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Mycoplasma gallisepticum

Spencer A Leigh, Jeff D Evans, Stephanie D Collier, Scott L Branton
Mycoplasma gallisepticum infection can lead to major financial losses for poultry producers. Control of M. gallisepticum infection in the layer industry is generally obtained through vaccination due to the nature of the multi-aged flocks in the facilities. Live vaccines can provide significant protection from the pathogenic effects of M. gallisepticum infection. However, differing management practices, including vaccination procedures, can lead to significant variations in the efficacy of the same vaccine. The site of vaccine deposition has been shown to be one important factor significantly influencing the vaccination outcome...
May 18, 2018: Poultry Science
Peng Li, Jian Xu, Hong-Mei Rao, Xia Li, Yun-Ke Zhang, Fei Jiang, Wen-Xue Wu
MGA_0676 has been characterized as a Mycoplasma gallisepticum nuclease that can induce apoptosis of chicken cells. However, the mechanism by which MGA_0676 induces apoptosis has remained unclear. In this study, we evaluated MGA_0676-induced apoptosis and internalization in immortalized chicken embryo fibroblasts (DF-1) and cancer cell lines. The internalization of MGA_0676 was proven through caveolin-mediated endocytosis by blocking the endocytosis with specific inhibitors or with siRNA. We identified the Thif domain of NEDD8-activating enzyme E1 regulatory subunit (NAE) in DF-1 as the target region interacting with the SNC domain of MGA_0676...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Yabo Zhao, Kang Zhang, Mengyun Zou, Yingfei Sun, Xiuli Peng
Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) is the most economically significant mycoplasma pathogen of poultry that causes chronic respiratory disease (CRD) in chickens. Although miRNAs have been identified as a major regulator effect on inflammatory response, it is largely unclear how they regulate MG-induced inflammation. The aim of this study was to investigate the functional roles of gga-miR-451 and identify downstream targets regulated by gga-miR-451 in MG infection of chicken. We found that the expression of gga-miR-451 was significantly up-regulated during MG infection of chicken embryo fibroblast cells (DF-1) and chicken embryonic lungs...
April 13, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Molly Staley, Camille Bonneaud, Kevin J McGraw, Carol M Vleck, Geoffrey E Hill
In 1994, an endemic poultry pathogen, Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG), was identified as the causative agent of a novel disease in house finches ( Haemorhous mexicanus). After an initial outbreak in Maryland, MG spread rapidly throughout eastern North American populations of house finches. Subsequently, MG spread slowly through the northern interior of North America and then into the Pacific Northwest, finally reaching California in 2006. Until 2009, there were no reports of MG in the southwestern United States east of California...
March 2018: Avian Diseases
T Derksen, R Lampron, R Hauck, M Pitesky, R A Gallardo
Raising backyard chickens is an ever-growing hobby in the United States. These flocks can be a substrate for respiratory disease amplification and transmission to commercial facilities. Five hundred fifty-four chickens from 41 backyard flocks were sampled in this study. ELISA kits were used to detect antibodies against avian influenza (AI), infectious laryngotracheitis (ILT), Newcastle disease (ND), infectious bronchitis (IB), Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale (ORT), Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG), and Mycoplasma synoviae (MS)...
March 2018: Avian Diseases
Modupeore Adeyemi, Dauda G Bwala, Celia Abolnik
Mycoplasma gallinaceum is not among the most pathogenic mycoplasmas affecting poultry, but its continuous re-isolation from flocks in South Africa displaying typical signs of mycoplasmosis prompted us to revisit its role in respiratory disease. Specific-pathogen-free white leghorn chickens were co-challenged with either M. gallinaceum (MGC) and QX-like infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), or the more virulent Mycoplasm gallisepticum (MG) and IBV. No clinical signs were observed apart from sneezing in chickens challenged with IBV, MGC + IBV, and MG + IBV...
March 2018: Avian Diseases
Anna Kanci, Dinidu S Wijesurendra, Nadeeka K Wawegama, Gregory J Underwood, Amir H Noormohammadi, Philip F Markham, Glenn F Browning
Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) is an important pathogen of poultry worldwide that causes chronic respiratory disease (CRD) in chickens and infectious sinusitis in turkeys. Vaxsafe MG (strain ts-11) is a live attenuated temperature sensitive vaccine that has been proven to be effective in controlling CRD in chickens, but it is not efficacious in turkeys. The gapA gene, which encodes a mature cytadhesin protein with a molecular weight of approximately 105 kDa, is not expressed in strain ts-11 because a 20 base pair reiterated sequence introduces a frame shift and causes premature truncation of the translated peptide...
