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Klára Vlčková, Jakub Kreisinger, Barbora Pafčo, Dagmar Čížková, Nikki Tagg, Adrian B Hehl, David Modrý
Understanding the complex Entamoeba communities in the mammalian intestine has been, to date, complicated by the lack of a suitable approach for molecular detection of multiple variants co-occurring in mixed infections. Here, we report on the application of a high throughput sequencing approach based on partial 18S rDNA using the Illumina MiSeq platform. We describe, to our knowledge for the first time, the Entamoeba communities in humans, free-ranging western lowland gorillas and central chimpanzees living in at the Dja Faunal Reserve in Cameroon...
March 9, 2018: International Journal for Parasitology
Nicolas Beyls, Odile Cognet, Jean-Paul Stahl, Olivier Rogeaux, Herve Pelloux
Soluble antigens from an axenic culture of Entamoeba histolytica were used to develop a commercial ELISA kit to quantify anti- E. histolytica antibodies in sera of patients with extraintestinal amebiasis in non-endemic settings. The diagnostic specificity and sensitivity of the test were assessed retrospectively using 131 human serum samples with amoebic serologic status available. They were selected according to their results in immunofluorescence (IFAT) and were separated in 2 sample categories: 64 sera with positive results by IFAT and 67 with negative results by IFAT...
February 2018: Korean Journal of Parasitology
Pisit Suntaravitun, Amornrat Dokmaikaw
Intestinal parasitic infections remain a major public health problem in many parts of Thailand, particularly in rural areas. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections and associated risk factors among the people living in Huai Sai sub-district, Bang Khla district, Chachoengsao Province, central Thailand. A cross-sectional survey was carried out from June 2017 to August 2017 which included a total of 224 participants. Stool samples were examined using a simple direct smear and formalin ethyl acetate concentration technique...
February 2018: Korean Journal of Parasitology
Carolina Valença Barbosa, Magali Muniz Barreto, Rosemary de Jesus Andrade, Fernando Sodré, Claudia Masini d'Avila-Levy, José Mauro Peralta, Ricardo Pereira Igreja, Heloisa Werneck de Macedo, Helena Lucia Carneiro Santos
BACKGROUND: Intestinal parasitic infections are considered a serious public health problem and widely distributed worldwide, mainly in urban and rural environments of tropical and subtropical countries. Globally, soil-transmitted helminths and protozoa are the most common intestinal parasites. Blastocystis sp. is a highly prevalent suspected pathogenic protozoan, and considered an unusual protist due to its significant genetic diversity and host plasticity. METHODOLOGY/MAIN FINDINGS: A total of 294 stool samples were collected from inhabitants of three rural valleys in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil...
2018: PloS One
Arif Nurkanto, Ghulam Jeelani, Takehiro Yamamoto, Yoshiko Naito, Takako Hishiki, Mihoko Mori, Makoto Suematsu, Kazuro Shiomi, Tetsuo Hashimoto, Tomoyoshi Nozaki
The Coenzyme A (CoA), as a cofactor involved in >100 metabolic reactions, is essential to the basic biochemistry of life. Here, we investigated the CoA biosynthetic pathway of Entamoeba histolytica (E. histolytica), an enteric protozoan parasite responsible for human amebiasis. We identified four key enzymes involved in the CoA pathway: pantothenate kinase (PanK, EC, bifunctional phosphopantothenate-cysteine ligase/decarboxylase (PPCS-PPCDC), phosphopantetheine adenylyltransferase (PPAT) and dephospho-CoA kinase (DPCK)...
March 1, 2018: International Journal for Parasitology, Drugs and Drug Resistance
Patricio D Carrera-Játiva, Eric R Morgan, Michelle Barrows, Torsten Wronski
Gastrointestinal parasites are commonly reported in wild birds, but transmission amongst avifauna in zoological settings, and between these captive birds and wild birds in surrounding areas, remains poorly understood. A survey was undertaken to investigate the occurrence of gastrointestinal parasites in captive and free-ranging birds at Bristol Zoo Gardens between May and July 2016. A total of 348 fecal samples from 32 avian species were examined using the Mini-FLOTAC flotation method. Parasites were detected in 31% (45/145) of samples from captive birds and in 65...
March 2018: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
Ravi Kumar Narayanasamy, Carlos Alberto Castañón-Sanchez, Juan Pedro Luna-Arias, Guillermina García-Rivera, Bartolo Avendaño-Borromeo, María Luisa Labra-Barrios, Jesús Valdés, María Esther Herrera-Aguirre, Esther Orozco
BACKGROUND: Entamoeba histolytica is the protozoan parasite responsible for human amebiasis. It causes up to 100,000 deaths worldwide each year. This parasite has two closely related basal transcription factors, the TATA-box binding protein (EhTBP) and the TBP-related factor 1 (EhTRF1). TBP binds to the canonical TATTTAAA-box, as well as to different TATA variants. TRF1 also binds to the TATTTAAA-box. However, their binding capacity to diverse core promoter elements, including the GAAC-element, and their role in gene regulation in this parasite remains unknown...
