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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28316562/changes-in-cigarette-smoking-initiation-cessation-and-relapse-among-u-s-adults-a-comparison-of-two-longitudinal-samples
#1
Zinan Yi, Maria E Mayorga, Kristen Hassmiller Lich, Jennifer L Pearson
BACKGROUND: The tobacco epidemic in the U.S. has matured in the past decade. However, due to rapidly changing social policy and commercial environments, tailored prevention and interventions are needed to support further reduction in smoking. METHODS: Using Tobacco Use Supplement to the Current Population Survey (TUS-CPS) 2002-2003 and 2010-2011 longitudinal cohorts, five smoking states are defined including daily-heavy, daily-light, non-daily, former and non-smoker...
2017: Tobacco Induced Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275207/whip-rule-breaches-in-a-major-australian-racing-jurisdiction-welfare-and-regulatory-implications
#2
Jennifer Hood, Carolyn McDonald, Bethany Wilson, Phil McManus, Paul McGreevy
Whip use in horseracing is increasingly being questioned on ethical, animal welfare, social sustainability, and legal grounds. Despite this, there is weak evidence for whip use and its regulation by Stewards in Australia. To help address this, we characterised whip rule breaches recorded by Stewards using Stewards Reports and Race Diaries from 2013 and 2016 in New SouthWales (NSW) and the Australian Capital Territory (ACT). There were more recorded breaches at Metropolitan (M) than Country (C) or Provincial (P) locations, and by riders of horses that finished first, second, or third than by riders of horses that finished in other positions...
January 16, 2017: Animals: An Open Access Journal From MDPI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28266903/the-drug-abuse-prevention-and-control-act-of-1970-retrospective-assessments-of-disparate-treatment-and-consequential-impact
#3
Hide Yamatani, Marvin Feit, Aaron Mann
Although the basic paradigm of the U.S. federal drug policy targeting the supply and demand reduction has not changed since its enactment in 1970, there have been seriously undesirable disparate treatments and impacts among various population groups. Although U.S. Congress could not define what is discrimination, it did provide two major criteria for the assessment of discriminatory practices as follows: (a) disparate treatment-basing a key decision on association with any of the five prohibited individual's demographic classifications (race, color, religion, sex, or national origin); and (b) disparate impact-correlation between any of the five prohibited demographic classifications and the key outcomes...
March 7, 2017: Social Work in Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28242134/system-level-barriers-and-facilitators-for-foregoing-or-withdrawing-dialysis-a-qualitative-study-of-nephrologists-in%C3%A2-the%C3%A2-united-states-and-england
#4
Vanessa Grubbs, Delphine S Tuot, Neil R Powe, Donal O'Donoghue, Catherine A Chesla
BACKGROUND: Despite a growing body of literature suggesting that dialysis does not confer morbidity or mortality benefits for all patients with chronic kidney failure, the initiation and continuation of dialysis therapy in patients with poor prognosis is commonplace. Our goal was to elicit nephrologists' perspectives on factors that affect decision making regarding end-stage renal disease. STUDY DESIGN: Semistructured, individual, qualitative interviews. METHODOLOGY: Participants were purposively sampled based on age, race, sex, geographic location, and practice type...
February 24, 2017: American Journal of Kidney Diseases: the Official Journal of the National Kidney Foundation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192133/global-fitness-levels-findings-from-a-web-based-surveillance-report
#5
REVIEW
Javaid Nauman, Lucas C Tauschek, Leonard A Kaminsky, Bjarne M Nes, Ulrik Wisløff
IMPORTANCE: Cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) has shown to improve the classification beyond traditional risk factors and cumulative lifetime risk of death, however, there is no formal multicenter database that provides representative sample on a global scale to accurately interpret CRF measures. OBJECTIVE: The objective of the study was to describe worldwide web-surveillance data of CRF. DESIGN: Cross-sectional population based study. SETTING: Data was collected through a web-based questionnaire, including questions on country and city of residence, ethnicity, level of education, age, gender and anthropometric data such as height, weight, waistline, and maximal and resting pulse rate, on a freely available webpage (www...
