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Carmen Mannucci, Michele Navarra, Fabrizio Calapai, Raffaele Squeri, Sebastiano Gangemi, Gioacchino Calapai
Citrus bergamia Risso et Poiteau ("Bergamot") originated from the Mediterranean ecoregion (southern Italy, Calabria). Bergamot essential oil (BEO) is used in perfumes, cosmetics, and for stress reduction. Juice from C. bergamia has been used for hyperlipidemia. We evaluated literature published on C. bergamia clinical applications. Clinical trials on C. bergamia not combined with other substances, published in English, were searched. We selected ten articles, six describing BEO effects on stress, three reporting effects of polyphenolic fraction of C...
October 17, 2016: Phytotherapy Research: PTR
Nadia Ferlazzo, Santa Cirmi, Gioacchino Calapai, Elvira Ventura-Spagnolo, Sebastiano Gangemi, Michele Navarra
Inflammatory diseases affect a large portion of the worldwide population, and chronic inflammation is a major risk factor for several dangerous pathologies. To limit the side effects of both synthetic and biological anti-inflammatory drugs, the use of herbal medicines, nutraceuticals and food supplements has increased tremendously as alternative and/or complementary medicine to treat several pathologies, including inflammation. During the last decades, the biological properties of Citrus bergamia (bergamot) derivatives have obtained important scientific achievements, and it has been suggested their use in a context of a multitarget pharmacological strategy...
2016: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Sumethee Songsamoe, Narumol Matan, Nirundorn Matan
The aims of this study were to develop absorbent material from a water hyacinth root containing bergamot oil and to improve its antifungal activity by using ultraviolet C (UV-C) against the growth of A. flavus on the brown rice. Process optimization was studied by the immersion of a water hyacinth root into a water and bergamot oil (300, 500 and 700 μl ml(-1)). The root (absorbent material) was dried at 50, 70, and 90 °C for 10 min. Then, ultraviolet C (UV-C) was used for enhancing the antifungal activity of bergamot oil for 10, 15, and 20 min...
March 2016: Journal of Food Science and Technology
Daniela Impellizzeri, Marika Cordaro, Michela Campolo, Enrico Gugliandolo, Emanuela Esposito, Filippo Benedetto, Salvatore Cuzzocrea, Michele Navarra
The flavonoid-rich fraction of bergamot juice (BJe) has demonstrated anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities. The aim of work was to test the beneficial effects of BJe on the modulation of the ileum inflammation caused by intestinal ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury in mice. To understand the cellular mechanisms by which BJe may decrease the development of intestinal I/R injury, we have evaluated the activation of signaling transduction pathways that can be induced by reactive oxygen species production...
2016: Frontiers in Pharmacology
John G Babish, Clinton J Dahlberg, Joseph J Ou, William J Keller, Wei Gao, Mohan R Kaadige, Holly Brabazon, Joseph Lamb, Hani C Soudah, Xiaolan Kou, Zhe Zhang, Linda M Pacioretty, Matthew L Tripp
We examined the clinical safety and efficacy of F105 in 11 subjects with moderate dyslipidemia. F105 is a combination of bergamot fruit extract (Citrus bergamia, BFE) and 9 phytoextracts selected for their ability to improve the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity of BFE. In vitro F105 exhibited a synergistic inhibition of oxygen radical absorbing capacity, peroxynitrite formation, and myeloperoxidase activity. Following 12 weeks of F105 daily, no treatment-related adverse events or changes in body mass were seen...
May 31, 2016: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
Domenico Taverna, Leonardo Di Donna, Fabio Mazzotti, Antonio Tagarelli, Anna Napoli, Emilia Furia, Giovanni Sindona
A novel approach for the rapid discrimination of bergamot essential oil from other citrus fruits oils is presented. The method was developed using paper spray mass spectrometry (PS-MS) allowing for a rapid molecular profiling coupled with a statistic tool for a precise and reliable discrimination between the bergamot complex matrix and other similar matrices, commonly used for its reconstitution. Ambient mass spectrometry possesses the ability to record mass spectra of ordinary samples, in their native environment, without sample preparation or pre-separation by creating ions outside the instrument...
September 2016: Journal of Mass Spectrometry: JMS
Anna Balkenius, Christian Balkenius
BACKGROUND: The magnitude of multimodal enhancement in the brain is believed to depend on the stimulus intensity and timing. Such an effect has been found in many species, but has not been previously investigated in insects. RESULTS: We investigated the responses to multimodal stimuli consisting of an odour and a colour in the antennal lobe and mushroom body of the moth Manduca sexta. The mushroom body shows enhanced responses for multimodal stimuli consisting of a general flower odour and a blue colour...
