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Mycoplasma gallisepticum

Arithat Limsatanun, Jiroj Sasipreeyajan, Somsak Pakpinyo
Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) is one of the major pathogens that cause respiratory signs in the poultry industry. To control MG infection, vaccination is the useful procedure. In this study, MG vaccine was developed by using the local Thai MG isolate (AHRL 20/52). Chitosan, a polysaccharide adjuvant derived from crustaceans, has been successfully used in various vaccines. The objectives of this study were to prepare MG bacterins by using chitosan, serving as an adjuvant, to determine protection against the field Thai MG isolate and to evaluate tissue reaction at the injection site...
December 2016: Avian Diseases
Dmitry A Altukhov, Anna A Talyzina, Yulia K Agapova, Anna V Vlaskina, Dmitry A Korzhenevskiy, Eduard V Bocharov, Tatiana V Rakitina, Vladimir I Timofeev, Vladimir O Popov
The histone-like (HU) protein is one of the major nucleoid-associated proteins involved in DNA supercoiling and compaction into bacterial nucleoid as well as in all DNA-dependent transactions. This small positively charged dimeric protein binds DNA in a non-sequence specific manner promoting DNA super-structures. The majority of HU proteins are highly conserved among bacteria; however, HU protein from Mycoplasma gallisepticum (HUMgal) has multiple amino acid substitutions in the most conserved regions, which are believed to contribute to its specificity to DNA targets unusual for canonical HU proteins...
November 24, 2016: Journal of Biomolecular Structure & Dynamics
Courtney A Thomason, Ariel Leon, Laila T Kirkpatrick, Lisa K Belden, Dana M Hawley
Vertebrate ocular microbiomes are poorly characterized and virtually unexplored in wildlife species. Pathogen defense is considered a key function of microbiomes, but determining microbiome stability during disease is critical for understanding the role of resident microbial communities in infectious disease dynamics. Here, we characterize the ocular bacterial microbiome of house finches (Haemorhous mexicanus), prior to and during experimental infection with an inflammatory ocular disease, Mycoplasmal conjunctivitis, caused by Mycoplasma gallisepticum...
November 21, 2016: Environmental Microbiology
Camir Ricketts, Larissa Pickler, John Maurer, Saravanaraj Ayyampalayam, Maricarmen García, Naola M Ferguson-Noel
Despite attempts to control avian mycoplasmosis through management, vaccination and surveillance, Mycoplasma gallisepticum continues to cause significant morbidity, mortality and economic losses in poultry production. Live attenuated vaccines are commonly used in the poultry industry to control avian mycoplasmosis; unfortunately, some vaccines may revert to virulence and vaccine strains are generally difficult to distinguish from natural field isolates. In order to identify genome differences among vaccine-revertants, vaccine and field isolates, whole genome sequencing of the M...
November 9, 2016: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
Nola J Parsons, Tertius A Gous, Adam M Schaefer, Ralph E T Vanstreels
The African penguin (Spheniscus demersus) is an endangered seabird that breeds along the coast of Namibia and South Africa, and disease surveillance was identified as a priority for its conservation. Aiming for the establishment of baseline data on the presence of potential pathogens in this species, a comprehensive health assessment (blood smear examination, haematology, biochemistry and serology) was conducted on samples obtained from 578 African penguins at 11 breeding colonies and a rehabilitation centre...
September 20, 2016: Onderstepoort Journal of Veterinary Research
Daria Matyushkina, Olga Pobeguts, Ivan Butenko, Anna Vanyushkina, Nicolay Anikanov, Olga Bukato, Daria Evsyutina, Alexandra Bogomazova, Maria Lagarkova, Tatiana Semashko, Irina Garanina, Vladislav Babenko, Maria Vakhitova, Valentina Ladygina, Gleb Fisunov, Vadim Govorun
What strategies do bacteria employ for adaptation to their hosts and are these strategies different for varied hosts? To date, many studies on the interaction of the bacterium and its host have been published. However, global changes in the bacterial cell in the process of invasion and persistence, remain poorly understood. In this study, we demonstrated phase transition of the avian pathogen Mycoplasma gallisepticum upon invasion of the various types of eukaryotic cells (human, chicken, and mouse) which was stable during several passages after isolation of intracellular clones and recultivation in a culture medium...
