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race-based policies

Kimberly H Nguyen, LaTisha Marshall, Susan Brown, Linda Neff
Tobacco use is the leading cause of preventable disease and death in the United States, resulting in approximately 480,000 premature deaths and more than $300 billion in direct health care expenditures and productivity losses each year (1). In recent years, cigarette smoking prevalence has declined in many states; however, there has been relatively little change in the prevalence of current smokeless tobacco use or concurrent use of cigarettes and smokeless tobacco in most states, and in some states prevalence has increased (2)...
October 7, 2016: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
María L Gómez, Richard Charnigo, Torrie T Harris, John C Williams, William Pfeifle
CONTEXT: Findings from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention suggest that addressing persistent health disparities based on race and ethnicity must become a national priority. The field of cultural and linguistic competency has gained national attention by improving access to and quality of health care, patient-provider communication, health outcomes, and health equity for minority groups and other vulnerable or special needs populations. OBJECTIVES: (1) To measure how local health departments (LHDs) in Kentucky comply with the National Standards for Culturally and Linguistically Appropriate Services (CLAS); and (2) to provide policy recommendation based on the findings...
November 2016: Journal of Public Health Management and Practice: JPHMP
Valandra, Yvette Murphy-Erby, Brandon M Higgins, Lucy M Brown
Relatively few studies have explored domestic violence from a multiplicity of African American perspectives, experiences, and socio-demographic backgrounds within rural African American communities. Community-based participatory action research methods were used to explore domestic violence perceptions of African Americans with heterogeneous backgrounds and experiences of violence. Ten focus groups were held throughout the community with 52 diverse women (n = 33) and men (n = 19) living in the northwest region of Arkansas...
September 21, 2016: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
Frank L Samson
OBJECTIVES: Health research indicates that physician trust in the United States has declined over the last 50 years. Paralleling this trend is a decline in social capital, with researchers finding a negative relationship between immigration-based diversity and social capital. This article examines whether physician distrust is also tied to immigration-based diversity and declining social capital. METHODS: Data come from the 2012 General Social Survey, one of the gold standards of US public opinion surveys, using a national probability sample of 1080 adult US respondents...
2016: SAGE Open Medicine
Gunhild O Hagestad, Richard A Settersten
We start with the observation that aging gerontologists often engage in two distinct discourses on aging-one public and one private. This separation entails "othering," which reproduces agism and stigma. Based on personal experience, insight from colleagues and writers, and concepts from symbolic interaction perspectives, we argue that becoming old to some degree involves becoming a stranger. Before reaching old age, both of us have been in the position of strangers due to social experiences that left us "off the line" or "on the margins...
September 7, 2016: Gerontologist
Ernest Gonzales, Huei-Wern Shen, Yi Wang, Linda Sprague Martinez, Julie Norstrand
Although the historical impact of racial segregation and ongoing health and economic inequities between older Black and White adults is well documented, little is known about the relationships among race, individual- and neighborhood-resources, and formal volunteering in later life. This study explores this intersection. Individual-level data from 268 respondents aged 55+ were collected in the St. Louis metropolitan area through paper-based mail surveys. Objective neighborhood data were obtained at the zip code level from secondary sources and matched with respondents...
August 16, 2016: Journal of Gerontological Social Work
Denise Turner, Simone Lee Harrison, Nicole Bates
Skin cancer is the most common cancer in humans and Australia (particularly in Queensland) has the highest incidence globally. Sunlight is a known skin carcinogen and reflects off water, exacerbating the risk of sunburn. In 1988, the "SunSmart Program" was developed to promote sun-protection to Australian children. Within a decade, it evolved to include a voluntary national accreditation program for schools, known as the SunSmart Schools (SSS) Program. Additionally, in 2008, it became compulsory for primary schoolchildren attending Queensland government-funded schools to wear a shirt during all water-based activities, except when competing...
