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Randomized control trial AND pulmonary

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679596/observational-studies-of-inhaled-corticosteroid-effectiveness-in-copd-lessons-learned
#1
Samy Suissa, Pierre Ernst
BACKGROUND: Randomized controlled trials at times investigate findings suggested by observational studies. For example, the TORCH trial, which did not show a mortality reduction with inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), was motivated by some observational studies that suggested considerable reductions in mortality with these drugs. Reasons for these discrepancies are unclear. METHODS: We searched the literature to identify all observational studies, including cohort and case-control studies, investigating the effectiveness of ICS on major outcomes in COPD patients, including death and hospitalization for COPD...
April 18, 2018: Chest
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678450/effects-of-exercise-training-on-pulmonary-function-in-adults-with-chronic-lung-disease-a-meta-analysis-of-randomized-controlled-trials
#2
REVIEW
Pablo A Salcedo, Jacob B Lindheimer, Jacquelyn C Klein-Adams, Anays M Sotolongo, Michael J Falvo
OBJECTIVE: To quantify the effect of exercise training on indices of pulmonary function in adults with chronic lung disease using meta-analytic techniques. Whole body exercise training is well-known to confer favorable adaptations to multiple organ systems; however, exercise-induced adaptations to the respiratory system are assumed to be limited, if present at all, but have not been systematically reviewed. DATA SOURCES: Eligible trials were identified using a systematic search of Medline, Web of Science, Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro) and GoogleScholar databases...
April 17, 2018: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676824/the-safety-effectiveness-and-cost-effectiveness-of-cytisine-in-achieving-six-month-continuous-smoking-abstinence-in-tuberculosis-patients-protocol-for-a-double-blind-placebo-controlled-randomised-trial
#3
Omara Dogar, Deepa Barua, Melanie Boeckmann, Helen Elsey, Razia Fatima, Rhian Gabe, Rumana Huque, Ada Keding, Amina Khan, Daniel Kotz, Eva Kralikova, James N Newell, Iveta Nohavova, Steve Parrott, Anne Readshaw, Lottie Renwick, Aziz Sheikh, Kamran Siddiqi
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Tuberculosis (TB) patients who quit smoking have much better disease outcomes than those who continue to smoke. Behavioural support combined with pharmacotherapy is the most effective strategy in helping people to quit, in general populations. However, there is no evidence for the effectiveness of this strategy in TB patients who smoke. We will assess the safety, effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of cytisine - a low-cost plant-derived nicotine substitute - for smoking cessation in TB patients compared with placebo, over and above brief behavioural support...
April 20, 2018: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672731/amaze-a-randomized-controlled-trial-of-adjunct-surgery-for-atrial-fibrillation
#4
Samer A M Nashef, Simon Fynn, Yasir Abu-Omar, Tomasz J Spyt, Christine Mills, Colin C Everett, Julia Fox-Rushby, Jeshika Singh, Malcolm Dalrymple-Hay, Catherine Sudarshan, Massimiliano Codispoti, Peter Braidley, Francis C Wells, Linda D Sharples
OBJECTIVES: Atrial fibrillation (AF) reduces survival and quality of life (QoL). It can be treated at the time of major cardiac surgery using ablation procedures ranging from simple pulmonary vein isolation to a full maze procedure. The aim of this study is to evaluate the impact of adjunct AF surgery as currently performed on sinus rhythm (SR) restoration, survival, QoL and cost-effectiveness. METHODS: In a multicentre, Phase III, pragmatic, double-blinded, parallel-armed randomized controlled trial, 352 cardiac surgery patients with >3 months of documented AF were randomized to surgery with or without adjunct maze or similar AF ablation between 2009 and 2014...
April 17, 2018: European Journal of Cardio-thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671660/saphenous-vein-ablation-with-a-new-cyanoacrylate-glue-device-a-systematic-review-on-1000-cases
#5
Daniele Bissacco, Silvia Stegher, Fabio Massimo Calliari, Marco Piercarlo Viani
BACKGROUND: To review published evidence regarding an n-butyl-cyanoacrylate (NBCA) injection device for great (GSV) and small (SSV) saphenous vein incompetence in terms of occlusion rate, postoperative complications and quality of life improvement. MATERIAL AND METHODS: International bibliographic databases (PubMed, EMBASE, Scopus) were searched to identify possible target articles. The only inclusion criterion was the use of the Variclose® system (Biolas, Ankara, Turkey) for superficial vein insufficiency...