October 24, 2016: Scientific Reports
L D S Machado, F F D Santos, C K Togashi, D L D C Abreu, J C Pimentel, L Sesti, V L D A Pereira, E R D Nascimento
Mycoplasma gallisepticum causes coughing, ocular and nasal discharge, reduction in feed intake, lower and uneven growth, decline in egg production and quality, and increase in mortality. Among the attenuated vaccination strains, MGF can reduce clinical signs and lesions in layer hens, stimulate immune responses of cellular and humoral basis, act as an instrument of competitive exclusion in relation to field strains, and reduce the use of antimicrobials. This study aimed to investigate the effects of attenuated MG F-strain vaccination on egg quality in 3 groups of 30 hens each, being one control and 2 vaccinated...
October 12, 2016: Poultry Science
G Y Fisunov, D V Evsyutina, V M Govorun
Mycoplasma gallisepticum is a bacterium of class Mollicutes which encompasses wall-less bacteria with significantly reduced genomes. Due to their overall reduction and simplicity mycoplasmas serve as a model of minimal cell and are used for systems biology studies. Here we present raw data on translatome (ribosome-bound mRNA) analysis of Mycoplasma gallisepticum under logarithm growth and heat stress. The data supports the publication of "Ribosomal profiling of Mycoplasma gallisepticum" (G. Y. Fisunov, D. V Evsyutina, A...
December 2016: Data in Brief
Qingchang Hu, Yabo Zhao, Zaiwei Wang, Yue Hou, Dingren Bi, Jianjun Sun, Xiuli Peng
Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG), one of the most pathogenic Mycoplasmas, can cause chronic respiratory disease (CRD) in chickens. It has been suggested that micro-ribonucleic acids (miRNAs) are involved in microbial pathogenesis. However, little is known about the roles of miRNAs in MG infection. Previously, we found by deep sequencing that gga-miR-19a was significantly up-regulated in the lungs of MG-infected chicken embryos. In this work, we confirmed that gga-miR-19a was up-regulated in both MG-infected chicken embryonic lungs and MG-infected DF-1 (chicken embryo fibroblast) cells...
2016: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Yan Zhao, Guyue Cheng, Haihong Hao, Yuanhu Pan, Zhenli Liu, Menghong Dai, Zonghui Yuan
BACKGROUND: The quinoxaline 1,4-di-N-oxides (QdNOs) were known as potent antibacterial agents. For the purpose of evaluating the bioactivity of existing animal-used QdNOs drugs against representative pathogenic microorganism, the representative drugs of quinoxalines including cyadox, mequindox, quinocetone and their metabolites were submitted to the in vitro evaluation for antituberculosis, antimycoplasma, antifungal and antiviral activities. RESULTS: In antituberculosis assays, the prototype compounds were active (MIC = 4 ~ 8 μg/mL) against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv and M...
2016: BMC Veterinary Research
Ahmed M Ammar, Norhan K Abd El-Aziz, Ahlam A Gharib, Hanaa K Ahmed, Amira E Lameay
INTRODUCTION: Avian mycoplasmas impose a significant economic burden to the poultry industry. In recent years, macrolide-resistant Mycoplasma gallisepticum have occasionally been encountered in Egypt. METHODOLOGY: This study was designed to document the involvement of macrolide-resistant M. gallisepticum in respiratory organs of chickens suffering respiratory problems. Concurrently, an exhaustive molecular characterization of the intrinsic resistance of recovered isolates to macrolides was done...
2016: Journal of Infection in Developing Countries
(no author information available yet)
Anaplasma phagocytophilum detected in aborting cows on rough grazingLead poisoning in bullocksPersistent bovine viral diarrhoea virus infection and colisepticaemia in a 20-hour-old calfAbortion due to bovine herpesvirus 1 in a four-year-old cowTickborne fever in lambsInfectious sinusitis due to Mycoplasma gallisepticum in pheasants These are among matters discussed in the disease surveillance report for May 2016 from SAC Consulting: Veterinary Services (SAC C VS).
August 20, 2016: Veterinary Record
Hung-Chih Kuo, Dan-Yuan Lo, Chiou-Lin Chen, Yun-Long Tsai, Jia-Fong Ping, Chien-Hsien Lee, Pei-Yu Alison Lee, Hsiao-Fen Grace Chang
Mycoplasma synoviae (MS), causing respiratory diseases, arthritis, and eggshell apex abnormalities in avian species, is an important pathogen in the poultry industry. Implementation of a biosecurity plan is important in MS infection management. Working on a field-deployable POCKIT™ device, an insulated isothermal polymerase chain reaction (iiPCR) assay has a potential for timely MS detection on the farm. The MS iiPCR assay had limit of detection 95% of about 9 genome equivalents by testing serial dilutions of a standard DNA...
