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Glucocorticoid deficiency

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905124/assessment-of-early-atherosclerosis-and-left-ventricular-dysfunction-in-children-with-21-hydroxylase-deficiency
#1
Rahmi Özdemir, Hüseyin Anil Korkmaz, Mehmet Küçük, Cem Karadeniz, Timur Meşe, Behzat Özkan
AIM: We analysed 25 children with 21-hydroxylase deficiency who received glucocorticoid and/or mineralocorticoid treatment for at least 12 months to determine the effects of the disease and its treatment on vascular structures and ventricular function. METHODS: Twenty-five patients with 21-hydroxylase-deficient congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) and 25 control subjects were enrolled into this observational, cross-sectional study. The patients were investigated in terms of fasting blood glucose and insulin; fasting serum lipid profile; serum 17-hydroxyprogesterone; dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate; androstenedione; and adrenocorticotropic hormone...
November 7, 2016: Clinical Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898652/natural-mineral-rich-water-ingestion-by-ovariectomized-fructose-fed-sprague-dawley-rats-effects-on-sirtuin-1-and-glucocorticoid-signaling-pathways
#2
Jugal Kishore Das, Milton Severo, Cidália Dionísio Pereira, Emília Patrício, José Magalhães, Rosário Monteiro, Delminda Neves, Maria João Martins
OBJECTIVE: Prevention or induction of metabolic disorders and obesity depend on estrogen signaling and/or exogenous factors, such as mineral content in diet. The protective effects of a Portuguese natural mineral-rich water against the induction of metabolic syndrome in fructose-fed male Sprague-Dawley rats have been reported. The present study was designed to assess the impact of this mineral-rich water on fructose-fed estrogen-deficient female Sprague-Dawley rats. METHODS: Ovariectomized rats had access to tap (TWO) or mineral-rich (MWO) waters, with and without 10% fructose (10-wk treatment)...
November 28, 2016: Menopause: the Journal of the North American Menopause Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885053/11%C3%AE-hydroxysteroid-dehydrogenase-1-deficiency-alters-the-gut-microbiome-response-to-western-diet
#3
Jethro S Johnson, Monica N Opiyo, Marian Thomson, Karim Gharbi, Jonathan R Seckl, Andreas Heger, Karen Chapman
The enzyme 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (11β-HSD) interconverts active glucocorticoids and their intrinsically inert 11-keto forms. The type 1 isozyme, 11β-HSD1, predominantly reactivates glucocorticoids in vivo and can also metabolise bile acids. 11β-HSD1-deficient mice show altered inflammatory responses and are protected against the adverse metabolic effects of a high fat diet. However, the influence of 11β-HSD1 on the composition of the gut microbiome has not previously been investigated. We used high-throughput 16S rDNA amplicon sequencing to characterize the gut microbiome of 11β-HSD1-deficient and C57Bl/6 control mice, fed either a standard chow diet or a cholesterol and fat-enriched 'western' diet...
November 24, 2016: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871077/impact-of-annexin-a-7-deficiency-on-fgf23-plasma-concentrations
#4
Anja T Umbach, Omar El-Attar, Dong Luo, Hajar Fakhri, Rosi Bissinger, Florian Lang
BACKGROUND/AIMS: The release of fibroblast growth factor FGF23, a powerful regulator of 1,25(OH)2D3 formation and mineral metabolism, is stimulated by store-operated Ca2+ entry (SOCE), which is accomplished by the pore forming Ca2+ release activated channel protein Orai1. Regulators of Orai1 and thus FGF23 release include serum & glucocorticoid inducible kinase SGK1, a kinase up-regulated by glucocorticosteroids. Some effects of glucocorticoids require the presence of annexin A7, such as suppression of prostaglandin E2 in gastric glands...