April 19, 2018: Minimally Invasive Therapy & Allied Technologies: MITAT
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29671041/oropharyngeal-and-nasopharyngeal-decontamination-with-chlorhexidine-gluconate-in-lung-cancer-surgery-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#6
Xavier Benoit D'Journo, Pierre-Emmanuel Falcoz, Marco Alifano, Jean-Philippe Le Rochais, Thomas D'Annoville, Gilbert Massard, Jean Francois Regnard, Philippe Icard, Charles Marty-Ane, Delphine Trousse, Christophe Doddoli, Bastien Orsini, Sophie Edouard, Matthieu Million, Nathalie Lesavre, Anderson Loundou, Karine Baumstarck, Florence Peyron, Stephane Honoré, Stéphanie Dizier, Aude Charvet, Marc Leone, Didier Raoult, Laurent Papazian, Pascal Alexandre Thomas
PURPOSE: Respiratory complications are the leading causes of morbidity and mortality after lung cancer surgery. We hypothesized that oropharyngeal and nasopharyngeal decontamination with chlorhexidine gluconate (CHG) would be an effective method to reduce these complications as reported in cardiac surgery. METHODS: In this multicenter parallel-group randomized double-blind placebo-controlled trial, we enrolled consecutive adults scheduled for anatomical pulmonary resection for lung cancer...
April 18, 2018: Intensive Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669883/impact-of-long-term-erythromycin-therapy-on-the-oropharyngeal-microbiome-and-resistance-gene-reservoir-in-non-cystic-fibrosis-bronchiectasis
#7
Jocelyn M Choo, Guy C J Abell, Rachel Thomson, Lucy Morgan, Grant Waterer, David L Gordon, Steven L Taylor, Lex E X Leong, Steve L Wesselingh, Lucy D Burr, Geraint B Rogers
Long-term macrolide therapy reduces rates of pulmonary exacerbation in bronchiectasis. However, little is known about the potential for macrolide therapy to alter the composition and function of the oropharyngeal commensal microbiota or to increase the carriage of transmissible antimicrobial resistance. We assessed the effect of long-term erythromycin on oropharyngeal microbiota composition and the carriage of transmissible macrolide resistance genes in 84 adults with bronchiectasis, enrolled in the Bronchiectasis and Low-dose Erythromycin Study (BLESS) 48-week placebo-controlled trial of twice-daily erythromycin ethylsuccinate (400 mg)...
April 25, 2018: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666203/efficacy-and-safety-of-pulmonary-application-of-corticosteroids-in-preterm-infants-with-respiratory-distress-syndrome-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#8
Mahin Delara, Bhupendrasinh F Chauhan, Mê-Linh Le, Ahmed M Abou-Setta, Ryan Zarychanski, Geert W 'tJong
BACKGROUND: Systemic corticosteroids as the frontline treatment of respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) in preterm infants are associated with adverse effects on growth and neurodevelopmental outcome, but the pulmonary administration of steroids may help prevent the development of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) without these side effects. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of pulmonary application of corticosteroids in preterm infants with RDS. METHODS: MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, ClinicalTrials...
April 17, 2018: Archives of Disease in Childhood. Fetal and Neonatal Edition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664857/restrictive-versus-liberal-strategy-for-red-blood-cell-transfusion-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-in-orthopaedic-patients
#9
Wan-Jie Gu, Xiao-Ping Gu, Xiang-Dong Wu, Hao Chen, Joey S W Kwong, Lu-Yang Zhou, Shuo Chen, Zheng-Liang Ma
BACKGROUND: Current guidelines recommend restrictive criteria for red blood-cell transfusion in most clinical settings. However, patients undergoing orthopaedic surgery may require distinct transfusion criteria since benefits and potential harm often vary considerably based on patient characteristics and surgical procedures. We aimed to assess the efficacy and safety of restrictive transfusion in patients undergoing orthopaedic surgery, especially in important subgroups. METHODS: Electronic databases were searched to identify randomized controlled trials investigating restrictive (mostly a hemoglobin level of 8...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Bone and Joint Surgery. American Volume
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664681/effect-of-bronchodilation-and-exercise-training-with-behavior-modification-on-exercise-tolerance-and-downstream-effects-on-symptoms-and-physical-activity-in-copd
#10
Thierry Troosters, François Maltais, Nancy Leidy, Kim L Lavoie, Maria Sedeno, Wim Janssens, Judith Garcia-Aymerich, Damijan Erzen, Dorothy De Sousa, Lawrence Korducki, Alan Hamilton, Jean Bourbeau
RATIONALE: Bronchodilation and exercise training (ExT) improve exercise tolerance in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD); however, behavior modification is required to impact on daily physical activity (PA). OBJECTIVES: To assess whether tiotropium/olodaterol, ±ExT, would improve exercise endurance time (EET) and PA compared with placebo in patients participating in a self-management behavior-modification (SMBM) program. METHODS: A 12-week, randomized, partially double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel-group trial in patients with COPD (PHYSACTO®; NCT02085161)...