March 26, 2018: Vaccine
Ivan Butenko, Olga Pobeguts, Daria Matyushkina, Sergey Kovalchuk, Nickolay Anikanov, Gleb Fisunov, Vadim Govorun
The data reported is a large-scale untargeted proteome profile for Mycoplasma gallisepticum - a model organism for studying both regulation in genome-reduced bacteria and intracellular infection (Mazin et al., 2014) [1,2]. While seminal whole-proteome studies were performed on Mycoplasma genitalium [3] and a few proteome datasets are available for Mycoplasma pneumoniae , no data-independent (DIA) proteome profiling has been published for bacteria of Mycoplasma genus. Since DIA-based proteome profiling allows to extract evidence on presence and quantity of any protein of interest in a post-acquisition manner and the data presented is describing a model which is suitable to study both proteome regulation in general and details of mycoplasma infection process [4], the proteome profiling data presented here is of value for deep annotation...
February 2018: Data in Brief
Sahnzi C Moyers, James S Adelman, Damien R Farine, Courtney A Thomason, Dana M Hawley
Anthropogenic food provisioning of wildlife can alter the frequency of contacts among hosts and between hosts and environmental sources of pathogens. Despite the popularity of garden bird feeding, few studies have addressed how feeders influence host contact rates and disease dynamics. We experimentally manipulated feeder density in replicate aviaries containing captive, pathogen-naive, groups of house finches ( Haemorhous mexicanus ) and continuously tracked behaviours at feeders using radio-frequency identification devices...
May 5, 2018: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
Arietta E Fleming-Davies, Paul D Williams, André A Dhondt, Andrew P Dobson, Wesley M Hochachka, Ariel E Leon, David H Ley, Erik E Osnas, Dana M Hawley
Immune memory evolved to protect hosts from reinfection, but incomplete responses that allow future reinfection may inadvertently select for more-harmful pathogens. We present empirical and modeling evidence that incomplete immunity promotes the evolution of higher virulence in a natural host-pathogen system. We performed sequential infections of house finches with Mycoplasma gallisepticum strains of various levels of virulence. Virulent bacterial strains generated stronger host protection against reinfection than less virulent strains and thus excluded less virulent strains from infecting previously exposed hosts...
March 2, 2018: Science
Ying Yu, Ying Chen, Yang Wang, Yuan Li, Lin Zhang, Jiuqing Xin
Mycoplasma gallisepticum (M. gallisepticum) is one of the most important pathogens that cause chronic respiratory disease in chickens. M. gallisepticum-derived lipid-associated membrane proteins (LAMPs) are thought to be one of the major factors in mycoplasma pathogenesis and are potent inducers of the host innate immune response. However, the interaction of pathogenic M. gallisepticum-derived LAMPs with Toll-like receptors (TLRs) and the signaling pathways responsible for activating inflammation and NF-κB have not been fully elucidated...
April 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
A Limsatanun, J Sasipreeyajan, S Pakpinyo
Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) causes respiratory signs and economic losses in the poultry industry. MG vaccination is one of the effective prevention and control measures that have been used around the world. Our previous study demonstrated that chitosan-adjuvanted MG bacterin could effectively reduce pathological lesions induced by MG and that chitosan could be used as an adjuvant in MG bacterin. The present study determining the efficacy of MG bacterins against the Thai MG strain was based on vaccine programs...
February 15, 2018: Poultry Science
Dauda G Bwala, Ponman Solomon, Neil Duncan, Daniel B R Wandrag, Celia Abolnik
Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) is the primary cause of chronic respiratory disease in poultry. We investigated the protective efficacy of the live-attenuated ts-11 and 6/85 MG vaccines against a local MG strain and, in order to enhance signs and mimic a typical field situation, we co-infected birds with a virulent strain of QX-like infectious bronchitis virus (IBV). Both vaccines showed similar ability to protect infected chickens from clinical signs, although ts-11 performed slightly better. Despite the lower protection against clinical disease, 6/85-vaccinated birds had significantly (P ≤ 0...
