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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142277/genetic-metabolomic-and-transcriptomic-analyses-of-the-de-novo-l-cysteine-biosynthetic-pathway-in-the-enteric-protozoan-parasite-entamoeba-histolytica
#1
Ghulam Jeelani, Dan Sato, Tomoyoshi Soga, Tomoyoshi Nozaki
The de novo L-cysteine biosynthetic pathway is critical for the growth, antioxidative stress defenses, and pathogenesis of bacterial and protozoan pathogens, such as Salmonella typhimurium and Entamoeba histolytica. This pathway involves two key enzymes, serine acetyltransferase (SAT) and cysteine synthase (CS), which are absent in mammals and therefore represent rational drug targets. The human parasite E. histolytica possesses three SAT and CS isozymes; however, the specific roles of individual isoforms and significance of such apparent redundancy remains unclear...
November 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141752/differences-in-nutritional-and-health-status-in-school-children-from-the-highlands-and-lowlands-of-bolivia
#2
Graciela Terán, Washington Cuna, Froilán Brañez, Kristina E M Persson, Martín E Rottenberg, Susanne Nylén, Celeste Rodriguez
Children in the Bolivian Andes are exposed to endemic infections and meager nourishment, and live under poor hygienic conditions. The prevention of children malnutrition is a priority in many countries including Bolivia. In this study, the health status of schoolchildren in Taraco, a Puna district, at 4,000 meters above sea level (masl) and in Caranavi, at 650 masl in the wealthier subtropical valleys, was compared. The weight, height, and hematological and biochemical parameters in blood, parasites in stool, and clinical information in 120 children from rural Taraco and in 96 from semi-urban Caranavi, both predominantly of Aymara ethnicity, were registered...
November 6, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138640/prevalence-of-soil-transmitted-helminthiases-and-schistosomiasis-in-preschool-age-children-in-mwea-division-kirinyaga-south-district-kirinyaga-county-and-their-potential-effect-on-physical-growth
#3
Stephen Sifuna Wefwafwa Sakari, Amos K Mbugua, Gerald M Mkoji
Intestinal parasitic infections can significantly contribute to the burden of disease, may cause nutritional and energetic stress, and negatively impact the quality of life in low income countries of the world. This cross-sectional study done in Mwea irrigation scheme, in Kirinyaga, central Kenya, assessed the public health significance of soil-transmitted helminthiases (STH), schistosomiasis, and other intestinal parasitic infections, among 361 preschool age children (PSAC) through fecal examination, by measuring anthropometric indices, and through their parents/guardians, by obtaining sociodemographic information...
2017: Journal of Tropical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116455/do-habituation-host-traits-and-seasonality-have-an-impact-on-protist-and-helminth-infections-of-wild-western-lowland-gorillas
#4
Barbora Pafčo, Julio A Benavides, Ilona Pšenková-Profousová, David Modrý, Barbora Červená, Kathryn A Shutt, Hideo Hasegawa, Terence Fuh, Angelique F Todd, Klára J Petrželková
Increased anthropogenic activity can result in parasite exchanges and/or general changes in parasite communities, imposing a health risk to great apes. We studied protist and helminth parasites of wild western lowland gorilla groups in different levels of habituation, alongside humans inhabiting Dzanga-Sangha Protected Areas in the Central African Republic. Faeces were collected yearly during November and December from 2007 to 2010 and monthly from November 2010 to October 2011. Protist and helminth infections were compared among gorilla groups habituated, under habituation and unhabituated, and the effect of host traits and seasonality was evaluated...
November 7, 2017: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114489/chitinase-gene-based-analysis-of-the-genetic-variability-among-the-clinical-isolates-of-entamoeba-dispar-from-puducherry-india
#5
Selvarathinam Ajay Philips, Kumar Manochitra, Subhash Chandra Parija
Introduction: Amebiasis is known to be caused by the protozoan parasite Entamoeba histolytica. Entamoeba dispar is considered to be a sibling species of E. histolytica, as the two are phylogenetically closest. There are reports that certain strains of E. dispar isolated were capable of causing hepatic lesions in the experimental animal models. The intra-/inter-species genetic variation has been found to have profound implication in the invasiveness of the disease. Thus, studying polymorphism in E...