April 17, 2018: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29662294/application-of-enhanced-recovery-after-gastric-cancer-surgery-an-updated-meta-analysis
#11
Liu-Hua Wang, Ren-Fei Zhu, Cheng Gao, Shou-Lin Wang, Li-Zong Shen
AIM: To provide an updated assessment of the safety and efficacy of enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS) protocols in elective gastric cancer (GC) surgery. METHODS: PubMed, Medline, EMBASE, World Health Organization International Trial Register, and Cochrane Library were searched up to June 2017 for all available randomized controlled trials (RCTs) comparing ERAS protocols and standard care (SC) in GC surgery. Thirteen RCTs, with a total of 1092 participants, were analyzed in this study, of whom 545 underwent ERAS protocols and 547 received SC treatment...
April 14, 2018: World Journal of Gastroenterology: WJG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659768/digital-chest-drainage-is-better-than-traditional-chest-drainage-following-pulmonary-surgery-a-meta-analysis
#12
Jian Zhou, Mengyuan Lyu, Nan Chen, Zihuai Wang, Yang Hai, Jianqi Hao, Lunxu Liu
In this systematic review with meta-analysis, we sought to determine the current strength of evidence for or against digital and traditional chest drainage systems following pulmonary surgery with regards to hard clinical end points and cost-effectiveness. PubMed, EMBASE and Web of Science were searched from their inception to 31 July 2017. The weighted mean difference (WMD) and the risk ratio were used for continuous and dichotomous outcomes, respectively, each with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). The heterogeneity and risk of bias were also assessed...
April 6, 2018: European Journal of Cardio-thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656933/body-composition-measurement-in-bronchiectasis-comparison-between-bioelectrical-impedance-analysis-skinfold-thickness-measurement-and-dual-energy-x-ray-absorptiometry-before-and-after-pulmonary-rehabilitation
#13
Esperanza Doña, Casilda Olveira, Francisco Javier Palenque, Nuria Porras, Antonio Dorado, Rocío Martín-Valero, Ana M Godoy, Francisco Espíldora, Victoria Contreras, Gabriel Olveira
BACKGROUND: In individuals with bronchiectasis, fat-free mass depletion may be common despite a low prevalence of underweight and is considered a risk factor for increased morbidity and mortality. Techniques to adequately estimate fat-free mass and its changes over time are needed. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to assess agreement among values obtained with three different body composition techniques: skinfold thickness measurement (STM), bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA), and dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA)...
April 12, 2018: Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29656433/antifibrinolytics-for-heavy-menstrual-bleeding
#14
REVIEW
Alison C Bryant-Smith, Anne Lethaby, Cindy Farquhar, Martha Hickey
BACKGROUND: Heavy menstrual bleeding (HMB) is an important physical and social problem for women. Oral treatment for HMB includes antifibrinolytic drugs, which are designed to reduce bleeding by inhibiting clot-dissolving enzymes in the endometrium.Historically, there has been some concern that using the antifibrinolytic tranexamic acid (TXA) for HMB may increase the risk of venous thromboembolic disease. This is an umbrella term for deep venous thrombosis (blood clots in the blood vessels in the legs) and pulmonary emboli (blood clots in the blood vessels in the lungs)...
