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race-based policies

Yana Kucheva
Despite abundant evidence about the effect of children's socioeconomic circumstances on their transition to adulthood, we know much less about the effect of social policy programs aimed at poor families with children in facilitating how and when children become adults. This issue is particularly important for the U.S. federal subsidized housing program given its long history of placing subsidized units in some of the poorest and most racially segregated neighborhoods. Using counterfactual causal methods that adjust for the length of receipt of subsidized housing, I estimate the effect of subsidized housing on teenage parenthood, household formation, and educational attainment...
March 14, 2018: Demography
Karin Alejandra Rosemblatt, Leandro Daniel Benmergui
During World War II, the U.S. Indian Service conducted social science experiments regarding governance among Japanese Americans imprisoned at the Poston, Arizona, camp. Researchers used an array of techniques culled from anthropological culture and personality studies, psychiatry, psychology, medicine, and public opinion research to probe how the personality traits of the confined Japanese-Americans and camp leaders affected the social interactions within each group and between them. The research drew on prior studies of Indian personality in the US Southwest, Mexico's Native policies, and indirect colonial rule...
March 14, 2018: Journal of the History of the Behavioral Sciences
Yu Shi, Danqing Hu, Erin L Rodgers, Slavica K Katusic, Stephen J Gleich, Andrew C Hanson, Darrell R Schroeder, Randall P Flick, David O Warner
BACKGROUND: Utilization of general anesthesia in children has important policy, economic, and healthcare delivery implications, yet there is little information regarding the epidemiology of these procedures in the United States. AIMS: The primary objective of this study was to describe in a geographically defined population the incidence of procedures requiring general anesthesia up to the child's third birthday, and the patient characteristics associated with receiving these procedures...
March 13, 2018: Paediatric Anaesthesia
Hiu-Fai Fong, Margarita Alegria, Megan H Bair-Merritt, William Beardslee
Although child welfare caseworkers are responsible for facilitating mental health services access for maltreated children, little is known about caseworkers' decisions to refer children to services. We aimed to identify factors associated with caseworker referral of children to mental health services after a maltreatment investigation. We analyzed data from 1956 children 2-17 years old from the Second National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-being. We examined associations of children's predisposing, enabling, and need-related factors and caseworkers' work environment characteristics with referral to mental health services...
March 9, 2018: Child Abuse & Neglect
W J Strauss, J Nagaraja, A J Landgraf, S S Arteaga, S B Fawcett, L D Ritchie, L V John, M Gregoriou, E A Frongillo, C M Loria, S A Weber, V L Collie-Akers, K L McIver, J Schultz, R D F Sagatov, E S Leifer, K Webb, R R Pate
BACKGROUND: Although a national epidemic of childhood obesity is apparent, how community-based programmes and policies (CPPs) affect this outcome is not well understood. OBJECTIVES: This study examined the longitudinal relationship between the intensity of CPPs in 130 communities over 10 years and body mass index (BMI) of resident children. We also examined whether these relationships differ by key family or community characteristics. METHODS: Five thousand one hundred thirty-eight children in grades K-8 were recruited through 436 schools located within 130 diverse US communities...
February 28, 2018: Pediatric Obesity
Rochelle D Jones, Christina H Chapman, Emma B Holliday, Nafisha Lalani, Emily Wilson, James A Bonner, Benjamin Movsas, Shalom Kalnicki, Silvia C Formenti, Charles R Thomas, Stephen M Hahn, Fei-Fei Liu, Reshma Jagsi
PURPOSE: A lack of diversity has been observed in radiation oncology (RO), with women and certain racial/ethnic groups underrepresented as trainees, faculty, and practicing physicians. We sought to gain a nuanced understanding of how to best promote diversity, equity, and inclusion (DEI) based on the insights of RO department chairs, with particular attention given to the experiences of the few women and underrepresented minorities (URMs) in these influential positions. METHODS AND MATERIALS: From March to June 2016, we conducted telephone interviews with 24 RO department chairs (of 27 invited)...