July 2017: Tropical Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103276/intestinal-parasite-infections-among-inhabitants-in-yanbian-prefecture-jilin-province-china
#6
Myoung-Ro Lee, Hee-Eun Shin, Byung-Suk Chung, Sang-Eun Lee, Jung-Won Ju, Liji Xu, Chen Long Nan, Mi-Yeoun Park, Shin-Hyeong Cho
To investigate the prevalence of intestinal parasite infections in Yanbian Prefecture, Jilin Province, China, epidemiological surveys were conducted on a collaboration basis between the Korean Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and the Yanbian Center for Disease Control and Prevention. A total of 8,396 (males 3,737 and females 4,659) stool samples were collected from 8 localities and examined with the formalin-ether sedimentation technique, and additionally examined with the cellotape anal swab to detect Enterobius vermicularis eggs...
October 2017: Korean Journal of Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103267/intestinal-parasitic-infections-and-environmental-water-contamination-in-a-rural-village-of-northern-lao-pdr
#7
Alexis Ribas, Chloé Jollivet, Serge Morand, Boupha Thongmalayvong, Silaphet Somphavong, Chern-Chiang Siew, Pei-Jun Ting, Saipin Suputtamongkol, Viengsaene Saensombath, Surapol Sanguankiat, Boon-Huan Tan, Phimpha Paboriboune, Kongsap Akkhavong, Kittipong Chaisiri
A field survey studying intestinal parasites in humans and microbial pathogen contamination at environment was performed in a Laotian rural village to identify potential risks for disease outbreaks. A parasitological investigation was conducted in Ban Lak Sip village, Luang Prabang, Lao PDR involving fecal samples from 305 inhabitants as well as water samples taken from 3 sites of the local stream. Water analysis indicated the presence of several enteric pathogens, i.e., Aeromonas spp., Vibrio spp., E. coli H7, E...
October 2017: Korean Journal of Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103266/high-frequency-of-enteric-protozoan-viral-and-bacterial-potential-pathogens-in-community-acquired-acute-diarrheal-episodes-evidence-based-on-results-of-luminex-gastrointestinal-pathogen-panel-assay
#8
Yousry A Hawash, Khadiga A Ismail, Mazen Almehmadi
Infectious diarrhea is endemic in most developing countries. We aimed to investigate the protozoan, viral, and bacterial causes of acute diarrhea in Taif, Saudi Arabia. A cross-sectional prospective 1-year study was conducted on 163 diarrheal patients of various ages. Stool samples were collected, 1 per patient, and tested for 3 protozoa, 3 viruses, and 9 bacteria with the Luminex Gastrointestinal Pathogen Panel. Overall, 53.4% (87/163) of samples were positives (20.8% protozoa, 19.6% viruses, 2.8% bacteria, and 9...
October 2017: Korean Journal of Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29070053/distribution-of-blastocystis-subtypes-isolated-from-humans-from-an-urban-community-in-rio-de-janeiro-brazil
#9
Carolina Valença Barbosa, Rosemary de Jesus Batista, Ricardo Pereira Igreja, Claudia Masini d'Avila Levy, Heloisa Werneck de Macedo, Helena Lúcia Carneiro Santos
BACKGROUND: Blastocystis is a cosmopolitan protist parasite found in the human gastrointestinal tract and is highly prevalent in developing countries. Recent molecular studies have revealed extensive genetic diversity, which has been classified into different subtypes (STs) based on sequence analysis of small subunit ribosomal RNA gene. Blastocystis is one of the most common fecal parasites in Brazil, but the diversity of subtypes remains unknown in the country. This study aimed to determine the distribution of Blastocystis STs in an urban community in Duque de Caxias, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil...
October 25, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29066287/multiple-identification-of-most-important-waterborne-protozoa-in-surface-water-used-for-irrigation-purposes-by-18s-rrna-amplicon-based-metagenomics
#10
Y Moreno, L Moreno-Mesonero, I Amorós, R Pérez, A J Morillo, J L Alonso
Understanding waterborne protozoan parasites (WPPs) diversity has important implications in public health. In this study, we evaluated a NGS-based method as a detection approach to identify simultaneously most important WPPs using 18S rRNA high-throughput sequencing. A set of primers to target the V4 18S rRNA region of WPPs such as Cryptosporidium spp., Giardia sp., Blastocystis sp., Entamoeba spp, Toxoplasma sp. and free-living amoebae (FLA) was designed. In order to optimize PCR conditions before sequencing, both a mock community with a defined composition of representative WPPs and a real water sample inoculated with specific WPPs DNA were prepared...