2016: Frontiers in Public Health
Maureen R Benjamins, Bijou R Hunt, Sarah M Raleigh, Jana L Hirschtick, Michelle M Hughes
INTRODUCTION: This paper presents race-specific prostate cancer mortality rates and the corresponding disparities for the largest cities in the US over two decades. METHODS: The 50 largest cities in the US were the units of analysis. Data from two 5-year periods were analyzed: 1990-1994 and 2005-2009. Numerator data were abstracted from national death files where the cause was malignant neoplasm of prostate (prostate cancer) (ICD9=185 and ICD10=C61). Population-based denominators were obtained from US Census data...
October 2016: Cancer Epidemiology
L G Kalb, J Beasley, A Klein, J Hinton, L Charlot
BACKGROUND: Little is known about inpatient psychiatric hospitalisation among adults with intellectual disability (ID) in the United States. Greater research is, therefore, required to inform efforts aimed at preventing this costly and restrictive form of care. METHODS: Data were from 3299 individuals with ID (mean age = 31 years; SD = 14 years) who were referred to START (Systemic, Therapeutic, Assessment, Resources, and Treatment), a community-based crisis intervention and prevention programme...
August 26, 2016: Journal of Intellectual Disability Research: JIDR
Bridget H Lyons, Katherine A Fowler, Shane P D Jack, Carter J Betz, Janet M Blair
PROBLEM/CONDITION: In 2013, more than 57,000 persons died in the United States as a result of violence-related injuries. This report summarizes data from CDC's National Violent Death Reporting System (NVDRS) regarding violent deaths from 17 U.S. states for 2013. Results are reported by sex, age group, race/ethnicity, marital status, location of injury, method of injury, circumstances of injury, and other selected characteristics. REPORTING PERIOD COVERED: 2013. DESCRIPTION OF SYSTEM: NVDRS collects data from participating states regarding violent deaths obtained from death certificates, coroner/medical examiner reports, law enforcement reports, and secondary sources (e...
2016: MMWR. Surveillance Summaries: Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. Surveillance Summaries
Noelle E Fearn, Michael G Vaughn, Erik J Nelson, Christopher P Salas-Wright, Matt DeLisi, Zhengmin Qian
BACKGROUND: Substance use and crime/recidivism are irrevocably linked. We explore the nuances of this association by highlighting the prevalence, trends, and correlates of substance use dsorders in a large group of probationers/parolees. METHODS: We examined SUDs among probationers and parolees in the United States using data from the National Study on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH). Logistic regression models were computed to examine eight distinct outcomes: alcohol abuse, illicit drug abuse, marijuana/hashish abuse, comorbid alcohol and illicit drug abuse, alcohol dependence, illicit drug dependence, marijuana/hashish dependence, and comorbid alcohol and illicit drug dependence...
October 1, 2016: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
Janice Du Mont, Tonia Forte
BACKGROUND: Our objective was to explore whether the link between discrimination and self-rated health status differed as a function of discrimination type, including discrimination based on ethnicity/culture, race, physical appearance (other than skin colour), religion, age, and disability. METHODS: A sample of 19,422 men and women aged 15 and older was included in this study. A multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to measure the association between perceived discrimination types and self-reported health status defined as excellent/good versus fair/poor...
2016: BMC Public Health
Panayiotis D Ziakas, Nina Joyce, Ioannis M Zacharioudakis, Fainareti N Zervou, Richard W Besdine, Vincent Mor, Eleftherios Mylonakis
The elderly population is particularly vulnerable to Clostridium difficile infection (CDI), but the epidemiology of CDI in long-term care facilities (LTCFs) is unknown.We performed a retrospective cohort study and used US 2011 LTCF resident data from the Minimum Data Set 3.0 linked to Medicare claims. We extracted CDI cases based on International Classification of Diseases-9 coding, and compared residents with the diagnosis of CDI to those who did not have a CDI diagnosis during their LTCF stay. We estimated CDI prevalence rates and calculated 3-month mortality rates...
