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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550645/new-entamoeba-group-in-howler-monkeys-alouatta-spp-associated-with-parasites-of-reptiles
#1
Claudia Villanueva-García, Elías José Gordillo-Chávez, Carlos Baños-Ojeda, Emilio Rendón-Franco, Claudia Irais Muñoz-García, Julio César Carrero, Alex Córdoba-Aguilar, Pablo Maravilla, José Galian, Fernando Martínez-Hernández, Guiehdani Villalobos
Our knowledge of the parasite species present in wildlife hosts is incomplete. Protozoans such as amoebae of the genus Entamoeba infect a large variety of vertebrate species, including NHPs. However, traditionally, their identification has been accomplished through microscopic evaluation; therefore, amoeba species have not always been identified correctly. We searched for Entamoeba spp. using a fragment of the small subunit rDNA in free-ranging howler monkeys (Alouatta palliata and A. pigra) from southeast Mexico...
May 27, 2017: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542260/hookworm-infection-is-associated-with-decreased-cd4-t-cell-counts-in-hiv-infected-adult-ugandans
#2
Bozena M Morawski, Miya Yunus, Emmanuel Kerukadho, Grace Turyasingura, Logose Barbra, Andrew Mijumbi Ojok, Andrew DiNardo, Stefanie Sowinski, David R Boulware, Rojelio Mejia
Most studies evaluating epidemiologic relationships between helminths and HIV have been conducted in the pre-ART era, and evidence of the impact of helminth infections on HIV disease progression remains conflicting. Less is known about helminth infection and clinical outcomes in HIV-infected adults receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART). We sampled HIV-infected adults for eight gastrointestinal parasites and correlated parasitic infection with demographic predictors, and clinical and immunologic outcomes. Contrasting with previous studies, we measured parasitic infection with a quantitative, highly sensitive and specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method...
May 25, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28542223/measuring-changes-in-transmission-of-neglected-tropical-diseases-malaria-and-enteric-pathogens-from-quantitative-antibody-levels
#3
Benjamin F Arnold, Mark J van der Laan, Alan E Hubbard, Cathy Steel, Joseph Kubofcik, Katy L Hamlin, Delynn M Moss, Thomas B Nutman, Jeffrey W Priest, Patrick J Lammie
BACKGROUND: Serological antibody levels are a sensitive marker of pathogen exposure, and advances in multiplex assays have created enormous potential for large-scale, integrated infectious disease surveillance. Most methods to analyze antibody measurements reduce quantitative antibody levels to seropositive and seronegative groups, but this can be difficult for many pathogens and may provide lower resolution information than quantitative levels. Analysis methods have predominantly maintained a single disease focus, yet integrated surveillance platforms would benefit from methodologies that work across diverse pathogens included in multiplex assays...
May 19, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539736/antiprotozoal-activities-of-tiliroside-and-other-compounds-from-sphaeralcea-angustifolia-cav-g-don
#4
Fernando Calzada, Jose Correa Basurto, Elizabeth Barbosa, Claudia Velázquez, Normand García Hernández, R M Ordoñez Razo, David Mendez Luna, Lilian Yepez Mulia
BACKGROUND: Sphaeralcea angustifolia (Malvaceae) is extensively used in Mexican traditional medicine for the treatment of gastrointestinal disorders such as diarrhea and dysentery. OBJECTIVE: The current study was to validate the traditional use of S. angustifolia for the treatment of diarrhea and dysentery on biological grounds using in vitro antiprotozoal activity and computational experiments. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The ethanol extract, subsequent fractions, flavonoids, phenolic acids, and a sterol were evaluated on Entamoeba histolytica and Giardia lamblia trophozoites...
April 2017: Pharmacognosy Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28539715/antiprotozoal-antibacterial-and-antidiarrheal-properties-from-the-flowers-of-chiranthodendron-pentadactylon-and-isolated-flavonoids
#5
Fernando Calzada, Teresa Juárez, Normand García-Hernández, Miguel Valdes, Oscar Ávila, Lilian Yepez Mulia, Claudia Velázquez
BACKGROUND: Chiranthodendron pentadactylon Larreat. (Sterculiaceae) is a Mexican plant used in traditional medicine for the treatment of heart disease symptoms and infectious diarrhea. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate in vitro antiprotozoal and antibacterial activities and in vivo antidiarrheal activity from the flowers of C. pentadactylon using the extract, fractions, and major isolated flavonoids. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Bioassay-guided fractionation of the methanol extract of C...