2016: BMC Neuroscience
Filomena Lauro, Luigino Antonio Giancotti, Sara Ilari, Concetta Dagostino, Micaela Gliozzi, Chiara Morabito, Valentina Malafoglia, William Raffaeli, Maurizio Muraca, Bianca M Goffredo, Vincenzo Mollace, Carolina Muscoli
Citrus Bergamia Risso, commonly known as Bergamot, is a fruit whose Essential Oil and Bergamot Polyphenolic Fraction have numerous medicinal properties. It is also an excellent antioxidant and in this study, for the first time, its potential effect on morphine induced tolerance in mice has been investigated. Our studies revealed that development of antinociceptive tolerance to repeated doses of morphine in mice is consistently associated with increased formation of superoxide, malondialdehyde and tyrosine-nitrated proteins in the dorsal horn of the spinal cord such as the enzyme glutamine synthase...
2016: PloS One
Santa Cirmi, Carlo Bisignano, Giuseppina Mandalari, Michele Navarra
Infectious diseases remain among the leading causes of morbidity and mortality worldwide, mainly because of the increase of resistance to chemotherapeutic drugs. Nature is the major source of anti-infective drugs and could represent a font of medicines that may help overcome antibiotic resistance. Recently, the potential antimicrobial effect of certain plant extracts has attracted attention within the scientific community as alternatives to synthetic drugs. Here, we present a systematic review on the anti-infective properties of bergamot derivatives that highlight the activity of bergamot essential oil against bacteria, mycetes and larvae, as well as the anti-Helicobacter pylori effect of bergamot juice and the antimicrobial properties of extracts from bergamot peel...
September 2016: Phytotherapy Research: PTR
Hiroko-Miyuki Mori, Hideo Iwahashi
Inappropriate use of essential oils may entail risks to human health due to mutational events, carcinogenic effects, genetic damages and sensitizing effect caused by generation of reactive oxygen species. In order to detect radicals that are expected to form during their oxidation, we measured the electron spin resonance (ESR) spectra of a standard reaction mixture (I) containing 25 μM flavin mononucleotide, 0.018% several essential oils (or 0.015% geraniol), 1.9 M acetonitrile, 20 mM phosphate buffer (pH 7...
June 2016: Free Radical Research
Jerome Masson, Erica Liberto, Jean-Claude Beolor, Hugues Brevard, Carlo Bicchi, Patrizia Rubiolo
This study aimed to characterise and discriminate 44 authenticated commercial samples of citrus essential oils (EO) from seven species (bergamot, lemon, bigarade, orange, mandarin, grapefruit, lime) by analysing the non-volatile oxygenated heterocyclic compounds (OHC) by UHPLC/TOF-HRMS, multivariate data analysis (PCA, PLS-DA) and metabolomic strategies; the OHC fraction includes coumarins, furocoumarins, and polymethoxylated flavonoids. Two different approaches were adopted: (i) targeted profiling based on quantifying 18 furocoumarins and coumarins, some of which are regulated by law, and (ii) targeted fingerprinting based on 140 OHCs reported in citrus essential oils, from which 38 discriminant markers were defined...
September 1, 2016: Food Chemistry
Nadia Ferlazzo, Giuseppa Visalli, Santa Cirmi, Giovanni Enrico Lombardo, Pasqualina Laganà, Angela Di Pietro, Michele Navarra
Exogenous iron in particulate matter and imbalanced iron homeostasis cause deleterious effects on health. Natural and synthetic iron chelators may be of therapeutic benefit, therefore we evaluated the protective effect of Citrus flavonoids-rich extracts from bergamot and orange juices in iron overloaded human lung epithelial cells. Cytofluorimetric, biochemical and genotoxic analyses were performed in Fe2(SO4)3 exposed A549, pretreated with each extract whose chemical composition was previously detected. Chelating activity was assessed in cells by a calcein ester...
April 2016: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
L Rombolà, D Amantea, R Russo, A Adornetto, L Berliocchi, L Tridico, M T Corasaniti, S Sakurada, T Sakurada, G Bagetta, L A Morrone
In complementary medicine, aromatherapy uses essential oils to improve agitation and aggression observed in dementia, mood, depression, anxiety and chronic pain. Preclinical research studies have reported that the essential oil obtained from bergamot (BEO) fruit (Citrus bergamia, Risso) modifies normal and pathological synaptic plasticity implicated, for instance, in nociceptive and neuropathic pain. Interestingly, recent results indicated that BEO modulates sensitive perception of pain in different models of nociceptive, inflammatory and neuropathic pain modulating endogenous systems...
