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race-based policies

Bradlee W Gamblin, Andre Kehn, Karen Vanderzanden, Joelle C Ruthig, Kelly M Jones, Brittney L Long
Several constructs have been identified as relevant to the juror decision-making process in hate crime cases. However, there is a lack of research on the relationships between these constructs and their variable influence across victim group. The purpose of the current study was to reexamine factors relevant to the juror decision-making process in hate crime cases within a structural model, and across victim group, to gauge the relative strength and explanatory power of various predictors. In the current study, 313 participants sentenced a perpetrator found guilty of a hate crime committed against either a Black man or a gay man; participants also responded to individual difference measures relevant to mock juror hate crime decision making, including prejudice toward the victim's social group...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
Awatef Ahmed Ben Ramadan, Jeannette Jackson-Thompson, Chester Lee Schmaltz
BACKGROUND: The Missouri Cancer Registry collects population-based cancer incidence data on Missouri residents diagnosed with reportable malignant neoplasms. The Missouri Cancer Registry wanted to produce data that would be of interest to lawmakers as well as public health officials at the legislative district level on breast cancer, the most common non-skin cancer among females. OBJECTIVE: The aim was to measure and interactively visualize survival data of female breast cancer cases in the Missouri Cancer Registry...
May 3, 2018: JMIR Public Health and Surveillance
Shervin Assari, Cleopatra Howard Caldwell, Ronald B Mincy
BACKGROUND: Socioeconomic status (SES) is essential for maintaining health, and self-rated health (SRH) is not an exception to this rule. This study explored racial differences in the protective effects of maternal educational attainment at birth against poor SRH of the youth 15 years later. METHODS: Using data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study (FFCWS), this 15-year longitudinal study followed 1934 youths from birth to age 15. This sample was composed of White ( n = 497, 25...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Clinical Medicine
Herwig Czech
Background: Hans Asperger (1906-1980) first designated a group of children with distinct psychological characteristics as 'autistic psychopaths' in 1938, several years before Leo Kanner's famous 1943 paper on autism. In 1944, Asperger published a comprehensive study on the topic (submitted to Vienna University in 1942 as his postdoctoral thesis), which would only find international acknowledgement in the 1980s. From then on, the eponym 'Asperger's syndrome' increasingly gained currency in recognition of his outstanding contribution to the conceptualization of the condition...
2018: Molecular Autism
Shazia Mehmood Siddique, Shivan J Mehta, James Lewis, Mark D Neuman, Rachel M Werner
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Gastrointestinal bleeding results in significant morbidity, mortality, and healthcare costs in the United States. The Center for Medicare and Medicaid Services' payment reform programs assess quality and value based on rates of hospital readmission for patients with gastrointestinal bleeding, but they identify these patients using Medicare Severity Diagnosis Related Groups (MS-DRGs), which include many types of gastrointestinal bleeding and do not account for the clinical heterogeneity among these patients...
April 25, 2018: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology
Jan M Eberth, Alexander C McLain, Yuan Hong, Erica Sercy, Abdoulaye Diedhiou, Daniel J Kilpatrick
PURPOSE: Local health statistics are increasingly requested for policy-making and programmatic purposes; however, population-based surveys are often inadequate to support direct estimation for small areas. Model-based estimation techniques can be used to create local estimates for public health outcomes. Using the 2014-2015 South Carolina (SC) Adult Tobacco Survey, we examined tobacco-related outcomes at the county level using a spatial multilevel, poststratification approach. METHODS: To create county-level tobacco estimates, we used a two-level model with a spatially intrinsic conditional autoregressive random intercept...
March 30, 2018: Annals of Epidemiology
Joseph A Gil, Avi D Goodman, Justin Kleiner, Robin N Kamal, Laurence C Baker, Edward Akelman
BACKGROUND: The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (ACA) was approved in 2010, substantially altering the economics of providing and receiving healthcare services in the United States. One of the primary goals of this legislation was to expand insurance coverage for under- and uninsured residents. Our objective was to examine the effect of the ACA on the insurance status of patients at a safety net clinic. Our institution houses a safety net clinic that provides the dominant majority of orthopaedic care for uninsured patients in our state...