April 2017: Pharmacognosy Magazine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527648/a-case-of-amebiasis-with-negative-serologic-markers-that-caused-intra-abdominal-abscess
#6
Rie Tanaka, Norihiro Furusyo, Rinne Takeda, Sho Yamasaki, Akira Kusaga, Eiichi Ogawa, Masayuki Murata, Ryota Nakanishi, Yoshihiko Maehara
A 23-year-old Japanese woman presented with abdominal distention following fever, diarrhea, and abdominal pain during a stay in Taiwan. Serology for the detection of amebic-antibodies and stool microscopic examination were both negative. A computed tomography scan showed a 13 cm diameter abscess spreading from the lower abdominal wall to the pelvic retroperitoneal space. Needle aspiration of the abscess was done under computed tomography guidance, and microscopy of the aspirated fluid revealed trophozoites of Entamoeba...
May 17, 2017: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28508163/development-of-molecular-diagnostic-protocols-for-detecting-three-types-of-entamoeba-from-diarrheal-and-asymptomatic-pigs-and-environmental-moist-soils
#7
Yoshimasa Hirashima, Tilusha Manchanayake, Takahisa Yano, Syoei Kitahara, Terunori Koreeda, Syunsuke Kamimura, Kazumi Sasai, Makoto Matsubayashi, Tomoyuki Shibahara
Entamoeba suis and Entamoeba polecki subtypes (ST) 1 and 3 have recently been implicated in disease outbreaks in pigs. However, the distributions of these parasites in Japan and the potential sources of infection on farms still remain unclear. Here, we examined a farm of fattening/growing pigs with abnormal feces in Kagoshima Prefecture, Japan, and found the presence of parasites in the farm environment. Examination of intestinal tissues from pigs presenting with ulcerative colitis revealed a large number of trophozoites that had invaded the lesions...
May 15, 2017: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506795/parallel-elisas-using-crude-soluble-antigen-and-excretory-secretory-antigen-for-improved-serodiagnosis-of-amoebic-liver-abscess
#8
Weng-Kin Wong, Phiaw-Chong Foo, Alfonso Olivos-Garcia, Rahmah Noordin, Zeehaida Mohamed, Nurulhasanah Othman, Ling-Ling Few, Boon-Huat Lim
Crude soluble antigen (CSA) produced from Entamoeba histolytica trophozoite is conventionally used for serodiagnosis of invasive amoebiasis. However, high background seropositivities by CSA-assay in endemic areas complicate the interpretation of positive result in clinical settings. Instead, incorporating a second assay which indicates active or recent infection into the routine amoebic serology could possibly complement the limitations of CSA-assay. Hence, the present study aimed to evaluate the diagnostic efficacies of indirect ELISAs using CSA and excretory-secretory antigen (ESA) for serodiagnosis of amoebic liver abscess (ALA)...
May 12, 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505197/structure-of-ca2-binding-protein-6-from-entamoeba-histolytica-and-its-involvement-in-trophozoite-proliferation-regulation
#9
Deepshikha Verma, Aruna Murmu, Samudrala Gourinath, Alok Bhattacharya, Kandala V R Chary
Cell cycle of Entamoeba histolytica, the etiological agent of amoebiasis, follows a novel pathway, which includes nuclear division without the nuclear membrane disassembly. We report a nuclear localized Ca2+-binding protein from E. histolytica (abbreviated hereafter as EhCaBP6), which is associated with microtubules. We determined the 3D solution NMR structure of EhCaBP6, and identified one unusual, one canonical and two non-canonical cryptic EF-hand motifs. The cryptic EF-II and EF-IV pair with the Ca2+-binding EF-I and EF-III, respectively, to form a two-domain structure similar to Calmodulin and Centrin proteins...
May 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28504306/crystal-structure-of-the-entamoeba-histolytica-rna-lariat-debranching-enzyme-ehdbr1-reveals-a-catalytic-zn-2-mn-2-heterobinucleation
#10
Elizabeth Ransey, Eduardo Paredes, Sourav K Dey, Subha R Das, Annie Heroux, Mark R Macbeth
The RNA lariat debranching enzyme Dbr1 is a metallophosphoesterase that cleaves 2'-5' phosphodiester bonds within intronic lariats. Previous reports have indicated that Dbr1 enzymatic activity is supported by diverse metal ions including Ni(2+) , Mn(2+) , Mg(2+) , Fe(2+) and Zn(2+) . While in initial structures of the Entamoeba histolytica Dbr1 only one of the two catalytic metal-binding sites were observed to be occupied (with a Mn(2+) ion), recent structures determined a Zn(2+) /Fe(2+) heterobinucleation...