January 9, 2018: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
Elizabeth Radcliff, Elizabeth Crouch, Melissa Strompolis
INTRODUCTION: Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) are traumatic events that occur in a child's life between birth and 18 years. Exposure to one or more ACE has been linked to participation in risky health behaviors and the experience of chronic health conditions in adulthood. The risk for poor outcomes increases as the number of ACEs experienced increases. This research investigates rural-urban differences in exposure to ACEs using a sample from a representative southern US state, South Carolina...
February 2018: Rural and Remote Health
Kim S Griswold, Kevin Pottie, Isok Kim, Wooksoo Kim, Li Lin
Refugee populations have unequal access to primary care and may not receive appropriate health screening or preventive service recommendations. They encounter numerous health care disadvantages as a consequence of low-income status, race and ethnicity, lower educational achievement, varying degrees of health literacy, and limited English proficiency. Refugees may not initially embrace the concept of preventive care, as these services may have been unavailable in their countries of origin, or may not be congruent with their beliefs on health care...
2018: Public Health Reviews
William J Hall, Mimi V Chapman
Bullying threatens the mental and educational well-being of students. All states have enacted antibullying laws. This study surveyed 634 educators about the implementation of the North Carolina School Violence Prevention Act, which enumerated social classes protected from bullying: race, national origin, gender, socioeconomic status, sexual orientation, gender identity, appearance, and disability. Results showed that local antibullying policies most often included race as a protected class and least often included sexual orientation and gender identity...
2018: Journal of School Violence
Abdul Qayyum Khan, Naima Saleem, Syeda Tamkeen Fatima
The main purpose of this paper is to find the effects of financial development, income inequality, energy usage, and per capita GDP on carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions as well the environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) for the three developing Asian countries-Bangladesh, India, and Pakistan. Panel data during the period 1980-2014 and the Stochastic Impacts by Regression on Population, Affluence, and Technology model with fully modified ordinary least squares (FMOLS) are employed for empirical investigation. The results show that financial development has a significant negative relationship with CO2 emission in the three selected Asian countries with the exception of India...
December 15, 2017: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Kathryn P Derose, Bing Han, Stephanie Williamson, Deborah A Cohen
INTRODUCTION: Physical inactivity is more prevalent among women than men and is related to poor health outcomes. Neighborhood parks constitute an important resource for physical activity (PA), however, previous studies of park users have found fewer women being physically active. METHODS: We conducted a hierarchical mixed-effect regression analysis of the independent associations between gender and park use and PA among a population-based sample in high-poverty neighborhoods in Los Angeles...
December 11, 2017: Women's Health Issues: Official Publication of the Jacobs Institute of Women's Health
V Y Kong, J J Odendaal, J L Bruce, G L Laing, E Jerome, B Sartorius, P Brysiewicz, D L Clarke
BACKGROUND: Trauma is an eminently preventable disease. However, prevention programs divert resources away from other priorities. Costing trauma related diseases helps policy makers to make decisions on re-source allocation. We used data from a prospective digital trauma registry to cost Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) at our institution over a two-year period and to estimate the funding gap that exists in the care of TBI. METHOD: All patients who were admitted to the Pietermaritzburg Metropolitan Trauma Service (PMTS) with TBI were identified from the Hybrid Electronic Medical Registry (HMER)...
November 2017: South African Journal of Surgery. Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Chirurgie
Jongho Heo, Audrey N Beck, Shih-Fan Lin, Enrico Marcelli, Suzanne Lindsay, Brian Karl Finch
OBJECTIVES: No studies have focused on socioeconomic disparities in obesity within and between cohorts. Our objectives were to examine income gradients in obesity between birth-cohorts (inter-cohort variations) and within each birth-cohort (intra-cohort variations) by gender and race/ethnicity. METHODS: Our sample includes 56,820 white and black adults from pooled, cross-sectional National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (1971-2012). We fit a series of logistic hierarchical Age-Period-Cohort models to control for the effects of age and period, simultaneously...
November 27, 2017: American Journal of Human Biology: the Official Journal of the Human Biology Council
Karin A Mack, Christopher M Jones, Michael F Ballesteros
PROBLEM/CONDITION: Drug overdoses are a leading cause of injury death in the United States, resulting in approximately 52,000 deaths in 2015. Understanding differences in illicit drug use, illicit drug use disorders, and overall drug overdose deaths in metropolitan and nonmetropolitan areas is important for informing public health programs, interventions, and policies. REPORTING PERIOD: Illicit drug use and drug use disorders during 2003-2014, and drug overdose deaths during 1999-2015...