May 2018: Clinical Orthopaedics and related Research
Brian J Lucas, Nour S Kteily
We explore the relationship between group-based egalitarianism and empathy for members of advantaged groups (e.g., corporate executives; state officials) versus disadvantaged groups (e.g., blue-collar workers; schoolteachers) subjected to harmful actions, events, or policies. Whereas previous research suggests that anti-egalitarians (vs. egalitarians) dispositionally exhibit less empathy for others, we propose that this relationship depends on the target's position in the social hierarchy. We examined this question across eight studies (N = 3,154) conducted in the U...
May 2018: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
Eric Y Yen, Ram R Singh
OBJECTIVE: Mortality statistics from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) is used for planning healthcare policy and allocating resources. CDC uses this data to compile its annual leading-causes-of-death ranking based on a selected list of 113 causes. SLE is not included on this list. Since the cause-of-death ranking is a useful tool for assessing the relative burden of cause-specific mortality, we ranked SLE deaths among CDC's leading causes-of-death to see whether SLE is a significant cause of death among women...
April 18, 2018: Arthritis & Rheumatology
Stephanie B Wheeler, Jennifer C Spencer, Laura C Pinheiro, Lisa A Carey, Andrew F Olshan, Katherine E Reeder-Hayes
Purpose Racial variation in the financial impact of cancer may contribute to observed differences in the use of guideline-recommended treatments. We describe racial differences with regard to the financial impact of breast cancer in a large population-based prospective cohort study. Methods The Carolina Breast Cancer Study oversampled black women and women younger than age 50 years with incident breast cancer in North Carolina from 2008 to 2013. Participants provided medical records and data regarding demographics, socioeconomic status, and financial impact of cancer at 5 and 25 months postdiagnosis...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
Raoul S Liévanos
The California Community Environmental Health Screening Tool (CalEnviroScreen) advances research and policy pertaining to environmental health vulnerability. However, CalEnviroScreen departs from its historical foundations and comparable screening tools by no longer considering racial status as an indicator of environmental health vulnerability and predictor of cumulative pollution burden. This study used conceptual frameworks and analytical techniques from environmental health and inequality literature to address the limitations of CalEnviroScreen, especially its inattention to race-based environmental health vulnerabilities...
April 16, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Paige Hall Smith
Despite widespread awareness of the health benefits for both mothers and babies we are far from achieving universal breastfeeding. Breastfeeding rates globally are lower than recommended levels and there are concerns that some global breastfeeding efforts have stalled (1, 2). In addition, we see persistent disparities in breastfeeding rates by race, ethnicity, class and status (3). A growing literature documents how a range of injustices, including gender inequality (7), racism (8), poverty (9), and violence (10, 11) shape whether, how exclusive, and for how long mothers and others will be able to breastfeed or feed their infants human milk...
May 2018: Journal of Human Lactation: Official Journal of International Lactation Consultant Association
Sara Wilcox, Ruth P Saunders, Andrew T Kaczynski, Melinda Forthofer, Patricia A Sharpe, Cheryl Goodwin, Margaret Condrasky, Vernon L Kennedy, Danielle E Jake-Schoffman, Deborah Kinnard, Brent Hutto
INTRODUCTION: Faith-based organizations can contribute to improving population health, but few dissemination and implementation studies exist. This paper reports countywide adoption, reach, and effectiveness from the Faith, Activity, and Nutrition dissemination and implementation study. DESIGN: This was a group-randomized trial. Data were collected in 2016. Statistical analyses were conducted in 2017. SETTING/PARTICIPANTS: Churches in a rural, medically underserved county in South Carolina were invited to enroll, and attendees of enrolled churches were invited to complete questionnaires (n=1,308 participated)...