July 7, 2016: Poultry Science
Indu S Panicker, Anna Kanci, Philip F Markham, Glenn F Browning
The significance of the amino acid adjacent to the amino terminal cysteine of lipoproteins, the +2 amino acid, has been well documented in E. coli and there have also been limited studies on Gram-positive bacteria. In this study we investigated whether there was any preference for specific residues and any targeting role attributable to different residues following the cysteine at the amino terminus in lipoproteins of Mycoplasma gallisepticum. There were found to be distinct preferences in this position that vary considerably from the preferences seen in Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria...
August 2016: Microbiology
David H Ley, Dana M Hawley, Steven J Geary, André A Dhondt
Sampling wild birds for mycoplasma culture has been key to the study of House Finch (Haemorhous mexicanus) conjunctivitis, yielding isolates of Mycoplasma gallisepticum spanning the temporal and geographic ranges of disease from emergence to endemicity. Faced with the challenges and costs of sample collection over time and from remote locations for submission to our laboratory for mycoplasma culture, protocols evolved to achieve a practical optimum. Herein we report making M. gallisepticum isolates from House Finches almost every year since the disease emerged in 1994, and we now have 227 isolates from 17 states...
July 2016: Journal of Wildlife Diseases
Nan Zhang, Xiaoyan Gu, Xiaomei Ye, Xun Wu, Bingxu Zhang, Longfei Zhang, Xiangguang Shen, Hongxia Jiang, Huanzhong Ding
Mycoplasma gallisepticum is one of the most important pathogens that cause chronic respiratory disease in chicken. This study investigated the antibacterial activity of doxycycline against M. gallisepticum strain S6. In static time-killing studies with constant antibiotic concentrations [0-64 minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC)], M. gallisepticum colonies were quantified and kill rates were calculated to estimate the drug effect. The half-life of doxycycline in chicken was 6.51 ± 0.63 h. An in vitro dynamic model (the drug concentrations are fluctuant) was also established and two half-lives of 6...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
Hicham Sid, Sandra Hartmann, Henning Petersen, Martin Ryll, Silke Rautenschlein
Multiple respiratory infections have a significant impact on health and economy. Pathogenesis of co-infecting viruses and bacteria and their interaction with mucosal surfaces are poorly characterized. In this study we established a co-infection model based on pre-incubation of tracheal organ cultures (TOC) with Mycoplasma (M.) gallisepticum and a subsequent infection with avian influenza virus (AIV). Mycoplasma gallisepticum modified the pathogenesis of AIV as demonstrated in TOC of two different avian species (chickens and turkeys)...
May 2016: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
A M Ammar, N K Abd El-Aziz, S Abd El Wanis, N R Bakry
Acute respiratory tract infections are leading causes of morbidity in poultry farms allover the world. Six pathogens; Escherichia coli, Mycoplasma gallisepticum, Staphylococcus aureus, Pasteurella multocida, Mannheimia haemolytica and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were involved in respiratory infections in poultry. Herein, conventional identification procedures and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) were applied for detection of the most common respiratory bacterial pathogens in clinical specimens of poultry obtained from 53 Egyptian farms with various respiratory problems and the results were compared statistically...
2016: Cellular and Molecular Biology
G Y Fisunov, D V Evsyutina, T A Semashko, A A Arzamasov, V A Manuvera, A V Letarov, V M Govorun
Mollicutes (mycoplasmas) feature a significant loss of known regulators of gene expression. Here, we identified the recognition site of the MraZ-family regulator of Mycoplasma gallisepticum, which is conserved in many species of different clades within class Mollicutes. The MraZ binding site is AAAGTG[T/G], in the promoter of mraZ gene it forms a series of direct repeats with a structure (AAAGTG[T/G]N3)k, where k = 3 most frequently. MraZ binds to a single repeat as an octamer complex. MraZ can also bind a single binding site or a series of repeats with different spacer lengths (2-4 nt); thus, it may play a role in the regulation of multiple operons in Mollicutes...
June 2016: Biochimie
Malgorzata Gbylik-Sikorska, Andrzej Posyniak, Tomasz Sniegocki, Bartosz Sell, Anna Gajda, Anna Sawicka, Monika Olszewska-Tomczyk, Tomasz Bladek, Grzegorz Tomczyk, Jan Zmudzki
Most of antibiotics, administrated in the treatment of poultry diseases are dissolved in drinking water, and it can lead to water supply systems contamination, especially when the regular cleaning is not using. This situation can lead to unconscious administration of low doses of antibiotics to untreated animals. The aim of this study was to clarify the impact of the exposure of enrofloxacin traces (500 μg l(-1)) to doxycycline pharmacokinetics in healthy and experimentally Mycoplasma gallisepticum infected broiler chickens...
April 2016: Food and Chemical Toxicology
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