February 9, 2017: Progress in Cardiovascular Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110109/transitions-and-turning-points-revisited-a-replication-to-explore-child-maltreatment-and-youth-offending-links-within-and-across-australian-cohorts
#6
Emily Hurren, Anna Stewart, Susan Dennison
In this study we examined the consistency of life-course child maltreatment trajectories and youth offending links across birth cohorts. In so doing we demonstrated the value of replication studies for maltreatment research. We applied the methodology of Stewart et al. (2008) and linked population-based (1990 birth cohort) child protection and youth justice administrative data from Queensland, Australia. We performed a group based trajectory analysis to identify distinct maltreatment trajectory groups distinguishable by maltreatment timing and frequency across the life-course...
March 2017: Child Abuse & Neglect
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100067/race-based-experiences-of-ethnic-minority-health-professionals-arab-physicians-and-nurses-in-israeli-public-healthcare-organizations
#7
Yael Keshet, Ariela Popper-Giveon
Increasing workforce diversity was found to contribute to the narrowing of disparities in health. However, racism toward ethnic minority health professionals has not been adequately researched. In Israel, public healthcare organizations that serve a mixed Jewish-Arab population employ Arab minority healthcare professionals. Instances of prejudice and manifestations of racism toward them, which frequently surface in public discussion and the media, have unfortunately gained little scholarly attention. We used the intergroup contact approach and the theory of the social process of everyday racism as a theoretical framework...
January 19, 2017: Ethnicity & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092059/the-effects-of-race-and-ethnicity-on-the-risk-of-large-for-gestational-age-newborns-in-women-without-gestational-diabetes-by-prepregnancy-body-mass-index-categories
#8
Nhial T Tutlam, Yun Liu, Erik J Nelson, Louise H Flick, Jen Jen Chang
Objectives Children born large for gestational age (LGA) are at risk of numerous adverse outcomes. While the racial/ethnic disparity in LGA risk has been studied among women with Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM), the independent effect of race on LGA risk by maternal prepregnancy BMI is still unclear among women without GDM. Therefore, the objective of this study was to assess the association between maternal race/ethnicity and LGA among women without GDM. Methods This was a population-based cohort study of 2,842,278 singleton births using 2012 U...
January 13, 2017: Maternal and Child Health Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089611/government-s-role-in-promoting-healthy-living
#9
REVIEW
Laurie P Whitsel
Worldwide, poor lifestyle behaviors, including obesity, physical inactivity, and low diet quality, are creating an unstainable burden of chronic disease with disparities across geography, race, income, education, and sex. Government plays an important role in addressing lifestyle behaviors and population health, reducing health disparities and chronic disease. Areas for government involvement include surveillance, research, programming, access to health care, quality assurance and guidelines for diet and physical activity (PA)...
January 13, 2017: Progress in Cardiovascular Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045931/effect-of-meat-price-on-race-and-gender-disparities-in-obesity-mortality-and-quality-of-life-in-the-us-a-model-based-analysis
#10
Allison Pitt, Eran Bendavid
INTRODUCTION: There are large differences in the burden and health implications of obesity by race and gender in the US. It is unclear to what extent policies modifying caloric consumption change the distribution of the burden of obesity and related health outcomes. Meat is a large component of the American diet. We investigate how changing meat prices (that may result from policies or from exogenous factors that reduce supply) might impact the burden of obesity by race and gender. METHODS: We construct a microsimulation model that evaluates the 15-year body-mass index (BMI) and mortality impact of changes in meat price (5, 10, 25, and 50% increase) in the US adult population stratified by age, gender, race, and BMI...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28043019/immigration-policies-and-mental-health-morbidity-among-latinos-a-state-level-analysis
#11
Mark L Hatzenbuehler, Seth J Prins, Morgan Flake, Morgan Philbin, M Somjen Frazer, Daniel Hagen, Jennifer Hirsch
RATIONALE: Despite abundant state-level policy activity in the U.S. related to immigration, no research has examined the mental health impact of the overall policy climate for Latinos, taking into account both inclusionary and exclusionary legislation. OBJECTIVE: To examine associations between the state-level policy climate related to immigration and mental health outcomes among Latinos. METHODS: We created a multi-sectoral policy climate index that included 14 policies in four domains (immigration, race/ethnicity, language, and agricultural worker protections)...