August 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
Xiaoting Wu, Chenxi Li, Kathleen Oberst, Charles Given
This study aimed to identify characteristics of elderly participants in the Michigan Home and Community-Based Waiver Program that are associated with high risk of long-term nursing home (LT-NH) placement. We identified 8172 waiver clients aged 65 and older during 10/1/2010-9/30/2014. A proportional cause-specific hazards regression model was used to analyze risk factors of waiver elderly for LT-NH placement. Waiver elderly participants who were white (HR (white vs. black): 2.76, with 95% CI (1.91, 4.00); HR (white vs...
July 27, 2016: Geriatric Nursing
Michael O Mensah, Benjamin D Sommers
This perspectives article considers the potential implications an affirmative action ban would have on patient care in the US. A physician's race and ethnicity are among the strongest predictors of specialty choice and whether or not a physician cares for Medicaid and uninsured populations. Taking this into account, research suggests that an affirmative action ban in university admissions would sharply reduce the supply of primary care physicians to Medicaid and uninsured populations over the coming decade...
July 18, 2016: Journal of General Internal Medicine
Kevin D Stein, Kassandra I Alcaraz, Chelsey Kamson, Elizabeth Fallon, Tenbroeck Smith
OBJECTIVE: Research has increasingly documented sociodemographic inequalities in the assessment and management of cancer-related pain. Most studies have focused on racial/ethnic disparities while less is known about the impact of other sociodemographic factors, including age and education. We analyzed data from a large, national, population-based study of cancer survivors to examine the influence of socio-demographic factors, and physical and mental health comorbidities on barriers to cancer pain management...
July 16, 2016: Psycho-oncology
Cara L Wallace
OBJECTIVE: No prior studies on hospice utilization have captured information about the amount of time between when one first learns of hospice as a potential option for care and when he/she actually enrolls. Little is in fact known about this decision-making process. The present study examines hospice enrollment by exploring relationships between hospice decision time and known barriers to care. METHOD: This was an exploratory cross-sectional study. Pearson's r was employed to identify bivariate relationships between barriers to care and decision time for hospice care...
July 13, 2016: Palliative & Supportive Care
Y Lee, G Seomun
AIM: The study aimed to explore measurable compassion competence among nurses and to examine the relationships between nurses' compassion competence and levels of compassion satisfaction, compassion fatigue and secondary traumatic stress. BACKGROUND: Compassion is a vital asset in the nursing profession. It is necessary to explore whether compassion competence is a factor influencing professional quality of life. METHODS: This study utilized a multicenter descriptive cross-sectional survey...
September 2016: International Nursing Review
Brian Elbel, Sean P Corcoran, Amy Ellen Schwartz
A common policy approach to reducing childhood obesity aims to shape the environment in which children spend most of their time: neighborhoods and schools. This paper uses richly detailed data on the body mass index (BMI) of all New York City public school students in grades K-8 to assess the potential for place-based approaches to reduce child obesity. We document variation in the prevalence of obesity across NYC public schools and census tracts, and then estimate the extent to which this variation can be explained by differences in individual-level predictors (such as race and household income)...
2016: PloS One
Laura Kann, Tim McManus, William A Harris, Shari L Shanklin, Katherine H Flint, Joseph Hawkins, Barbara Queen, Richard Lowry, Emily O'Malley Olsen, David Chyen, Lisa Whittle, Jemekia Thornton, Connie Lim, Yoshimi Yamakawa, Nancy Brener, Stephanie Zaza
PROBLEM: Priority health-risk behaviors contribute to the leading causes of morbidity and mortality among youth and adults. Population-based data on these behaviors at the national, state, and local levels can help monitor the effectiveness of public health interventions designed to protect and promote the health of youth nationwide. REPORTING PERIOD COVERED: September 2014-December 2015. DESCRIPTION OF THE SYSTEM: The Youth Risk Behavior Surveillance System (YRBSS) monitors six categories of priority health behaviors among youth and young adults: 1) behaviors that contribute to unintentional injuries and violence; 2) tobacco use; 3) alcohol and other drug use; 4) sexual behaviors related to unintended pregnancy and sexually transmitted infections (STIs), including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection; 5) unhealthy dietary behaviors; and 6) physical inactivity...
2016: MMWR. Surveillance Summaries: Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. Surveillance Summaries
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