November 21, 2016: Kidney & Blood Pressure Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870896/m30-antagonizes-indoleamine-2-3-dioxygenase-activation-and-neurodegeneration-induced-by-corticosterone-in-the-hippocampus
#5
Chun-Sing Lam, George Lim Tipoe, Johnny Kong-Ching Wong, Moussa B H Youdim, Man-Lung Fung
Monoamine oxidases (MAO), downstream targets of glucocorticoid, maintain the turnover and homeostasis of monoamine neurotransmitters; yet, its pathophysiological role in monoamine deficiency, oxidative stress and neuroinflammation remains controversial. Protective effects of M30, a brain selective MAO inhibitor with iron-chelating antioxidant properties, have been shown in models of neurodegenerative diseases. This study aims to examine the neuroprotective mechanism of M30 against depressive-like behavior induced by corticosterone (CORT)...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861175/transient-receptor-potential-vanilloid-4-and-serum-glucocorticoid-regulated-kinase-1-are-critical-mediators-of-lung-injury-in-overventilated-mice-in-vivo
#6
Laura Michalick, Lasti Erfinanda, Ulrike Weichelt, Markus van der Giet, Wolfgang Liedtke, Wolfgang M Kuebler
BACKGROUND: Mechanical ventilation can cause lung endothelial barrier failure and inflammation cumulating in ventilator-induced lung injury. Yet, underlying mechanotransduction mechanisms remain unclear. Here, the authors tested the hypothesis that activation of the mechanosensitive Ca channel transient receptor potential vanilloid (TRPV4) by serum glucocorticoid-regulated kinase (SGK) 1 may drive the development of ventilator-induced lung injury. METHODS: Mice (total n = 54) were ventilated for 2 h with low (7 ml/kg) or high (20 ml/kg) tidal volumes and assessed for signs of ventilator-induced lung injury...
November 18, 2016: Anesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859809/forebrain-specific-transgene-rescue-of-11%C3%AE-hsd1-associates-with-impaired-spatial-memory-and-reduced-hippocampal-bdnf-mrna-levels-in-aged-11%C3%AE-hsd1-deficient-mice
#7
Sarah Caughey, Anjanette P Harris, Jonathan R Seckl, Megan C Holmes, Joyce L W Yau
Mice lacking the intracellular glucocorticoid-regenerating enzyme 11β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (11β-HSD1) are protected from age-related spatial memory deficits. 11β-HSD1 is expressed predominantly in brain, liver and adipose tissue. Reduced glucocorticoid levels in brain in the absence of 11β-HSD1 may underlie the improved memory in aged 11β-HSD1 deficient mice. However, the improved glucose tolerance, insulin sensitization and cardio-protective lipid profile associated with reduced peripheral glucocorticoid regeneration may potentially contribute to the cognitive phenotype of aged 11β-HSD1 deficient mice...
November 17, 2016: Journal of Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27856527/role-of-glucocorticoid-receptor-and-pregnane-x-receptor-in-dexamethasone-induction-of-rat-hepatic-aryl-hydrocarbon-receptor-nuclear-translocator-and-nadph-cytochrome-p450-oxidoreductase
#8
Sarah R Hunter, Alex Vonk, Anne K Mullen Grey, David S Riddick
The aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) nuclear translocator (ARNT), as the AHR's heterodimerization partner, and NADPH-cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (POR), as the key electron donor for all microsomal P450s, are independent and indispensable components in the adaptive and toxic responses to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Expression of both ARNT and POR in rat liver is induced by dexamethasone (DEX), a synthetic glucocorticoid known to activate both the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) and the pregnane X receptor (PXR)...
November 16, 2016: Drug Metabolism and Disposition: the Biological Fate of Chemicals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834956/a-bak-dependent-mitochondrial-amplification-step-contributes-to-smac-mimetic-glucocorticoid-induced-necroptosis
#9
Katharina Rohde, Lara Kleinesudeik, Stefanie Roesler, Oliver Löwe, Juliana Heidler, Katrin Schröder, Ilka Wittig, Stefan Dröse, Simone Fulda
Necroptosis is a form of programmed cell death that critically depends on RIP3 and MLKL. However, the contribution of mitochondria to necroptosis is still poorly understood. In the present study, we discovered that mitochondrial perturbations play a critical role in Smac mimetic/Dexamethasone (Dexa)-induced necroptosis independently of death receptor ligands. We demonstrate that the Smac mimetic BV6 and Dexa cooperate to trigger necroptotic cell death in acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) cells that are deficient in caspase activation due to absent caspase-8 expression or pharmacological inhibition by the caspase inhibitor zVAD...