March 7, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Eleuza R Machado, Iriani R Maldonade, Roberta F R Riquette, Vinícios S Mendes, Rodrigo Gurgel-Gonçalves, Veronica C Ginani
The consumption of raw vegetables is related to health benefits. However, these foods might be source of foodborne diseases. The objective of the present study was to perform a microbiological and parasitological evaluation of the leafy vegetables commercially sold in five regions of Brazil at public wholesale markets. The 12 types of leafy vegetables (144 samples) were curly lettuce, looseleaf lettuce, red lettuce, chives, coriander, kale, basil, arugula, parsley, iceberg lettuce, chicory, and bean sprouts...
April 2018: Journal of Food Protection
Birhane Berhe, Gessessew Bugssa, Sena Bayisa, Megbaru Alemu
BACKGROUND: Intestinal protozoa are parasites transmitted by consumption of contaminated water and food and mainly affect children and elder people and cause considerable health problems. They are the leading causes of outpatient morbidity due to diarrhea in the developing countries. So, assessing water and food source of diarrheal patients and identifying the main associated factors for transmission of protozoan parasitic infections help for effective control measures of protozoan infections...
March 2, 2018: Journal of Health, Population, and Nutrition
Christen Rune Stensvold, Jadwiga Winiecka-Krusnell, Tore Lier, Marianne Lebbad
Entamoeba polecki is a parasite of human and non-human primates, other mammals and birds. Due to overlapping morphological features, cysts of E. polecki may be confused with those of other Entamoeba species commonly found in human fecal samples, including immature cysts of Entamoeba histolytica Although the presence of E. polecki in human Entamoeba -positive stool samples may be rare, its prevalence is likely underestimated due to such confusion.Here, we give examples of diagnostic approaches applied so far and summarise data on the molecular epidemiology of E...
February 28, 2018: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
Usha Yadav, Mohd Ashraf Khan
The GPI (Glycosylphosphatidylinositol) biosynthetic pathway is a multistep conserved pathway in eukaryotes that culminates in the generation of GPI glycolipid which in turn anchors many proteins (GPI-APs) to the cell surface. In spite of the overall conservation of the pathway, there still exist subtle differences in the GPI pathway of mammals and other eukaryotes which holds a great promise so far as the development of drugs/inhibitors against specific targets in the GPI pathway of pathogens is concerned. Many of the GPI structures and their anchored proteins in pathogenic protozoans and fungi act as pathogenicity factors...
February 27, 2018: Pathogens and Global Health
Cindy Jazmín Delgado-Galván, Felipe Padilla-Vaca, Fátima Berenice Ramírez Montiel, Ángeles Rangel-Serrano, Itzel Paramo-Pérez, Fernando Anaya Velázquez, B Franco
Entamoeba histolytica genetic organization and genome structure is complex and under intense research. The genome is fully sequenced, and several tools have been developed for the molecular study of this organism. Nevertheless, good protein tracking tags that are easy to measure and image, like the fluorescent proteins are lacking. In this report, we codon-optimized the red fluorescent protein from the coral Discosoma striata (DsRFP) for its use in E. histolytica and demonstrated functionality in vivo. We envision that this protein can be widely used for the development of transcriptional reporter systems and protein-tagging applications...
February 21, 2018: Experimental Parasitology
Shruti Nagaraja, Serge Ankri
During its life cycle, the unicellular parasite Entamoeba histolytica is challenged by a wide variety of environmental stresses, such as fluctuation in glucose concentration, changes in gut microbiota composition, and the release of oxidative and nitrosative species from neutrophils and macrophages. The best mode of survival for this parasite is to continuously adapt itself to the dynamic environment of the host. Our ability to study the stress-induced responses and adaptive mechanisms of this parasite has been transformed through the development of genomics, proteomics or metabolomics (omics sciences)...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Kun Li, Jinhuan Jiang, Muhammad Shahzad, Hui Zhang, Khalid Mehmood, Xiong Jiang, Xiaodong Zhao, Houqiang Luo, Xiaole Tong, Jiakui Li
Diarrhea a serious disease, reported to be related with changes in microbial diversity is widely epidemic in the yaks on the Qinghai Tibet plateau. Herein, we preformed high-throughput sequencing of the parasitic diversity in 3 groups of yaks i.e. healthy adult yaks (HA), diarrheic adult yaks (DA) and diarrheic yak calves (DC) in Gannan Tibetan Autonomous Prefecture. The results showed that 2 Phyla, 3 Classes, 5 Orders, 4 Families and 6 Genera were discovered in HA yaks; 2 Phyla, 3 Classes, 6 Orders, 6 Families and 8 Genera were found in DA yaks while 2 Phyla, 5 Classes, 5 Orders, 10 Families and 7 Genera were observed in DC yaks...