June 2018: Avian Pathology: Journal of the W.V.P.A
Michal Vinkler, Ariel E Leon, Laila Kirkpatrick, Rami A Dalloul, Dana M Hawley
The recent emergence of the poultry bacterial pathogen Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG) in free-living house finches ( Haemorhous mexicanus ), which causes mycoplasmal conjunctivitis in this passerine bird species, resulted in a rapid coevolutionary arms-race between MG and its novel avian host. Despite extensive research on the ecological and evolutionary dynamics of this host-pathogen system over the past two decades, the immunological responses of house finches to MG infection remain poorly understood. We developed seven new probe-based one-step quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction assays to investigate mRNA expression of house finch cytokine genes ( IL1B, IL6, IL10, IL18, TGFB2, TNFSF15 , and CXCLi2 , syn...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Guillaume Croville, Charlotte Foret, Pauline Heuillard, Alexis Senet, Mattias Delpont, Mohammed Mouahid, Mariette F Ducatez, Faouzi Kichou, Jean-Luc Guerin
Respiratory syndromes (RS) are among the most significant pathological conditions in edible birds and are caused by complex coactions of pathogens and environmental factors. In poultry, low pathogenic avian influenza A viruses, metapneumoviruses, infectious bronchitis virus, infectious laryngotracheitis virus, Mycoplasma spp. Escherichia coli and/or Ornithobacterium rhinotracheale in turkeys are considered as key co-infectious agents of RS. Aspergillus sp., Pasteurella multocida, Avibacterium paragallinarum or Chlamydia psittaci may also be involved in respiratory outbreaks...
February 27, 2018: Avian Pathology: Journal of the W.V.P.A
André A Dhondt, Keila V Dhondt, Wesley M Hochachka, David H Ley, Dana M Hawley
After recovery, house finches ( Haemorhous mexicanus) reinfected with the same Mycoplasma gallisepticum strain remain partially resistant to reinfection for at least 14 mo in that they recover from reinfection much more rapidly than do Mycoplasma gallisepticum-naïve birds. To test the response of birds to reinfection with a heterologous strain we performed two experiments. In a first experiment we exposed birds to one of three strains that differed in virulence. After they had recovered all were reinfected with the most virulent-strain available at the time of the experiment...
December 2017: Avian Diseases
Molly Staley, Geoffrey E Hill, Chloe C Josefson, Jonathan W Armbruster, Camille Bonneaud
While direct contact may sometimes be sufficient to allow a pathogen to jump into a new host species, in other cases fortuitously adaptive mutations that arise in the original donor host are also necessary. Viruses have been the focus of most host shift studies, so less is known about the importance of ecological versus evolutionary processes to successful bacterial host shifts. Here we tested whether direct contact with the novel host was sufficient to enable the mid-1990s jump of the bacterium Mycoplasma gallisepticum from domestic poultry into house finches ( Haemorhous mexicanus )...
January 8, 2018: Infection and Immunity
James S Adelman, Corinne Mayer, Dana M Hawley
Infectious diseases can cause host mortality through direct or indirect mechanisms, including altered behavior. Diminished anti-predator behavior is among the most-studied causes of indirect mortality during infection, particularly for systems in which a parasite's life-cycle requires transmission from prey to predator. Significantly less work has examined whether directly-transmitted parasites and pathogens also reduce anti-predator behaviors. Here we test whether the directly-transmitted bacterial pathogen, Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG), reduces responses to predation-related stimuli in house finches ( Haemorhous mexicanus )...
April 2017: Journal of Avian Biology
Courtney A Thomason, Nathan Mullen, Lisa K Belden, Meghan May, Dana M Hawley
There is growing evidence that symbiotic microbes play key roles in host defense, but less is known about how symbiotic microbes mediate pathogen-induced damage to hosts. Here, we use a natural wildlife disease system, house finches and the conjunctival bacterial pathogen Mycoplasma gallisepticum (MG), to experimentally examine the impact of the ocular microbiome on host damage and pathogen virulence factors during infection. We disrupted the ocular bacterial community of healthy finches using an antibiotic that MG is intrinsically resistant to, then inoculated antibiotic- and sham-treated birds with MG...
November 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
Dmitri Kamashev, Yulia Agapova, Sergey Rastorguev, Anna A Talyzina, Konstantin M Boyko, Dmitry A Korzhenevskiy, Anna Vlaskina, Raif Vasilov, Vladimir I Timofeev, Tatiana V Rakitina
BACKGROUND: The structure and function of bacterial nucleoid are controlled by histone-like proteins of HU/IHF family, omnipresent in bacteria and also founding archaea and some eukaryotes.HU protein binds dsDNA without sequence specificity and avidly binds DNA structures with propensity to be inclined such as forks, three/four-way junctions, nicks, overhangs and DNA bulges. Sequence comparison of thousands of known histone-like proteins from diverse bacteria phyla reveals relation between HU/IHF sequence, DNA-binding properties and other protein features...
2017: PloS One
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