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Congenital adrenal hypoplasia

Beatriz D S F Bonamichi, Stella L M Santiago, Débora R Bertola, Chong A Kim, Nivaldo Alonso, Berenice B Mendonca, Tania A S S Bachega, Larissa G Gomes
P450 oxidoreductase deficiency (PORD) is a variant of congenital adrenal hyperplasia that is caused by POR gene mutations. The POR gene encodes a flavor protein that transfers electrons from nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) to all microsomal cytochrome P450 type II (including 21-hydroxylase, 17α-hydroxylase 17,20 lyase and aromatase), which is fundamental for their enzymatic activity. POR mutations cause variable impairments in steroidogenic enzyme activities that result in wide phenotypic variability ranging from 46,XX or 46,XY disorders of sexual differentiation, glucocorticoid deficiency, with or without skeletal malformations similar to Antley-Bixler syndrome to asymptomatic newborns diagnosed during neonatal screening test...
October 2016: Archives of Endocrinology and Metabolism
Carla Bizzarri, Nicole Olivini, Stefania Pedicelli, Romana Marini, Germana Giannone, Paola Cambiaso, Marco Cappa
BACKGROUND: Salt-wasting represents a relatively common cause of emergency admission in infants and may result in life-threatening complications. Neonatal kidneys show low glomerular filtration rate and immaturity of the distal nephron leading to reduced ability to concentrate urine. METHODS: A retrospective chart review was conducted for infants hospitalized in a single Institution from 1(st) January 2006 to 31(st) December 2015. The selection criterion was represented by the referral to the Endocrinology Unit for hyponatremia (serum sodium <130 mEq/L) of suspected endocrine origin at admission...
August 2, 2016: Italian Journal of Pediatrics
Mary B Abraham, Vinutha B Shetty, Fiona McKenzie, Jacqueline Curran
BACKGROUND: The etiology of primary adrenal insufficiency has implications for further management of the condition. CASE CHARACTERISTICS: A 5-year-old boy presented in adrenal crisis with glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid deficiency. OBSERVATION: Investigations confirmed primary adrenal insufficiency and ruled out the common etiologies. Genetic testing identified a novel NR0B1/DAX gene mutation. MESSAGE: A genetic diagnosis in children with primary adrenal insufficiency is useful to provide genetic counselling...
June 8, 2016: Indian Pediatrics
Tanja Švara, Vasilij Cociancich, Katarina Šest, Mitja Gombač, Tomislav Paller, Jože Starič, Cord Drögemüller
BACKGROUND: Hydrops foetalis is defined as excessive fluid accumulation within the foetal extravascular compartments and body cavities. It has been described in human and veterinary medicine, but despite several descriptive studies its aetiology is still not fully clarified. Pulmonary hypoplasia and anasarca (PHA) syndrome is a rare congenital abnormality in cattle that is characterised by hydrops foetalis including extreme subcutaneous oedema (anasarca) and undeveloped or poorly formed lungs (pulmonary hypoplasia)...
June 6, 2016: Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica
Satoshi Narumi, Naoko Amano, Tomohiro Ishii, Noriyuki Katsumata, Koji Muroya, Masanori Adachi, Katsuaki Toyoshima, Yukichi Tanaka, Ryuji Fukuzawa, Kenichi Miyako, Saori Kinjo, Shouichi Ohga, Kenji Ihara, Hirosuke Inoue, Tadamune Kinjo, Toshiro Hara, Miyuki Kohno, Shiro Yamada, Hironaka Urano, Yosuke Kitagawa, Koji Tsugawa, Asumi Higa, Masakazu Miyawaki, Takahiro Okutani, Zenro Kizaki, Hiroyuki Hamada, Minako Kihara, Kentaro Shiga, Tetsuya Yamaguchi, Manabu Kenmochi, Hiroyuki Kitajima, Maki Fukami, Atsushi Shimizu, Jun Kudoh, Shinsuke Shibata, Hideyuki Okano, Noriko Miyake, Naomichi Matsumoto, Tomonobu Hasegawa
Adrenal hypoplasia is a rare, life-threatening congenital disorder. Here we define a new form of syndromic adrenal hypoplasia, which we propose to term MIRAGE (myelodysplasia, infection, restriction of growth, adrenal hypoplasia, genital phenotypes, and enteropathy) syndrome. By exome sequencing and follow-up studies, we identified 11 patients with adrenal hypoplasia and common extra-adrenal features harboring mutations in SAMD9. Expression of the wild-type SAMD9 protein, a facilitator of endosome fusion, caused mild growth restriction in cultured cells, whereas expression of mutants caused profound growth inhibition...
July 2016: Nature Genetics
Zhe Zhang, Ye Feng, Dan Ye, Cheng-jiang Li, Feng-qin Dong, Ying Tong
Congenital X-linked adrenal hypoplasia (AHC) is a rare disease characterized by primary adrenal insufficiency before adolescence and by hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (HHG) during adolescence. In this paper, we present a Chinese family with AHC. Two brothers, misdiagnosed with adrenal insufficiency of unknown etiology at the age of 9, were correctly diagnosed with AHC when delayed puberty, HHG, and testicular defects were observed. We investigated the clinical features and identified the dosage-sensitive sex reversal AHC critical region of the X chromosome gene 1 (DAX-1) mutation in this kindred...