December 2017: American Journal of Transplantation
Saida R Sharapova, Tushar Singh, Israel T Agaku, Sara M Kennedy, Brian A King
INTRODUCTION: Accounting for occasional or intermittent e-cigarette use has yielded higher estimates of current use among U.S. adults. However, frequency of e-cigarette use by population subgroups is not well described. This study assessed e-cigarette use frequency by sociodemographic characteristics and other tobacco product use among U.S. adults. METHODS: This study analyzed combined data from the 2012-2013 (n=60,192) and 2013-2014 (n=75,233) National Adult Tobacco Survey, a telephone-based survey of U...
November 3, 2017: American Journal of Preventive Medicine
LaTisha L Marshall, Lei Zhang, Ann M Malarcher, Nathan H Mann, Brian A King, Robert L Alexander
Introduction: State quitlines provide free telephone-based cessation services and are available in all states. However, quitlines presently reach 1% of US cigarette smokers. We assessed variations in quitline reach by race/ethnicity across 45 US states included in the National Quitline Data Warehouse, a repository on non-identifiable data reported by state quitlines. Methods: During 2011 to 2013, we analyzed 1 220 171 records from the National Quitline Data Warehouse...
November 7, 2017: Nicotine & Tobacco Research: Official Journal of the Society for Research on Nicotine and Tobacco
Nadia Laniado, Stephanie Oliva, Gregory J Matthews
INTRODUCTION: There has been no epidemiologic study of malocclusion prevalence and treatment need in the United States since the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, conducted from 1988 to 1991. In this descriptive study, the authors sought to estimate orthodontic treatment prevalence by examining a nationally representative survey to assess current pediatric dental and orthodontic utilization. METHODS: The 2009 and 2013 Medical Expenditure Panel Surveys were used to categorize and compare all types of pediatric dental and orthodontic procedures in children and adolescents up to 20 years old...
November 2017: American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics
Karen Pazol, Cheryl L Robbins, Lindsey I Black, Katherine A Ahrens, Kimberly Daniels, Anjani Chandra, Anjel Vahratian, Lorrie E Gavin
PROBLEM/CONDITION: Receipt of key preventive health services among women and men of reproductive age (i.e., 15-44 years) can help them achieve their desired number and spacing of healthy children and improve their overall health. The 2014 publication Providing Quality Family Planning Services: Recommendations of CDC and the U.S. Office of Population Affairs (QFP) establishes standards for providing a core set of preventive services to promote these goals. These services include contraceptive care for persons seeking to prevent or delay pregnancy, pregnancy testing and counseling, basic infertility services for those seeking to achieve pregnancy, sexually transmitted disease (STD) services, and other preconception care and related preventive health services...
October 27, 2017: MMWR. Surveillance Summaries: Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. Surveillance Summaries
Eleanor Bimla Schwarz, Florentina E Sileanu, Xinhua Zhao, Maria K Mor, Lisa S Callegari, Sonya Borrero
OBJECTIVE: We compared rates of induced abortion among women Veterans receiving VA healthcare to rates in the general US population, as current policy prohibits VA provision of abortion counseling or services, even when pregnancy endangers a Veteran's life. METHODS: We analyzed data from 2, 298 women Veterans younger than 45years, who completed a telephone-based, cross-sectional survey of randomly-sampled English-speaking women from across the US who had received VA healthcare...
October 5, 2017: Contraception
Anna Kurniati, Ching-Min Chen, Ferry Efendi, Sarni Maniar Berliana
Employing the 2012 Indonesia Demographic and Health Survey data, we aimed to examine factors influencing married women to use maternity services. Data of married women who had given birth in the last five years before the survey were included in the analysis (n = 14,672). Factors of education, employment, women's age at first marriage, age at first birth, spousal education difference, contraceptive use, place of residence, and woman's attitude toward wife beating were associated with the use of antenatal care, institutional delivery, and postnatal care services...
January 2018: Health Care for Women International
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