May 15, 2017: FEBS Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497014/the-e-histolytica-genome-structure-and-virulence
#11
Carol A Gilchrist
The outcome of an Entamoeba histolytica infection is variable and the contribution of genetic diversity within E. histolytica to human disease is not fully understood. The information provided by the whole genome sequence of the E. histolytica reference laboratory strain (HM-1:IMSS) and thirteen additional laboratory strains have been made publically available. In this review theories on the source of the unexpected level of structural diversity found in E. histolytica will be discussed.
December 2016: Current Tropical Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483729/presence-of-parasites-in-environmental-waters-in-samsun-and-its-districts
#12
Ülkü Karaman, Zeynep Kolören, Onuralp Seferoğlu, Emine Ayaz, Elif Demirel
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to detect the presence of parasites in environmental waters in Samsun and its districts. METHODS: At the center of Samsun, 13 stations were determined. The research was performed between March 2012 and February 2013, and every month, water samples were collected on the dates stated. The samples were stained with Kinyoun acid-fast, modified trichrome, and trichrome dyes after examining with the direct bond. The preparations were evaluated in terms of parasitologic under a light microscope...
March 2017: Türkiye Parazitolojii Dergisi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28477431/ehrho1-regulates-plasma-membrane-blebbing-through-pi3-kinase-in-entamoeba-histolytica
#13
Ravi Bharadwaj, Ranjana Arya, Sudha Bhattacharya, Alok Bhattacharya
The protozoan parasite Entamoeba histolytica causes amoebiasis, a major public health problem in developing countries. Motility of E. histolytica is important for its pathogenesis. Blebbing is an essential process contributing to cellular motility in many systems. In mammalian cells, formation of plasma membrane blebs is regulated by Rho-GTPases through its effectors, such as ROCK, mDia1 and acto-myosin proteins. In the present study, we have illuminated the role of EhRho1 in bleb formation and motility of E...
May 6, 2017: Cellular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28470625/an-anti-amoebic-vaccine-generation-of-the-recombinant-antigen-lc3-from-entamoeba-histolytica-linked-to-mutated-exotoxin-a-pe%C3%AE-iii-via-the-pichia-pastoris-system
#14
Sandra Luz Martínez-Hernández, Daniel Cervantes-García, Martín Muñoz-Ortega, Liseth R Aldaba-Muruato, Victor M Loera-Muro, Jorge A Ascacio-Martínez, María de Jesús Loera-Arias, Roberto Montes de Oca-Luna, Javier Ventura-Juárez
OBJECTIVE: To generate an immunogenic chimeric protein containing the Entamoeba histolytica LC3 fragment fused to the retrograde delivery domains of exotoxin A of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and KDEL3 for use as an effective vaccine. RESULTS: A codon-optimized synthetic gene encoding the PEΔIII-LC3-KDEL3 fusion construct was designed for expression in Pichia pastoris. This transgene was subcloned into the plasmid pPIC9 for methanol-inducible expression. After transformation and selection of positive-transformed clones by PCR, the expression of the recombinant protein PEΔIII-LC3-KDEL3 was elicited...
May 3, 2017: Biotechnology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469979/proliferating-cell-nuclear-antigen-restores-the-enzymatic-activity-of-a-dna-ligase-i-deficient-in-dna-binding
#15
Carlos H Trasviña-Arenas, Cesar S Cardona-Felix, Elisa Azuara-Liceaga, Corina Díaz-Quezada, Luis G Brieba
Proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) coordinates multienzymatic reactions by interacting with a variety of protein partners. Family I DNA ligases are multidomain proteins involved in sealing of DNA nicks during Okazaki fragment maturation and DNA repair. The interaction of DNA ligases with the interdomain connector loop (IDCL) of PCNA through its PCNA-interacting peptide (PIP box) is well studied but the role of the interacting surface between both proteins is not well characterized. In this work, we used a minimal DNA ligase I and two N-terminal deletions to establish that DNA binding and nick-sealing stimulation of DNA ligase I by PCNA are not solely dependent on the PIP box-IDCL interaction...