November 2015: Journal of Zhejiang University. Science. B
Mohanraj Sadasivam, Balamurugan Ramatchandirin, Sivasangari Balakrishnan, Chidambaram Prahalathan
OBJECTIVE AND DESIGN: The proinflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) has an inhibitory role in gonadal functions particularly in the steroidogenesis of Leydig cells. A detailed understanding of the mechanisms by which TNF-α regulates testicular steroidogenesis will be helpful in the design of novel clinical interventions for the treatment and prevention of male reproductive disorders. Here, we report that TNF-α-mediated activation of DAX-1 (dosage-sensitive sex reversal adrenal hypoplasia congenital critical region on X chromosome, gene 1) is involved in the inhibition of Leydig cell steroidogenesis...
July 2015: Inflammation Research: Official Journal of the European Histamine Research Society ... [et Al.]
Solveig Heide, Alexandra Afenjar, Patrick Edery, Damien Sanlaville, Boris Keren, Alexandre Rouen, Alinoë Lavillaureix, Capucine Hyon, Diane Doummar, Jean-Pierre Siffroi, Sandra Chantot-Bastaraud
Xp21 continuous gene deletion syndrome is characterized by complex glycerol kinase deficiency (GK), adrenal hypoplasia congenital (NROB1), intellectual disability and/or Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD). The clinical features depend on the size of the deletion, as well as on the number and the nature of the encompassed genes. More than 100 male patients have been reported so far, while only a few cases of symptomatic female carriers have been described. We report here detailed clinical features and X chromosome inactivation analysis in two unrelated female patients with overlapping Xp21 deletions presenting with intellectual disability and inconstant muscular symptoms...
June 2015: European Journal of Medical Genetics
A S Orekhova, P M Rubtsov
Nuclear receptors (NRs) are ligand-activated transcription factors that play an important role in metabolism, homeostasis, differentiation and development regulation. NRs are also involved in pathogenesis of various diseases. For most of NRs natural ligands are known. Ligand-activated NRs bind specific nucleotide sequences in target genes and induce their expression. DAX1 protein is an unusual member of NR superfamily that does not have ligand and lacks typical DNA-binding domain. It was established 20 years ago that DAX1 plays a critical role in regulation of adrenal and gonadal development and in biosynthesis of steroid hormones, however the molecular mechanisms of its action remained not fully understood...
January 2015: Molekuliarnaia Biologiia
Jasmina Durković, Tatjana Milenković, Nils Krone, Silvia Parajes, Bojana Mandić
INTRODUCTION: X-linked adrenal hypoplasia congenita (AHC) is a rare cause of adrenocortical insufficiency. Early postnatal diagnosis may prevent severe hypoglycemia, Addisonian crises and death. Low maternal estriol (E3) levels in the second trimester of pregnancy could indicate the possibility that the fetus suffers from a disorder that causes adrenal insufficiency. Suspicion is based on the fact that E3 originates from dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) synthesized in the fetal adrenals...
November 2014: Srpski Arhiv za Celokupno Lekarstvo
Elise M Brett, Richard J Auchus
OBJECTIVE: The American Association of Clinical Endocrinologists Adrenal Scientific Committee has developed a series of articles to update members on the genetics of adrenal diseases. METHODS: Case presentation, discussion of literature, table, and bullet point conclusions. RESULTS: The genetic mutations associated with several familial causes of adrenal insufficiency have now been identified. The most common ones that will be discussed here include Allgrove syndrome, adrenoleukodystrophy, adrenal hypoplasia congenita, autoimmune polyglandular syndrome type 1, congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH), lipoid CAH, and familial glucocorticoid deficiency...
April 2015: Endocrine Practice
Sinem Ciloglu, Alpay Duran, Hasan Buyukdogan, Ahmet K Yigit
Multiple or supernumerary nostril is a rare congenital anomaly with unknown etiology. The first case was reported by Lindsay as bilateral supernumerary nostrils. Supernumerary nostril cases are mostly unilateral and isolated. They are also reported with other congenital malformations like facial clefts and congenital anomalies like congenital auricular hypoplasia, congenital cataracts, eusophageal atresia and patent ductus arteriosus. Here, we report a case of supernumerary nostril with congenital adrenal hyperplasia...
July 2014: Annals of Maxillofacial Surgery
Giorgio Bolino, Lorenzo Gitto, Serenella Serinelli, Aniello Maiese
Congenital diaphragmatic hernia is a congenital malformation of the diaphragm, resulting in the herniation of the abdominal organs into the thoracic cavity. The most common types of congenital diaphragmatic hernia are Bochdalek hernia (postero-lateral hernia), Morgagni hernia (anterior defect), and diaphragm eventration (abnormal displacement of part or all of an otherwise intact diaphragm into the chest cavity). Congenital diaphragmatic hernia is a life-threatening pathology in infants, and a major cause of death due to pulmonary hypoplasia and pulmonary hypertension...
