual values is laborious and time consuming, preventing large-scale trait mapping. Also, in hyper-diverse systems, errors occur because identification is difficult, and species level values ignore intra-specific variation. To allow extensive trait mapping at the individual level, we evaluated the potential of Fourrier-Transformed Near Infra-Red Spectrometry (FT-NIR) to adequately describe 14 traits that are key for plant carbon, water, and nutrient balance...
May 16, 2018: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768065/fibroblast-growth-factor-21-adiposity-and-macronutrient-balance-in-a-healthy-pregnant-population-with-overweight-and-obesity
#16
Elizabeth F Sutton, Christopher D Morrison, Jacqueline M Stephens, Leanne M Redman
AIM OF THE STUDY: The regulation and actions of fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) are responsive to energy status and macronutrient balance, and investigations of FGF21 in normal pregnancy, which could be informative for FGF21 biology, are seldom. The goal of our study was to examine FGF21 levels in a contemporary healthy, pregnant population. METHODS: We phenotyped 43 women with overweight and obesity during pregnancy for weight, body composition, and fasting blood...
May 16, 2018: Endocrine Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29767680/propensity-for-adverse-pregnancy-outcomes-in-african-american-women-may-be-explained-by-low-energy-expenditure-in-early-pregnancy
#17
Jasper Most, L Anne Gilmore, Abby D Altazan, Marshall St Amant, Robbie A Beyl, Eric Ravussin, Leanne M Redman
Background: African-American (AA) women have poorer pregnancy outcomes and studies in nonpregnant women suggest a different etiology of weight gain in AA compared with white women. We hypothesized that physiologic factors such as low energy expenditure and physical activity would be present in AA compared with white women in pregnancy. Objective: We aimed to identify physiologic risk factors for disordered energy balance in AA and white women early in pregnancy...
May 14, 2018: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766812/switching-dipeptidyl-peptidase-4-inhibitors-to-tofogliflozin-a-selective-inhibitor-of-sodium-glucose-cotransporter-2-improves-arterial-stiffness-evaluated-by-cardio-ankle-vascular-index-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes
#18
Nobuhiro Tahara, Sho-Ichi Yamagish, Munehisa Bekki, Atsuko Tahara, Sachiyo Igata, Akihiro Honda, Yoichi Sugiyama, Tomohisa Nakamura, Jiahui Sun, Yuki Kumashiro, Takanori Matsui, Yoshihiro Fukumoto
BACKGROUND: We have found that anagliptin, a dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor (DPP-4) significantly ameliorates arterial stiffness in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) patients compared with an equivalent hypoglycemic agent, glimepiride. However, it remains unclear whether and how switching DPP-4 inhibitors to tofogliflozin, a selective inhibitor of sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) improves arterial stiffness in T2DM patients. METHODS: Nineteen T2DM patients who had received DPP-4 inhibitors for at least 1 year were enrolled in this study...
May 15, 2018: Current Vascular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766768/distinct-mechanisms-explain-the-control-of-reach-speed-planning-evidence-from-a-race-model-framework
#19
Prasanna Venkhatesh Venkataratamani, Aditya Murthy
Previous studies have investigated the computational architecture underlying the voluntary control of reach movements that demands a change in position or direction of movement planning. Here we used a novel task, where subjects either had to increase or decrease the movement speed according to a change in target color that occurred randomly during a trial. The applicability of different race models to such a speed redirect task was assessed. We found that the predictions of an independent race model that instantiated an abort and re-plan strategy was consistent with all aspects of performance in the fast to slow speed condition...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766636/empagliflozin-as-add-on-to-linagliptin-in-a-fixed-dose-combination-in-japanese-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-glycemic-efficacy-and-safety-profile-in-a-52-week-randomized-placebo-controlled-trial
#20
Ryuzo Kawamori, Masakazu Haneda, Keiko Suzaki, Gang Cheng, Kosuke Shiki, Yuki Miyamoto, Fernando Solimando, Christopher Lee, Jisoo Lee, Jyothis George
AIMS: This double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled trial evaluated the efficacy and safety of empagliflozin (Empa) 10 or 25 mg as add-on to linagliptin (Lina) 5 mg (fixed-dose combination, Empa/Lina 10/5 or 25/5) in insufficiently controlled Japanese type 2 diabetes patients. METHODS: The trial (40 sites; May 2015-March 2017) screened 433 adults (≥20 years) who were treatment-naive or on one oral antidiabetic drug for ≥12 weeks (discontinued at enrolment)...
May 15, 2018: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
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