May 2017: FEBS Open Bio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28459014/detection-of-cryptosporidium-in-stool-samples-of-immunocompromised-patients
#16
K Vanathy, Subhash Chandra Parija, Jharna Mandal, Abdoul Hamide, Sriram Krishnamurthy
INTRODUCTION: Cryptosporidium species is the most common opportunistic enteric parasite encountered in the immunocompromised patients. Considering the need to diagnose them early relies mostly on rapid tests such as antigen detection by immunochromatographic test (ICT), ELISA, and microscopy. However, the sensitivity and specificity varies with different methods and different kits used. This study was conducted to determine the intestinal parasitic profile in immunocompromised patients and to assess the diagnostic accuracy of the ICT using ImmunoCard STAT kit in detecting Cryptosporidium spp...
January 2017: Tropical Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28458199/occurrence-and-removal-efficiency-of-parasitic-protozoa-in-swedish-wastewater-treatment-plants
#17
Björn Berglund, Olaf Dienus, Ekaterina Sokolova, Emma Berglind, Andreas Matussek, Thomas Pettersson, Per-Eric Lindgren
Giardia intestinalis, Cryptosporidium spp., Entamoeba histolytica and Dientamoeba fragilis are parasitic protozoa and causative agents of gastroenteritis in humans. G. intestinalis and Cryptosporidium spp. in particular are the most common protozoa associated with waterborne outbreaks in high-income countries. Surveillance of protozoan prevalence in wastewater and evaluation of wastewater treatment removal efficiencies of protozoan pathogens is therefore imperative for assessment of human health risk. In this study, influent and effluent wastewater samples from three wastewater treatment plants in Sweden were collected over nearly one year and assessed for prevalence of parasitic protozoa...
April 27, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28452682/entamoeba-histolytica-host-parasite-interactions-at-the-colonic-epithelium
#18
Steve Cornick, Kris Chadee
Entamoeba histolytica (Eh) is the protozoan parasite responsible for intestinal amebiasis and interacts dynamically with the host intestinal epithelium during disease pathogenesis. A multifaceted pathogenesis profile accounts for why 90% of individuals infected with Eh are largely asymptomatic. For 100 millions individuals that are infected each year, key interactions within the intestinal mucosa dictate disease susceptibility. The ability for Eh to induce amebic colitis and disseminate into extraintestinal organs depends on the parasite competing with indigenous bacteria and overcoming the mucus barrier, binding to host cells inducing their cell death, invasion through the mucosa and outsmarting the immune system...
January 2, 2017: Tissue Barriers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446068/multiplex-pcr-detection-of-cryptosporidium-sp-giardia-lamblia-and-entamoeba-histolytica-directly-from-dried-stool-samples-from-guinea-bissauan-children-with-diarrhoea
#19
Sointu Mero, Juha Kirveskari, Jenni Antikainen, Johan Ursing, Lars Rombo, Poul-Erik Kofoed, Anu Kantele
BACKGROUND: In developing countries, diarrhoea is the most common cause of death for children under five years of age, with Giardia lamblia, Cryptosporidium and Entamoeba histolytica as the most frequent pathogenic parasites. Traditional microscopy for stool parasites has poor sensitivity and specificity, while new molecular methods may provide more accurate diagnostics. In poor regions with sample storage hampered by uncertain electricity supply, research would benefit from a method capable of analysing dried stools...
April 27, 2017: Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28416464/microbiological-quality-of-water-in-a-city-with-persistent-and-recurrent-waterborne-diseases-under-tropical-sub-rural-conditions-the-case-of-kikwit-city-democratic-republic-of-the-congo
#20
Alexis B Nienie, Periyasamy Sivalingam, Amandine Laffite, Patience Ngelinkoto, Jean-Paul Otamonga, Alphonse Matand, Crispin K Mulaji, Emmanuel M Biey, Pius T Mpiana, John Poté
The availability of safe drinking water in sub-Saharan countries remains a major challenge because poor sanitation has been the cause of various outbreaks of waterborne disease due to the poor microbiological quality of water used for domestic purposes. The faecal indicator bacteria (FIB) used in the present study included Escherichia coli (E. coli) and Enterococcus (ENT). FIB and aerobic mesophilic bacteria (AMB) were quantified during July 2015 (dry season) and November 2015 (rainy season) in order to assess the quality of drinking water from wells (n=3; P1-P3), and two rivers, the River Lukemi (RLK, n=3) and River Luini (RLN, n=2) in the city of Kikwit, which is located in the province of Kwilu in the Democratic Republic of the Congo...
March 30, 2017: International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health
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