November 11, 2016: Cell Death and Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27829137/tumor-induced-il-6-reprograms-host-metabolism-to-suppress-anti-tumor-immunity
#10
Thomas R Flint, Tobias Janowitz, Claire M Connell, Edward W Roberts, Alice E Denton, Anthony P Coll, Duncan I Jodrell, Douglas T Fearon
In patients with cancer, the wasting syndrome, cachexia, is associated with caloric deficiency. Here, we describe tumor-induced alterations of the host metabolic response to caloric deficiency that cause intratumoral immune suppression. In pre-cachectic mice with transplanted colorectal cancer or autochthonous pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA), we find that IL-6 reduces the hepatic ketogenic potential through suppression of PPARalpha, the transcriptional master regulator of ketogenesis. When these mice are challenged with caloric deficiency, the resulting relative hypoketonemia triggers a marked rise in glucocorticoid levels...
November 8, 2016: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27810492/molecular-initiating-events-of-the-intersex-phenotype-low-dose-exposure-to-17%C3%AE-ethinylestradiol-rapidly-regulates-molecular-networks-associated-with-gonad-differentiation-in-the-adult-fathead-minnow-testis
#11
April Feswick, Jennifer R Loughery, Meghan A Isaacs, Kelly R Munkittrick, Christopher J Martyniuk
Intersex, or the presence of oocytes in the testes, has been documented in fish following exposure to wastewater effluent and estrogenic compounds. However, the molecular networks underlying the intersex condition are not completely known. To address this, we exposed male fathead minnows to a low, environmentally-relevant concentration of 17alpha-ethinylestradiol (EE2) (15ng/L) and measured the transcriptome response in the testis after 96h to identify early molecular initiating events that may proceed the intersex condition...
December 2016: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27789393/luman-creb3-is-a-key-regulator-of-glucocorticoid-mediated-stress-responses
#12
Jenna Penney, Ari Mendell, Minghua Zeng, Khoa Tran, Jennifer Lymer, Patricia V Turner, Elena Choleris, Neil MacLusky, Ray Lu
Altered glucocorticoid sensitivity is believed to contribute to a number of human diseases, including inflammatory and autoimmune conditions as well as disorders characterized by abnormal hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA) function. LUMAN (or CREB3), originally identified through its interaction with a cell cycle regulator HCFC1, is an endoplasmic reticulum membrane-bound transcription factor that is involved in the unfolded protein response. Here we demonstrate that LUMAN changes the glucocorticoid response by modulating the expression of the glucocorticoid receptor leading to an overall increase in GR activity...
October 24, 2016: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27777311/glucocorticoid-receptor-accelerates-but-is-dispensable-for-adipogenesis
#13
Young-Kwon Park, Kai Ge
Dexamethasone (DEX), a synthetic ligand for glucocorticoid receptor (GR), is routinely used to stimulate adipogenesis in culture. GR-depleted preadipocytes show adipogenesis defects one week after induction of differentiation. However, it has remained unclear whether GR is required for adipogenesis in vivo By deleting GR in precursors of brown adipocytes, we found unexpectedly that GR is dispensable for brown adipose tissue development in mice. In culture, GR-deficient primary or immortalized white and brown preadipocytes showed severely delayed adipogenesis one week after induction of differentiation...
October 24, 2016: Molecular and Cellular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27750352/dynamics-of-adrenocorticotropin-after-application-of-metyrapone
#14
S Noe, A von Werder, R Iakoubov, H Schneider, M Thaler, P Luppa, B Neu
Purpose: To investigate the kinetics of adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) following oral metyrapone administration and describe differences between ACTH-deficient and non-ACTH-deficient subjects. Methods: Patients from a tertiary endocrine center at a University Hospital in Munich, Germany, were tested for secondary adrenal insufficiency in a regular patient care setting. Metyrapone (Metopirone, HRA Pharma, France) was administered with a dosage of 40 mg/kg bodyweight at 8 a.m. Consecutive levels of ACTH were determined at 0, 60, 120, 180, and 240 min...
October 17, 2016: Experimental and Clinical Endocrinology & Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27744052/dissociation-of-adrenocorticotropin-and-corticosterone-as-well-as-aldosterone-secretion-during-stress-of-hypoglycemia-in-vasopressin-deficient-rats
#15
János Varga, Szilamér Ferenczi, Krisztina J Kovács, Ágnes Csáno, Barbora Prokopova, Daniela Jezova, Dóra Zelena
AIMS: In vasopressin-deficient rat pups stressor-induced adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) and corticosterone elevations markedly dissociate. We have shown recently that during the postnatal period mineralocorticoid secretion is more sensitive to stressor exposure than that of glucocorticoids. We have therefore hypothesized that in vasopressin-deficient pups during hypoglycemia, a stressor triggering aldosterone release mainly via ACTH, aldosterone release will change in parallel with ACTH. An additional aim was to reveal at which stage of the development occurs the shift from aldosterone to corticosterone as primarily stressor-induced adrenocortical hormone...