2016: Mini Reviews in Medicinal Chemistry
Rosaria Vincenza Giglio, Angelo Maria Patti, Dragana Nikolic, Giovanni Li Volti, Khalid Al-Rasadi, Niki Katsiki, Dimitri P Mikhailidis, Giuseppe Montalto, Ekaterina Ivanova, Alexander N Orekhov, Manfredi Rizzo
BACKGROUND: Statins are the most common used lipid lowering drugs but they may cause adverse effects and despite their well-established therapeutic benefits residual cardiovascular (CV) risk remains. The use of other lipid lowering drugs and nutraceuticals alone or as add-on lipid-modifying therapy can be an option in such cases. Several studies have reported health-related properties of the Citrus fruits, among which bergamot (Citrus bergamia Risso) differs from others by particularly high content of certain compounds...
October 15, 2016: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
Jeannie Dyer, Lise Cleary, Sara McNeill, Maxine Ragsdale-Lowe, Caroline Osland
To document the use of aromasticks to facilitate sleep in a cancer centre in the UK. Sleep disturbance is a common problem amongst patients diagnosed with cancer. Essential oils may be inhaled by means of an aromastick (a personal inhaler device containing essential oils) as a means of improving sleep. A prospective audit of aromasticks given to help facilitate sleep. Sixty-five aromasticks were given out over a 13 week period. 94% of patients reported that they did use their aromastick to help them sleep and 92% reported that they would continue to do so...
February 2016: Complementary Therapies in Clinical Practice
Somrudee Saiyudthong, Chantana Mekseepralard
BACKGROUND: Bergamot essential oil (BEO) possesses sedation and anxiolytic properties similar to diazepam. After long period of exposure to stressors, including restrained stress, depressive-like behavior can be produced. BEO has been suggested to reduce depression. However, there is no scientific evidence supporting this property. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effect of BEO in chronic stressed rats on: 1) behavior related depressive disorder, 2) hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis response, and iii) brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) protein levels in hippocampus...
October 2015: Journal of the Medical Association of Thailand, Chotmaihet Thangphaet
Nadia Ferlazzo, Santa Cirmi, Marina Russo, Elena Trapasso, Maria Rita Ursino, Giovanni Enrico Lombardo, Sebastiano Gangemi, Gioacchino Calapai, Michele Navarra
AIMS: Among cancers, hepatocellular carcinoma is one of the commonest worldwide, and its incidence is increasing around the world. A lot of evidence underlines that natural substances usually consumed in the diet can have an important role in the prevention of cancer. In this study we investigated the molecular mechanisms underlying the antiproliferative activity of Citrus bergamia (bergamot) juice (BJ) in human hepatocellular carcinoma HepG2 cells. MAIN METHODS: HepG2 cells were exposed to BJ and then cell proliferation, cell cycle progression, apoptosis and NF-κB nuclear translocation were evaluated...
February 1, 2016: Life Sciences
Arrigo F G Cicero, Alessandro Colletti
BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular diseases are the primary cause of death and the leading cause of disability in industrialized countries. Dyslipidemia is a major independent and reversible risk factor for these diseases: it is estimated that a reduction of 1 mmol/l (38 mg/dl) of LDL cholesterol is associated with a risk of developing a cardiovascular complication reduced by 25%, a reduction potentially achieved by life-style improvement associated to adequate dietary supplementation with bioactive substances...
October 15, 2016: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
Ken Keefover-Ring
A large proportion of phytophagous insects show host plant specificity (monophagy or oligophagy), often determined by host secondary chemistry. Yet, even specialists can be negatively affected by host chemistry at high levels or with novel compounds, which may manifest itself if their host species is chemically variable. This study tested for reciprocal effects of a specialist tortoise beetle (Physonota unipunctata) feeding on a host plant (Monarda fistulosa) with two monoterpene chemotypes [thymol (T) and carvacrol (C)] using a controlled field experiment where larvae fed on caged plants of both chemotypes, haphazardly collected natural plants with and without beetle damage, and growth chamber experiments where larvae that hatched and briefly fed on one chemotype were reared on either chemotype...
2015: AoB Plants
Marina Russo, Paola Dugo, Stefania Marzocco, Veronica Inferrera, Luigi Mondello
Important objectives of a high-performance liquid chromatography preparative process are: purity of products isolated, yield, and throughput. The multidimensional preparative liquid chromatography method used in this work was developed mainly to increase the throughput; moreover purity and yield are increased thanks to the automated collection of the molecules based on the intensity of a signal generated from the mass spectrometer detector, in this way only a specific product can be targeted. This preparative system allowed, in few analyses both in the first and second dimensions, the isolation of eight pure compounds present at very different concentration in the original sample with high purity (>95%) and yield, which showed how the system is efficient and versatile...
December 2015: Journal of Separation Science
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