February 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28030890/assistance-to-states-for-the-education-of-children-with-disabilities-preschool-grants-for-children-with-disabilities-final-regulations
#12
(no author information available yet)
The Secretary amends the regulations under Part B of the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA) governing the Assistance to States for the Education of Children with Disabilities program and the Preschool Grants for Children with Disabilities program. With the goal of promoting equity under IDEA, the regulations will establish a standard methodology States must use to determine whether significant disproportionality based on race and ethnicity is occurring in the State and in its local educational agencies (LEAs); clarify that States must address significant disproportionality in the incidence, duration, and type of disciplinary actions, including suspensions and expulsions, using the same statutory remedies required to address significant disproportionality in the identification and placement of children with disabilities; clarify requirements for the review and revision of policies, practices, and procedures when significant disproportionality is found; and require that LEAs identify and address the factors contributing to significant disproportionality as part of comprehensive coordinated early intervening services (comprehensive CEIS) and allow these services for children from age 3 through grade 12, with and without disabilities...
December 19, 2016: Federal Register
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27995039/sociodemographic-characteristics-associated-with-frequency-and-duration-of-eating-family-meals-a-cross-sectional-analysis
#13
REVIEW
Margie R Skeer, Konstantina E Yantsides, Misha Eliasziw, Migdalia R Tracy, Allison R Carlton-Smith, Anthony Spirito
INTRODUCTION: Children who frequently eat family meals are less likely to develop risk- and behavior-related outcomes, such as substance misuse, sexual risk, and obesity. Few studies have examined sociodemographic characteristics associated with both meal frequency (i.e., number of meals) and duration (i.e., number of minutes spent at mealtimes). METHODS: We examine the association between sociodemographics and family meal frequency and duration among a sample of 85 parents in a large New England city that was recruited through the public-school system...
2016: SpringerPlus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910721/care-delivery-considerations-for-widespread-and-equitable-implementation-of-inherited-cancer-predisposition-testing
#14
Deborah Cragun, Anita Y Kinney, Tuya Pal
DNA sequencing advances through next-generation sequencing (NGS) and several practice changing events, have led to shifting paradigms for inherited cancer predisposition testing. These changes necessitated a means by which to maximize health benefits without unnecessarily inflating healthcare costs and exacerbating health disparities. Areas covered: NGS-based tests encompass multi-gene panel tests, whole exome sequencing, and whole genome sequencing, all of which test for multiple genes simultaneously, compared to prior sequencing practices through which testing was performed sequentially for one or two genes...
January 2017: Expert Review of Molecular Diagnostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905191/race-and-ethnicity-and-preconception-folic-acid-supplement-use-among-pregnant-women-in-georgia-prams-2009-to-2011
#15
Ayesha Mukhtar, Michael R Kramer, Godfrey P Oakley, Vijaya Kancherla
BACKGROUND: The United States Public Health Service recommends that all women of reproductive age consume 400 μg of folic acid daily to prevent major neural tube defects. Hispanics have the highest prevalence of neural tube defects compared with other race/ethnic groups. We studied prevalence of preconception folic acid supplement use, and its association with race/ethnicity among pregnant women in Georgia. METHODS: Using state-wide population-based data from 2009 to 2011 Georgia Pregnancy Risk Assessment Monitoring System, we examined the prevalence of preconception folic acid supplement use among pregnant women aged 18 to 45 years...
