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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910721/care-delivery-considerations-for-widespread-and-equitable-implementation-of-inherited-cancer-predisposition-testing
#1
Deborah Cragun, Anita Y Kinney, Tuya Pal
DNA sequencing advances through next-generation sequencing (NGS) and several practice changing events, have led to shifting paradigms for inherited cancer predisposition testing. These changes necessitated a means by which to maximize health benefits without unnecessarily inflating healthcare costs and exacerbating health disparities. Areas covered: NGS-based tests encompass multi-gene panel tests, whole exome sequencing, and whole genome sequencing, all of which test for multiple genes simultaneously, compared to prior sequencing practices through which testing was performed sequentially for one or two genes...
December 2, 2016: Expert Review of Molecular Diagnostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905191/race-and-ethnicity-and-preconception-folic-acid-supplement-use-among-pregnant-women-in-georgia-prams-2009-to-2011
#2
Ayesha Mukhtar, Michael R Kramer, Godfrey P Oakley, Vijaya Kancherla
BACKGROUND: The United States Public Health Service recommends that all women of reproductive age consume 400 μg of folic acid daily to prevent major neural tube defects. Hispanics have the highest prevalence of neural tube defects compared with other race/ethnic groups. We studied prevalence of preconception folic acid supplement use, and its association with race/ethnicity among pregnant women in Georgia. METHODS: Using state-wide population-based data from 2009 to 2011 Georgia Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System, we examined the prevalence of preconception folic acid supplement use among pregnant women aged 18 to 45 years...
December 1, 2016: Birth Defects Research. Part A, Clinical and Molecular Teratology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890021/the-relationship-between-food-insecurity-and-overweight-obesity-differs-by-birthplace-and-length-of-us-residence
#3
Suzanne Ryan-Ibarra, Emma V Sanchez-Vaznaugh, Cindy Leung, Marta Induni
OBJECTIVE: To examine whether the cross-sectional association between food insecurity and overweight/obesity varied according to birthplace and length of residence in the USA among California women. DESIGN: Using cross-sectional, population-based data from the California Women's Health Survey (CWHS) 2009-2012, we examined whether the association between food insecurity and overweight or obesity varied by birthplace-length of US residence. SETTING: California, USA...
November 28, 2016: Public Health Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852275/social-inequalities-in-health-behaviors-among-brazilian-adults-national-health-survey-2013
#4
Marilisa Berti de Azevedo Barros, Margareth Guimarães Lima, Lhais de Paula Barbosa Medina, Celia Landman Szwarcwald, Deborah Carvalho Malta
BACKGROUND: Considering the high socioeconomic inequalities prevailing in Brazil and lifestyle as a strong determinant of morbidity and premature mortality, our purpose was to evaluate the degree of socioeconomic disparities in the prevalence of health behaviors among Brazilian adult population using data from the 2013 Brazilian National Health Survey. METHOD: Based on a sample of 49,025 individuals aged 20 to 59 years, we estimated the prevalence of several health behaviors and a score of unhealthy behaviors according to gender, education, race/color and possession of private health insurance...
November 17, 2016: International Journal for Equity in Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27760782/determinants-of-light-and-intermittent-smoking-in-the-u-s-results-from-three-pooled-national-health-surveys
#5
Carolyn M Reyes-Guzman, Ruth M Pfeiffer, Jay Lubin, Neal D Freedman, Sean D Cleary, Paul H Levine, Neil E Caporaso
BACKGROUND: Light and/or intermittent smokers have been the fastest growing segment of cigarette smokers in the U.S. over the past two decades. Defining their behavioral characteristics is a critical public health priority. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Our sample included 78,229 U.S. adults from three pooled contemporary population-based surveys: the 2012 NHIS, 2012 NSDUH, and 2011-2012 NHANES. We classified current smokers into four categories (light and intermittent [LITS], light-daily, heavier-intermittent and heavier-daily) and assessed smoking behaviors, illicit drug use, and mental health indicators using weighted analyses...
October 19, 2016: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27711031/state-specific-prevalence-of-current-cigarette-smoking-and-smokeless-tobacco-use-among-adults-united-states-2014
#6
Kimberly H Nguyen, LaTisha Marshall, Susan Brown, Linda Neff
Tobacco use is the leading cause of preventable disease and death in the United States, resulting in approximately 480,000 premature deaths and more than $300 billion in direct health care expenditures and productivity losses each year (1). In recent years, cigarette smoking prevalence has declined in many states; however, there has been relatively little change in the prevalence of current smokeless tobacco use or concurrent use of cigarettes and smokeless tobacco in most states, and in some states prevalence has increased (2)...