April 9, 2018: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
Benjamin T Kopp, Alice Hinton, Rong Lu, Sarah Cooper, Haikady Nagaraja, Mary Ellen Wewers
OBJECTIVES: Secondhand smoke exposure (SHSe) in children is changing due to new public policy and electronic nicotine products (e-cigarettes). We examined factors related to self-imposed indoor household tobacco restrictions, with emphasis on children in the household and associations with combustible and non-combustible product use. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey of urban and rural Ohio adult tobacco users classified participants as exclusive combustible users, smokeless tobacco (SLT) users, e-cigarette users, or dual users...
April 10, 2018: Academic Pediatrics
José F Figueroa, Jie Zheng, E John Orav, Arnold M Epstein, Ashish K Jha
The Hospital Readmissions Reduction Program has been associated with improvements in readmission rates, yet little is known about its effect on racial disparities. We compared trends in thirty-day readmission rates for congestive heart failure, acute myocardial infarction, and pneumonia among non-Hispanic whites versus non-Hispanic blacks, and among minority-serving hospitals versus others. During the penalty-free implementation period (April 2010-September 2012), readmission rates improved over pre-implementation trends (January 2007-March 2010) for both whites and blacks, with a significantly greater decline among blacks than among whites (-0...
April 2018: Health Affairs
Kara C Hoover
Modern lifestyles are disrupting the human senses-primarily sight, sound, and smell. Noise-induced hearing loss has been noted for centuries and increasing over time following the industrial era. From the mid-20th century, the numbers of individuals with myopia (the leading visual impairment) have been increasing globally. Historical evidence for olfactory dysfunction is not known but its etiological links to pollution suggest it increased following industrialization. Clinical interventions for sight and sound loss include preventative and corrective measures but none exist for olfactory dysfunction...
March 2018: Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine
Sabina Shaikh, Jyotsna S Jagai, Colette Ashley, Shuhan Zhou, Robert M Sargis
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Diabetes is a burgeoning threat to public health in the USA. Importantly, the burden of diabetes is not equally borne across society with marked disparities based on geography, race/ethnicity, and income. The etiology of global and population-specific diabetes risk remains incompletely understood; however, evidence linking environmental toxicants acting as endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs), such as particulate matter and arsenic, with diabetes suggests that environmental policies could play an important role in diabetes risk reduction...
March 26, 2018: Current Diabetes Reports
Yana Kucheva
Despite abundant evidence about the effect of children's socioeconomic circumstances on their transition to adulthood, we know much less about the effect of social policy programs aimed at poor families with children in facilitating how and when children become adults. This issue is particularly important for the U.S. federal subsidized housing program given its long history of placing subsidized units in some of the poorest and most racially segregated neighborhoods. Using counterfactual causal methods that adjust for the length of receipt of subsidized housing, I estimate the effect of subsidized housing on teenage parenthood, household formation, and educational attainment...
April 2018: Demography
Karin Alejandra Rosemblatt, Leandro Daniel Benmergui
During World War II, the U.S. Indian Service conducted social science experiments regarding governance among Japanese Americans imprisoned at the Poston, Arizona, camp. Researchers used an array of techniques culled from anthropological culture and personality studies, psychiatry, psychology, medicine, and public opinion research to probe how the personality traits of the confined Japanese-Americans and camp leaders affected the social interactions within each group and between them. The research drew on prior studies of Indian personality in the US Southwest, Mexico's Native policies, and indirect colonial rule...
March 2018: Journal of the History of the Behavioral Sciences
Yu Shi, Danqing Hu, Erin L Rodgers, Slavica K Katusic, Stephen J Gleich, Andrew C Hanson, Darrell R Schroeder, Randall P Flick, David O Warner
BACKGROUND: Utilization of general anesthesia in children has important policy, economic, and healthcare delivery implications, yet there is little information regarding the epidemiology of these procedures in the United States. AIMS: The primary objective of this study was to describe in a geographically defined population the incidence of procedures requiring general anesthesia up to the child's third birthday, and the patient characteristics associated with receiving these procedures...
March 13, 2018: Paediatric Anaesthesia
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