February 17, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
C Ocaña-Losada, J A Cuenca-Gómez, M T Cabezas-Fernández, J Vázquez-Villegas, M J Soriano-Pérez, I Cabeza-Barrera, J Salas-Coronas
OBJECTIVES: Blastocystis hominis (B. hominis) is one of the most common intestinal parasites isolated in humans. The parasite can cause gastrointestinal symptoms or, in most cases, remain asymptomatic. There are issues concerning the parasite's pathogenic character. The aim of this study was to analyse the clinical and epidemiological characteristics of the parasite infection by B. hominis, with or without other parasitic co-infections. PATIENTS AND METHODS: An observational retrospective study was conducted of B...
February 15, 2018: Revista Clínica Española
Florent Morio, Stéphane Valot, Adrien Laude, Guillaume Desoubeaux, Nicolas Argy, Céline Nourrisson, Christelle Pomares, Marie Machouart, Yohann Le Govic, Frédéric Dalle, Françoise Botterel, Nathalie Bourgeois, Estelle Cateau, Marion Leterrier, Fakhri Jeddi, Manuel Gaboyard, Patrice Le Pape
OBJECTIVES: Besides the potential to identify a wide variety of gastrointestinal parasites, microscopy remains the gold standard in clinical microbiology for amoeba species identification and especially, when coupled with adhesin detection, to discriminate the pathogenic E. histolytica from its sisters but non-pathogenic species E. dispar/E. moschovskii. However, this approach is time-consuming, requires a high-level of expertise that can be jeopardized considering the low prevalence of gastrointestinal parasites in non-endemic countries...
February 15, 2018: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
J Yakoob, Z Abbas, R Khan, K Tariq, S Awan, M A Beg
Introduction An association of Helicobacter pylori and common protozoal parasites in patients with abdominal discomfort and chronic diarrhoea is unclear and may be pathological. Materials and methods One hundred and sixty-one patients with diarrhoea were compared to 114 age and sex matched controls. Stool samples were examined by microscopy and DNA extracted for PCR with specific primers for H. pylori and protozoal parasites Blastocystis sp., Entamoeba sp. (Entamoeba histolytica, Entamoeba dispar and Entamoeba moshkovskii) and Giardia duodenalis (G...
February 16, 2018: British Journal of Biomedical Science
Theo A Schuurs, Rob Koelewijn, Eric A T Brienen, Titia Kortbeek, Theo G Mank, Bert Mulder, Foekje F Stelma, Lisette van Lieshout, Jaap J van Hellemond
BACKGROUND: Real-time PCR methods are increasingly used in routine patient care settings not only to determine the presence or absence of pathogens in patient materials, but also to obtain semiquantitative results to estimate the pathogen load. However, it is so far unknown how well these methods are harmonized among different laboratories. METHODS: Sets of stool samples were distributed three to four times per year to ca. 25-40 participating laboratories within the European Union as part of an external quality assessment scheme (EQAS) for the detection of gastrointestinal protozoa...
February 16, 2018: Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine: CCLM
Gabriela García, Fernando Ramos, Fernando Martínez-Hernández, Lilian Hernández, Jorge Yáñez, Paul Gaytán
Entamoeba gingivalis is a protozoan that resides in the oral cavity. Using molecular biology techniques, we identified a novel organism that shares the same ecological niche as E. gingivalis. To differentiate this organism from E. gingivalis, we named it "kamaktli variant." By sequencing the 18S-ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 rRNA region, we demonstrated that kamaktli variant is 89% identical to E. gingivalis. To elucidate the relationship between kamaktli variant and E. gingivalis, we performed a phylogenetic analysis. Both taxa clustered in the same clade with high support, indicating that the amoebas are closely related (98/99/1...
February 10, 2018: Parasitology Research
Yue Guan, Meng Feng, Xiangyang Min, Hang Zhou, Yongfeng Fu, Hiroshi Tachibana, Xunjia Cheng
BACKGROUND: Entamoeba nuttalli is an intestinal protozoan with pathogenic potential that can cause amoebic liver abscess. It is highly prevalent in wild and captive macaques. Recently, cysts were detected in a caretaker of nonhuman primates in a zoo, indicating that E. nuttalli may be a zoonotic pathogen. Therefore, it is important to evaluate the pathogenicity of E. nuttalli in detail and in comparison with that of E. histolytica. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Trophozoites of E...
February 8, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
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