October 19, 2017: International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29063894/multiple-parasitic-and-viral-infections-in-a-patient-living-with-hiv-aids-on-antiretroviral-therapy
#11
K Deepika, Nonika Rajkumari, A S Liji, Subhash Chandra Parija, Abdoul Hamide
Patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection are more prone for gastrointestinal infections causing diarrhoea, particularly with parasites. Parasitic infections have been regularly reported in such patients. A female patient confirmed positive for HIV 1 on antiretroviral therapy came with complaints of chronic diarrhoea for the past 7 months. Her initial CD4 count was 89 cells/μl of blood, and antibodies to cytomegalovirus and herpes simplex virus 1 and 2 virus were found to be positive in the patient's serum, but there was no HIV-associated retinopathy...
July 2017: Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29055284/multiple-sampling-and-saf-fixative-triple-faeces-testing-for-dysbiosis-and-pathogenic-infections-of-the-gastrointestinal-tract-case-report
#12
Johanna Mauss, Michelle Retz, Roger Dilts, Jeffrey Langland
The classic presentation of acute gastrointestinal (GI) parasitic infection including fever, diarrhea, nausea, and/or abdominal pain is not always a reliable measure. In these cases, parasitic infections require sensitive stool testing to be identified and treated effectively. The standard practice for stool analysis typically requires 3 separate stool specimens to be collected on 3 separate days to overcome the possibility of misdiagnosis due to intermittent shedding. Nonetheless, this practice is not often utilized due to very short periods of sample viability, which often leads to patient misdiagnosis...
October 21, 2017: Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29047404/structural-and-functional-characterization-of-the-divergent-entamoeba-src-using-src-inhibitor-1
#13
Luilli López-Contreras, Verónica Ivonne Hernández-Ramírez, Mayra Herrera-Martínez, Sarita Montaño, Luis Alejandro Constantino-Jonapa, Bibiana Chávez-Munguía, Patricia Talamás-Rohana
BACKGROUND: The abundant number of kinases that Entamoeba histolytica possesses allows us to assume that the regulation of cellular functions by phosphorylation-dephosphorylation processes is very important. However, the kinases responsible for the phosphorylation in Entamoeba spp. vary in the structure of their domains and, therefore, could be responsible for the unusual biological characteristics of this parasite. In higher eukaryotes, Src kinases share conserved structural domains and are very important in the regulation of the actin cytoskeleton...
October 18, 2017: Parasites & Vectors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044162/hetero-oligomer-of-dynamin-related-proteins-participates-in-the-fission-of-highly-divergent-mitochondria-from-entamoeba-histolytica
#14
Takashi Makiuchi, Herbert J Santos, Hiroshi Tachibana, Tomoyoshi Nozaki
Entamoeba histolytica is an anaerobic parasitic protist and possesses mitosomes, one of the most highly divergent mitochondrion-related organelles (MROs). Although unique metabolism and protein/metabolite transport machinery have been demonstrated in Entamoeba mitosomes, the mechanism of mitosomal fusion and fission remains to be elucidated. In this study, we demonstrate that two dynamin-related proteins (DRPs) are cooperatively involved in the fission of Entamoeba mitosomes. Expression of a dominant negative form of EhDrpA and EhDrpB, and alternatively, repression of gene expression of EhDrpA and EhDrpB genes, caused elongation of mitosomes, reflecting inhibition of mitosomal fission...
October 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29041010/a-comparative-study-of-four-methods-for-the-detection-of-nematode-eggs-and-large-protozoan-cysts-in-mandrill-faecal-material
#15
Hanae Pouillevet, Serge-Ely Dibakou, Barthélémy Ngoubangoye, Clémence Poirotte, Marie J E Charpentier
Coproscopical methods like sedimentation and flotation techniques are widely used in the field for studying simian gastrointestinal parasites. Four parasites of known zoonotic potential were studied in a free-ranging, non-provisioned population of mandrills (Mandrillus sphinx): 2 nematodes (Necatoramericanus/Oesophagostomum sp. complex and Strongyloides sp.) and 2 protozoan species (Balantidium coli and Entamoeba coli). Different coproscopical techniques are available but they are rarely compared to evaluate their efficiency to retrieve parasites...