April 15, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29653390/fondaparinux-versus-nadroparin-for-thromboprophylaxis-following-minimally-invasive-esophagectomy-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#15
Jieqiong Song, Lizhen Xuan, Wei Wu, Yaxing Shen, Lijie Tan, Ming Zhong
BACKGROUND: The methodology of thromboprophylaxis post minimally invasive esophagectomy (MIE) is unclear. Thus, we compared the efficacy and safety of fondaparinux and nadroparin on the prophylaxis of venous thromboembolism (VTE) after MIE. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a randomized, double-blind, treatment-controlled study. Consecutive patients undergoing MIE randomly received a single dose of either nadroparin 2850 AxaIU (Group H) or fondaparinux 2.5 mg (Group F) daily...
April 4, 2018: Thrombosis Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29652761/effect-of-inspiratory-muscle-training-in-the-management-of-patients-with-asthma-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#16
Neslihan Duruturk, Manolya Acar, Mustafa Ilgaz Doğrul
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of inspiratory muscle training (IMT) on respiratory muscle strength, exercise capacity, dyspnea, fatigue, quality of life, and daily living activities of asthmatic patients. METHODS: Thirty-eight asthmatic patients, between 18 and 65 years of age, were enrolled in the study and randomly divided into 2 groups; IMT (n = 20) or control (n = 18). Participants in the IMT group performed 30 breaths using a patient-specific threshold pressure device, twice daily for 6 wk at 50% maximal inspiratory pressure (MIP), in addition to "breathing training" during this period...
April 11, 2018: Journal of Cardiopulmonary Rehabilitation and Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29649849/-copd-importance-of-lung-function-testing-for-diagnosis-and-treatment
#17
Wolfram Windisch, Carl Peter Criée
Pulmonary function testing is essential for diagnosis and treatment-guidance of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Airway obstruction as assessed by spirometry should follow the reference-values provided by the Global Lung Initiative (GLI) of the European Respiratory Society (ERS). In addition, lung function testing should also include the assessment of lung hyperinflation and pulmonary emphysema by full-body plethysmography and determination of diffusion capacity. This is important since both, lung hyperinflation and pulmonary emphysema, can present without existing airway obstruction...
April 2018: Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29643055/findings-of-the-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-sitting-and-exacerbations-trial-copd-seat-in-reducing-sedentary-time-using-wearable-and-mobile-technologies-with-educational-support-randomized-controlled-feasibility-trial
#18
Mark W Orme, Amie E Weedon, Paula M Saukko, Dale W Esliger, Mike D Morgan, Michael C Steiner, John W Downey, Lauren B Sherar, Sally J Singh
BACKGROUND: Targeting sedentary time post exacerbation may be more relevant than targeting structured exercise for individuals with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Focusing interventions on sitting less and moving more after an exacerbation may act as a stepping stone to increase uptake to pulmonary rehabilitation. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this paper was to conduct a randomized trial examining trial feasibility and the acceptability of an education and self-monitoring intervention using wearable technology to reduce sedentary behavior for individuals with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease admitted to hospital for an acute exacerbation...
April 11, 2018: JMIR MHealth and UHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29629993/secondary-pulmonary-arterial-hypertension-to-treat-or-not-to-treat
#19
Rade Tomic, Marshall I Hertz
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The purpose of this review is to review recent literature related to mechanisms and treatment options for 'secondary' (i.e., WHO Groups 3 and 5) pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). RECENT FINDINGS: Published randomized controlled trials, in general, do not support the use of approved therapies for 'primary' (i.e., WHO Group 1) PAH patients in patients with Group 3 PAH because of the small numbers of patients and inconsistent benefit. Therefore, we currently recommend against the use of these medications for Group 3 PAH...
April 7, 2018: Current Opinion in Organ Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29629402/the-short-term-impact-of-symptom-defined-copd-exacerbation-recovery-on-health-status-and-lung-function
#20
Lindsey T Murray, Nancy K Leidy
Background: This study examined the short-term effects of symptom-defined exacerbation recovery on health status and pulmonary function in moderate to severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients. Methods: Secondary analyses of pooled data from two 12-week Phase II international, randomized controlled trials using the EXA cerbations of C hronic Pulmonary Disease T ool (EXACT) to identify symptom-defined exacerbations were conducted. Recovery was categorized as recovered, unrecovered (persistent worsening), or censored...
January 24, 2018: Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Diseases: Journal of the COPD Foundation
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