October 12, 2016: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27741157/the-role-of-vitamin-d-in-allergic-diseases-in-children
#16
Michele Miraglia Del Giudice, Annalisa Allegorico
The role of vitamin D in calcium and phosphate homeostasis is well known; however, in addition to traditional functions, vitamin D modulates a variety of processes, and evidence shows that it has an important role in different allergic diseases such as asthma, atopic dermatitis, and food allergy. Vitamin D acts by binding to the vitamin D receptor, which is present in a variety of tissues; for this reason it is considered a hormone. One of the most important functions is to modulate the immune system response, both innate and adaptive, by suppressing Th2-type response and increasing natural killer cells...
November 2016: Journal of Clinical Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27737328/long-term-follow-up-of-a-female-with-congenital-adrenal-hyperplasia-due-to-p450-oxidoreductase-deficiency
#17
Beatriz D S F Bonamichi, Stella L M Santiago, Débora R Bertola, Chong A Kim, Nivaldo Alonso, Berenice B Mendonca, Tania A S S Bachega, Larissa G Gomes
P450 oxidoreductase deficiency (PORD) is a variant of congenital adrenal hyperplasia that is caused by POR gene mutations. The POR gene encodes a flavor protein that transfers electrons from nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) to all microsomal cytochrome P450 type II (including 21-hydroxylase, 17α-hydroxylase 17,20 lyase and aromatase), which is fundamental for their enzymatic activity. POR mutations cause variable impairments in steroidogenic enzyme activities that result in wide phenotypic variability ranging from 46,XX or 46,XY disorders of sexual differentiation, glucocorticoid deficiency, with or without skeletal malformations similar to Antley-Bixler syndrome to asymptomatic newborns diagnosed during neonatal screening test...
October 2016: Archives of Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27706599/microrna-338-3p-inhibits-glucocorticoid-induced-osteoclast-formation-through-rankl-targeting
#18
X H Zhang, G L Geng, B Su, C P Liang, F Wang, J C Bao
The differentiation deficiencies of osteoclast precursors (pre-OCs) may contribute to osteoporosis. Research on osteoporosis has recently focused on microRNAs (miRNAs) that play crucial roles in pre-OC differentiation. In the current study, we aimed to analyze the expression and function of the glucocorticoid (GC)-associated miRNA-338-3p (miR-338-3p) in osteoclast formation. We found that dexamethasone induced osteoclast differentiation and inhibited miR-338-3p expression. Overexpression of an miR-338-3p mimic in osteoclast precursor cells attenuated GC-induced osteoclast formation and bone resorption, whereas inhibition of miR-338-3p reversed these effects...
August 26, 2016: Genetics and Molecular Research: GMR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27704369/development-of-metabolic-syndrome-associated-to-cancer-therapy-review
#19
REVIEW
Stephania Casco, Elena Soto-Vega
Long-term childhood cancer survivors are at great risk of developing late adverse effects after treatment, such as, reduced growth, obesity, decreased fertility, high blood pressure, cardiovascular diseases, impaired glucose, another form of cancer, among others organ dysfunctions, some of them are part of the metabolic syndrome. Metabolic syndrome and cancer connection is still not entirely understood, but there are some notions about it. Metabolic alterations produced during childhood cancer are more likely determined by treatments like radiotherapy, chemotherapy, glucocorticoids therapy, and surgery...
December 2016: Hormones & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27688922/delirious-mania-associated-with-autoimmune-gastrothyroidal-syndrome-of-a-mid-life-female-the-role-of-hashimoto-encephalopathy-and-a-3-year-follow-up-including-serum-autoantibody-levels
#20
Udo Bonnet, Claudia Selle, Ralf Kuhlmann
We report the case study of a 57-year-old Caucasian female with steroid-responsive encephalopathy associated with autoimmune thyroiditis (SREAT), commonly termed Hashimoto encephalopathy (HE). This presentation includes one of the longest lasting follow-up studies of HE considering the neuropsychiatric symptoms (here delirium, mania, and EEG-slowing) and their relation to serum autoantibody levels. Antithyroid-peroxidase autoantibodies, the hallmark of autoimmune thyroiditis, were found in the serum and also in the cerebrospinal fluid...
2016: Case Reports in Psychiatry
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