October 7, 2016: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27682726/assessment-of-national-clas-standards-in-rural-and-urban-local-health-departments-in-kentucky
#7
María L Gómez, Richard Charnigo, Torrie T Harris, John C Williams, William Pfeifle
CONTEXT: Findings from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention suggest that addressing persistent health disparities based on race and ethnicity must become a national priority. The field of cultural and linguistic competency has gained national attention by improving access to and quality of health care, patient-provider communication, health outcomes, and health equity for minority groups and other vulnerable or special needs populations. OBJECTIVES: (1) To measure how local health departments (LHDs) in Kentucky comply with the National Standards for Culturally and Linguistically Appropriate Services (CLAS); and (2) to provide policy recommendation based on the findings...
November 2016: Journal of Public Health Management and Practice: JPHMP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27659684/african-american-perspectives-and-experiences-of-domestic-violence-in-a-rural-community
#8
Valandra, Yvette Murphy-Erby, Brandon M Higgins, Lucy M Brown
Relatively few studies have explored domestic violence from a multiplicity of African American perspectives, experiences, and socio-demographic backgrounds within rural African American communities. Community-based participatory action research methods were used to explore domestic violence perceptions of African Americans with heterogeneous backgrounds and experiences of violence. Ten focus groups were held throughout the community with 52 diverse women (n = 33) and men (n = 19) living in the northwest region of Arkansas...
September 21, 2016: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27621801/support-for-immigration-reduction-and-physician-distrust-in-the-united-states
#9
Frank L Samson
OBJECTIVES: Health research indicates that physician trust in the United States has declined over the last 50 years. Paralleling this trend is a decline in social capital, with researchers finding a negative relationship between immigration-based diversity and social capital. This article examines whether physician distrust is also tied to immigration-based diversity and declining social capital. METHODS: Data come from the 2012 General Social Survey, one of the gold standards of US public opinion surveys, using a national probability sample of 1080 adult US respondents...
2016: SAGE Open Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27605328/aging-it-s-interpersonal-reflections-from-two-life-course-migrants
#10
Gunhild O Hagestad, Richard A Settersten
We start with the observation that aging gerontologists often engage in two distinct discourses on aging-one public and one private. This separation entails "othering," which reproduces agism and stigma. Based on personal experience, insight from colleagues and writers, and concepts from symbolic interaction perspectives, we argue that becoming old to some degree involves becoming a stranger. Before reaching old age, both of us have been in the position of strangers due to social experiences that left us "off the line" or "on the margins...
September 7, 2016: Gerontologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27594535/race-and-place-exploring-the-intersection-of-inequity-and-volunteerism-among-older-black-and-white-adults
#11
Ernest Gonzales, Huei-Wern Shen, Yi Wang, Linda Sprague Martinez, Julie Norstrand
Although the historical impact of racial segregation and ongoing health and economic inequities between older Black and White adults is well documented, little is known about the relationships among race, individual- and neighborhood-resources, and formal volunteering in later life. This study explores this intersection. Individual-level data from 268 respondents aged 55+ were collected in the St. Louis metropolitan area through paper-based mail surveys. Objective neighborhood data were obtained at the zip code level from secondary sources and matched with respondents...
August 16, 2016: Journal of Gerontological Social Work
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27579300/sun-protective-behaviors-of-student-spectators-at-inter-school-swimming-carnivals-in-a-tropical-region-experiencing-high-ambient-solar-ultraviolet-radiation
#12
Denise Turner, Simone Lee Harrison, Nicole Bates
Skin cancer is the most common cancer in humans and Australia (particularly in Queensland) has the highest incidence globally. Sunlight is a known skin carcinogen and reflects off water, exacerbating the risk of sunburn. In 1988, the "SunSmart Program" was developed to promote sun-protection to Australian children. Within a decade, it evolved to include a voluntary national accreditation program for schools, known as the SunSmart Schools (SSS) Program. Additionally, in 2008, it became compulsory for primary schoolchildren attending Queensland government-funded schools to wear a shirt during all water-based activities, except when competing...
2016: Frontiers in Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27566470/racial-disparities-in-prostate-cancer-mortality-in-the-50-largest-us-cities
#13
Maureen R Benjamins, Bijou R Hunt, Sarah M Raleigh, Jana L Hirschtick, Michelle M Hughes
INTRODUCTION: This paper presents race-specific prostate cancer mortality rates and the corresponding disparities for the largest cities in the US over two decades. METHODS: The 50 largest cities in the US were the units of analysis. Data from two 5-year periods were analyzed: 1990-1994 and 2005-2009. Numerator data were abstracted from national death files where the cause was malignant neoplasm of prostate (prostate cancer) (ICD9=185 and ICD10=C61). Population-based denominators were obtained from US Census data...
October 2016: Cancer Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27561378/psychiatric-hospitalisation-among-individuals-with-intellectual-disability-referred-to-the-start-crisis-intervention-and-prevention-program
#14
L G Kalb, J Beasley, A Klein, J Hinton, L Charlot
BACKGROUND: Little is known about inpatient psychiatric hospitalisation among adults with intellectual disability (ID) in the United States. Greater research is, therefore, required to inform efforts aimed at preventing this costly and restrictive form of care. METHODS: Data were from 3299 individuals with ID (mean age = 31 years; SD = 14 years) who were referred to START (Systemic, Therapeutic, Assessment, Resources, and Treatment), a community-based crisis intervention and prevention programme...