December 1, 2016: Birth Defects Research. Part A, Clinical and Molecular Teratology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890021/the-relationship-between-food-insecurity-and-overweight-obesity-differs-by-birthplace-and-length-of-us-residence
#16
Suzanne Ryan-Ibarra, Emma V Sanchez-Vaznaugh, Cindy Leung, Marta Induni
OBJECTIVE: To examine whether the cross-sectional association between food insecurity and overweight/obesity varied according to birthplace and length of residence in the USA among California women. DESIGN: Using cross-sectional, population-based data from the California Women's Health Survey (CWHS) 2009-2012, we examined whether the association between food insecurity and overweight or obesity varied by birthplace-length of US residence. SETTING: California, USA...
March 2017: Public Health Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852275/social-inequalities-in-health-behaviors-among-brazilian-adults-national-health-survey-2013
#17
Marilisa Berti de Azevedo Barros, Margareth Guimarães Lima, Lhais de Paula Barbosa Medina, Celia Landman Szwarcwald, Deborah Carvalho Malta
BACKGROUND: Considering the high socioeconomic inequalities prevailing in Brazil and lifestyle as a strong determinant of morbidity and premature mortality, our purpose was to evaluate the degree of socioeconomic disparities in the prevalence of health behaviors among Brazilian adult population using data from the 2013 Brazilian National Health Survey. METHOD: Based on a sample of 49,025 individuals aged 20 to 59 years, we estimated the prevalence of several health behaviors and a score of unhealthy behaviors according to gender, education, race/color and possession of private health insurance...
November 17, 2016: International Journal for Equity in Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27760782/determinants-of-light-and-intermittent-smoking-in-the-united-states-results-from-three-pooled-national-health-surveys
#18
Carolyn M Reyes-Guzman, Ruth M Pfeiffer, Jay Lubin, Neal D Freedman, Sean D Cleary, Paul H Levine, Neil E Caporaso
BACKGROUND: Light and/or intermittent smokers have been the fastest growing segment of cigarette smokers in the United States over the past two decades. Defining their behavioral characteristics is a critical public health priority. METHODS: Our sample included 78,229 U.S. adults from three pooled contemporary population-based surveys: the 2012 NHIS, 2012 NSDUH, and 2011-2012 NHANES. We classified current smokers into four categories (light and intermittent [LITS], light-daily, heavier-intermittent, and heavier-daily) and assessed smoking behaviors, illicit drug use, and mental health indicators using weighted analyses...
February 2017: Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27711031/state-specific-prevalence-of-current-cigarette-smoking-and-smokeless-tobacco-use-among-adults-united-states-2014
#19
Kimberly H Nguyen, LaTisha Marshall, Susan Brown, Linda Neff
Tobacco use is the leading cause of preventable disease and death in the United States, resulting in approximately 480,000 premature deaths and more than $300 billion in direct health care expenditures and productivity losses each year (1). In recent years, cigarette smoking prevalence has declined in many states; however, there has been relatively little change in the prevalence of current smokeless tobacco use or concurrent use of cigarettes and smokeless tobacco in most states, and in some states prevalence has increased (2)...
October 7, 2016: MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27682726/assessment-of-national-clas-standards-in-rural-and-urban-local-health-departments-in-kentucky
#20
María L Gómez, Richard Charnigo, Torrie T Harris, John C Williams, William Pfeifle
CONTEXT: Findings from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention suggest that addressing persistent health disparities based on race and ethnicity must become a national priority. The field of cultural and linguistic competency has gained national attention by improving access to and quality of health care, patient-provider communication, health outcomes, and health equity for minority groups and other vulnerable or special needs populations. OBJECTIVES: (1) To measure how local health departments (LHDs) in Kentucky comply with the National Standards for Culturally and Linguistically Appropriate Services (CLAS); and (2) to provide policy recommendation based on the findings...
November 2016: Journal of Public Health Management and Practice: JPHMP
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