March 2015: Medico-legal Journal
Elif Özsu, Rahime Gül Yeşiltepe Mutlu, Olcay Işık, Filiz Mine Çizmecioğlu, Şükrü Hatun
IMAGe syndrome is an exceedingly rare condition first described in 1999. Components of the syndrome are intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR), metaphyseal dysplasia, congenital adrenal hypoplasia and genital anomalies. Cases generally present with life-threatening adrenal insufficiency in the neonatal period. Herein, we describe a patient with pronounced IUGR diagnosed with severe hyperpigmentation and adrenal insufficiency in the neonatal term in order to attract the attention to this rare entity.
December 2014: Journal of Clinical Research in Pediatric Endocrinology
Roberta Minari, Alessandra Vottero, Francesco Tassi, Isabella Viani, Tauro Maria Neri, Maria Elisabeth Street, Lucia Ghizzoni, Sergio Bernasconi, Davide Martorana
OBJECTIVE: Congenital adrenal hypoplasia (CAH) is a rare disorder that can be inherited in an X-linked or autosomal recessive pattern. CAH is frequently associated with hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (HHG) with absent or arrested puberty and impaired fertility caused by abnormalities in spermatogenesis. It is estimated that more than 50% of boys with idiopathic adrenal insufficiency have mutations in the NR0B1 gene product, DAX1. CASE REPORT: The proband is a young boy born after an uneventful pregnancy and delivery to non-consanguineous parents...
January 2015: Hormones: International Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism
Donatella Milani, Lidia Pezzani, Silvia Tabano, Monica Miozzo
Genomic imprinting is an epigenetically regulated mechanism leading to parental-origin allele-specific expression. Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome (BWS) is an imprinting disease related to 11p15.5 genetic and epigenetic alterations, among them loss-of-function CDKN1C mutations. Intriguing is that CDKN1C gain-of-function variations were recently found in patients with IMAGe syndrome (intrauterine growth restriction, metaphyseal dysplasia, congenital adrenal hypoplasia, and genital anomalies). BWS and IMAGe share an imprinted mode of inheritance; familial analysis demonstrated the presence of the phenotype exclusively when the mutant CDKN1C allele is inherited from the mother...
2014: Application of Clinical Genetics
Ian L Ross, Graham J Louw
In this mini review, the embryological and functional development of the adrenal glands is presented from a molecular perspective. While acknowledging that this is a highly complex series of events, the processes are described in simple and broad strokes in a single text for the reader who is interested in this field but is not an active researcher. The origin of the adrenal glands is in the mesodermal ridge as early as the fourth week of gestation. Between the eighth and ninth weeks of gestation, the adrenal glands are encapsulated and this results in the presence of a distinct organ...
March 2015: Clinical Anatomy
Hong-Lei Jiang, Dong Xu, Hao Yu, Xu Ma, Guo-Fu Lin, Dong-Yan Ma, Jun-Zhe Jin
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) represents the most common type of liver cancer. DAX1 (dosage-sensitive sex reversal adrenal hypoplasia congenital critical region on X chromosome, gene 1), an atypical member of the nuclear receptor family due to lack of classical DNA-binding domains, has been known for its fundamental roles in the development, especially in the sex determination and steroidogenesis. Previous studies also showed that DAX-1 played a critical role in endocrine and sex steroid-dependent neoplasms such as adrenocortical, pituitary, endometrial, and ovarian tumors...
2014: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Aleksandra Rojek, Maciej Flader, Elzbieta Malecka, Marek Niedziela
OBJECTIVE: X-linked Adrenal Hypoplasia Congenita (AHC) is a rare disorder caused by mutations in NR0B1 (DAX1) gene. DESIGN: We present two boys (cousins) with AHC who came to our attention at the age of 10 days and 15 days, respectively, in a life-threatening state. Laboratory studies in their neonatal periods showed hyponatremia and hyperkalemia. Primary adrenal insufficiency was confirmed, with severely low serum cortisol levels and high plasma ACTH levels. Hydrocortisone therapy with additional saline and glucose infusions were started immediately...
July 2014: Hormones: International Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism
Johari Mohd Ali, Muhammad Yazid Jalaludin, Fatimah Harun
We report a novel NR0B1 mutation in a patient affected with X-linked adrenal hypoplasia congenita (X-AHC). The proband first presented with a generalized convulsion at 11 years, 4 months. His clinical and biochemical presentations were consistent with adrenal insufficiency. His basal 17-hydroxyprogesterone (17-OHP) level was not high, and the poor response in 17-OHP on ACTH stimulation test excluded congenital adrenal hyperplasia. At 14 years of age, he did not show any signs of puberty, with low levels of LH, FSH, and testosterone and unresponsiveness to lutenizing hormone releasing hormone stimulation test...
November 2014: Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism: JPEM
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