2017: Folia Primatologica; International Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037797/flow-cytometric-characterization-of-encystation-in-entamoeba-invadens
#16
Brenda H Welter, Michael G Sehorn, Lesly A Temesvari
Entamoeba histolytica causes dysentery and liver abscess mostly in countries that lack proper sanitation. Infection is acquired by ingestion of the cyst form in contaminated food or water. E. histolytica does not encyst in vitro; thus, E. invadens, a reptilian parasite that encysts in vitro, has been used as a surrogate. Cysts are small and possess chitin-rich walls. These are characteristics that may be exploited by flow cytometry. We stained encysting E. invadens cells with a fluorescent chitin stain, and analyzed fluorescence and forward scatter by flow cytometry...
December 2017: Molecular and Biochemical Parasitology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035863/sero-detection-of-toxocara-canis-infection-in-human-with-t-canis-recombinant-arginine-kinase-cathepsin-l-1-and-tes-26-antigens
#17
Anju Varghese, Opinder K Raina, Dinesh Chandra, Bijay R Mirdha, Naresh H Kelawala, Jayesh B Solanki, Niranjan Kumar, Reghu Ravindran, Anandanarayanan Arun, Ajayta Rialch, Hniang Lalrinkima, Rohan N Kelawala, Subhamoy Samanta
Three recombinant antigens viz. arginine kinase, cathepsin L-1 and TES-26 of Toxocara canis were expressed in Escherichia coli and evaluated for their potential in the detection of T. canis larval infection in human in immunoglobulin G-enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (IgG-ELISA). Results of the IgG-ELISA with the above recombinant antigens were confirmed with commercially available IgG detection kit for T. canis infection used as a standard test. All three recombinant antigens were 100% sensitive in the detection of positive cases (n = 6) of T...
December 20, 2017: Acta Parasitologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016326/human-intestinal-parasite-burden-and-poor-sanitation-in-rural-alabama
#18
Megan L McKenna, Shannon McAtee, Patricia E Bryan, Rebecca Jeun, Tabitha Ward, Jacob Kraus, Maria E Bottazzi, Peter J Hotez, Catherine C Flowers, Rojelio Mejia
Hookworm infection affects 430 million people worldwide, causing iron deficiency, impaired cognitive development, and stunting in children. Because of the environmental conditions needed for the hookworm life-cycle, this parasite is endemic to resource-limited countries. Necator americanus was endemic in the southern United States before improvement of sewage disposal systems and eradication programs. With continued poverty, poor sanitation, and an environment suitable for the hookworm life-cycle in some regions of the southern United States, a current prevalence study using modern molecular diagnostics is warranted...
September 5, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993644/membrane-trafficking-modulation-during-entamoeba-encystation
#19
Emily Herman, Maria A Siegesmund, Michael J Bottery, Ronny van Aerle, Maulood Mohammed Shather, Elisabet Caler, Joel B Dacks, Mark van der Giezen
Entamoeba histolytica is an intestinal parasite that infects 50-100 million people and causes up to 55,000 deaths annually. The transmissive form of E. histolytica is the cyst, with a single infected individual passing up to 45 million cysts per day, making cyst production an attractive target for infection control. Lectins and chitin are secreted to form the cyst wall, although little is known about the underlying membrane trafficking processes supporting encystation. As E. histolytica does not readily form cysts in vitro, we assessed membrane trafficking gene expression during encystation in the closely related model Entamoeba invadens...
October 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28984036/a-cross-sectional-study-of-intestinal-parasitoses-in-dogs-and-children-of-the-periurban-area-of-la-plata-buenos-aires-argentina-zoonotic-importance-and-implications-in-public-health
#20
P Cociancic, M L Zonta, G T Navone
A cross-sectional study was performed between school term dates 2014 and 2015 to diagnose intestinal parasites in dogs and children living with them. The socio-environmental characteristics and hygiene practices of the children were also evaluated in terms of risk factors for parasitic infection of periurban neighbourhoods of La Plata (Buenos Aires, Argentina). Serial coproparasitological samples of 78 dogs and 211 children were analysed by means of concentration and flotation techniques. Socio-environmental variables and hygiene practices of children were evaluated through semi-structured questionnaires which were answered by every family...
October 5, 2017: Zoonoses and Public Health
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