August 26, 2016: Journal of Intellectual Disability Research: JIDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27537325/surveillance-for-violent-deaths-national-violent-death-reporting-system-17-states-2013
#15
Bridget H Lyons, Katherine A Fowler, Shane P D Jack, Carter J Betz, Janet M Blair
PROBLEM/CONDITION: In 2013, more than 57,000 persons died in the United States as a result of violence-related injuries. This report summarizes data from CDC's National Violent Death Reporting System (NVDRS) regarding violent deaths from 17 U.S. states for 2013. Results are reported by sex, age group, race/ethnicity, marital status, location of injury, method of injury, circumstances of injury, and other selected characteristics. REPORTING PERIOD COVERED: 2013. DESCRIPTION OF SYSTEM: NVDRS collects data from participating states regarding violent deaths obtained from death certificates, coroner/medical examiner reports, law enforcement reports, and secondary sources (e...
August 19, 2016: MMWR. Surveillance Summaries: Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. Surveillance Summaries
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27515722/trends-and-correlates-of-substance-use-disorders-among-probationers-and-parolees-in-the-united-states-2002-2014
#16
Noelle E Fearn, Michael G Vaughn, Erik J Nelson, Christopher P Salas-Wright, Matt DeLisi, Zhengmin Qian
BACKGROUND: Substance use and crime/recidivism are irrevocably linked. We explore the nuances of this association by highlighting the prevalence, trends, and correlates of substance use dsorders in a large group of probationers/parolees. METHODS: We examined SUDs among probationers and parolees in the United States using data from the National Study on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH). Logistic regression models were computed to examine eight distinct outcomes: alcohol abuse, illicit drug abuse, marijuana/hashish abuse, comorbid alcohol and illicit drug abuse, alcohol dependence, illicit drug dependence, marijuana/hashish dependence, and comorbid alcohol and illicit drug dependence...
October 1, 2016: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27502071/perceived-discrimination-and-self-rated-health-in-canada-an-exploratory-study
#17
Janice Du Mont, Tonia Forte
BACKGROUND: Our objective was to explore whether the link between discrimination and self-rated health status differed as a function of discrimination type, including discrimination based on ethnicity/culture, race, physical appearance (other than skin colour), religion, age, and disability. METHODS: A sample of 19,422 men and women aged 15 and older was included in this study. A multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to measure the association between perceived discrimination types and self-reported health status defined as excellent/good versus fair/poor...
2016: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27495022/prevalence-and-impact-of-clostridium-difficile-infection-in-elderly-residents-of-long-term-care-facilities-2011-a-nationwide-study
#18
Panayiotis D Ziakas, Nina Joyce, Ioannis M Zacharioudakis, Fainareti N Zervou, Richard W Besdine, Vincent Mor, Eleftherios Mylonakis
The elderly population is particularly vulnerable to Clostridium difficile infection (CDI), but the epidemiology of CDI in long-term care facilities (LTCFs) is unknown.We performed a retrospective cohort study and used US 2011 LTCF resident data from the Minimum Data Set 3.0 linked to Medicare claims. We extracted CDI cases based on International Classification of Diseases-9 coding, and compared residents with the diagnosis of CDI to those who did not have a CDI diagnosis during their LTCF stay. We estimated CDI prevalence rates and calculated 3-month mortality rates...
August 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27473878/predicting-long-term-nursing-home-transfer-from-mi-choice-waiver-program
#19
Xiaoting Wu, Chenxi Li, Kathleen Oberst, Charles Given
This study aimed to identify characteristics of elderly participants in the Michigan Home and Community-Based Waiver Program that are associated with high risk of long-term nursing home (LT-NH) placement. We identified 8172 waiver clients aged 65 and older during 10/1/2010-9/30/2014. A proportional cause-specific hazards regression model was used to analyze risk factors of waiver elderly for LT-NH placement. Waiver elderly participants who were white (HR (white vs. black): 2.76, with 95% CI (1.91, 4.00); HR (white vs...
July 27, 2016: Geriatric Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27431386/the-policy-argument-for-healthcare-workforce-diversity
#20
Michael O Mensah, Benjamin D Sommers
This perspectives article considers the potential implications an affirmative action ban would have on patient care in the US. A physician's race and ethnicity are among the strongest predictors of specialty choice and whether or not a physician cares for Medicaid and uninsured populations. Taking this into account, research suggests that an affirmative action ban in university admissions would sharply reduce the supply of primary care physicians to Medicaid and uninsured populations over the coming decade...
November 2016: Journal of General Internal Medicine
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