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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29145711/timing-of-antibiotics-in-the-management-of-community-acquired-sepsis-can-a-randomised-controlled-trial-of-prehospital-therapy-provide-answers
#1
Andrew A Udy, Karen Smith, Stephen Bernard
Significant tension surrounds the application of antibiotics in suspected infection. Guidelines stress the importance of early empirical broad-spectrum therapy, with select observational data suggesting inferior outcomes when this is delayed. In contrast, microbiological resistance is an ever increasing global problem, with many advocating for a more restricted, culture-driven approach to antibiotic prescription. Controlled trial data are urgently needed, although many clinicians would find withholding of antibiotic therapy unethical...
November 16, 2017: Emergency Medicine Australasia: EMA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143926/prolonging-time-to-flare-in-pediatric-atopic-dermatitis-a-randomized-investigator-blinded-controlled-multicenter-clinical-study-of-a-ceramide-containing-moisturizer
#2
Lin Ma, Ping Li, Jianping Tang, Yifeng Guo, Chunping Shen, Jing Chang, Nabil Kerrouche
INTRODUCTION: Delaying or preventing flares is important in atopic dermatitis (AD) management. The objective of the study was to evaluate whether using a ceramide-containing moisturizer in addition to a body wash during latent AD can delay flares. METHODS: This was a randomized, investigator-blinded, parallel-group, controlled study among Chinese children with a history of mild to moderate AD, within 1 week of successful treatment with a topical corticosteroid...
November 16, 2017: Advances in Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143630/examining-the-mechanisms-by-which-women-s-status-and-empowerment-affect-skilled-birth-attendant-use-in-senegal-a-structural-equation-modeling-approach
#3
Kyoko Shimamoto, Jessica D Gipson
BACKGROUND: Despite the reduction in maternal deaths globally, maternal mortality rates remain unacceptably high, particularly in some regions of the world. In sub-Saharan Africa, maternal mortality rates have even increased recently, with 201,000 deaths in 2015 as compared to 179,000 in 2013. Use of a skilled birth attendant (SBA) at delivery has remained low, despite evidence of the effectiveness of SBAs in reducing maternal deaths. Women's empowerment is increasingly recognized as a key determinant of maternal health care-seeking and outcomes, yet empirical examinations of the linkages between women's empowerment and delivery care use are particularly limited, especially from sub-Saharan Africa...
November 8, 2017: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143627/conceptualizing-pathways-linking-women-s-empowerment-and-prematurity-in-developing-countries
#4
Patience A Afulani, Molly Altman, Joseph Musana, May Sudhinaraset
BACKGROUND: Globally, prematurity is the leading cause of death in children under the age of 5. Many efforts have focused on clinical approaches to improve the survival of premature babies. There is a need, however, to explore psychosocial, sociocultural, economic, and other factors as potential mechanisms to reduce the burden of prematurity. Women's empowerment may be a catalyst for moving the needle in this direction. The goal of this paper is to examine links between women's empowerment and prematurity in developing settings...
November 8, 2017: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139216/patterns-and-drivers-of-fish-extirpations-in-rivers-of-the-american-southwest-and-southeast
#5
John S Kominoski, Albert Ruhí, Megan M Hagler, Kelly Petersen, John L Sabo, Tushar Sinha, Arumugam Sankarasubramanian, Julian D Olden
Effective conservation of freshwater biodiversity requires spatially explicit investigations of how dams and hydroclimatic alterations among climate regions may interact to drive species to extinction. We investigated how dams and hydroclimatic alterations interact with species ecological and life history traits to influence past extirpation probabilities of native freshwater fishes in the Upper and Lower Colorado River (CR), Alabama-Coosa-Tallapoosa (ACT), and Apalachicola-Chattahoochee-Flint (ACF) basins...
November 15, 2017: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139198/factors-affecting-drug-development-strategies-in-asian-global-clinical-trials-for-drug-approval-in-japan
#6
Kunihito Asano, Yoshiaki Uyama, Masahiro Tohkin
We assessed the current status of Asian global clinical trials (GCTs) and factors, such as therapeutic areas, main metabolic enzymes targeted, approval status in the United States or the European Union, development strategies, influencing drug-development strategies in Asian GCTs and in general GCTs for drug approval in Japan. The findings suggested that region-specific diseases in Asia, intrinsic and extrinsic ethnic differences between Japanese/Asian and Caucasian populations, and the status of the drugs' development in the United States or the European Union all affected Asian GCTs...
November 15, 2017: Clinical and Translational Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138302/disruption-of-the-opal-stop-codon-attenuates-chikungunya-virus-induced-arthritis-and-pathology
#7
Jennifer E Jones, Kristin M Long, Alan C Whitmore, Wes Sanders, Lance R Thurlow, Julia A Brown, Clayton R Morrison, Heather Vincent, Kayla M Peck, Christian Browning, Nathaniel Moorman, Jean K Lim, Mark T Heise
Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a mosquito-borne alphavirus responsible for several significant outbreaks of debilitating acute and chronic arthritis and arthralgia over the past decade. These include a recent outbreak in the Caribbean islands and the Americas that caused more than 1 million cases of viral arthralgia. Despite the major impact of CHIKV on global health, viral determinants that promote CHIKV-induced disease are incompletely understood. Most CHIKV strains contain a conserved opal stop codon at the end of the viral nsP3 gene...
November 14, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137146/the-dynamics-of-arrivals-of-maine-migratory-breeding-birds-results-from-a-24-year-study
#8
W Herbert Wilson
This citizen-science project is the first systematic study of patterns of spring migration of Maine migratory birds. A comparison of arrival data from the Maine Ornithological Society from 1899-1911 with the modern data (1994-2017) collected for this study indicated that most species are now not arriving earlier, contrary to the predictions of earlier arrivals in the face of global warming. Arrival was synchronous across the lower two-thirds of the state for most species, although some species showed delayed arrivals along the northeastern coast compared to southern coastal areas...
November 12, 2017: Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29134476/aminoglycoside-damage-and-hair-cell-regeneration-in-the-chicken-utricle
#9
Mirko Scheibinger, Daniel C Ellwanger, C Eduardo Corrales, Jennifer S Stone, Stefan Heller
In this study, we present a systematic characterization of hair cell loss and regeneration in the chicken utricle in vivo. A single unilateral surgical delivery of streptomycin caused robust decline of hair cell numbers in striolar as well as extrastriolar regions, which in the striola was detected very early, 6 h post-insult. During the initial 12 h of damage response, we observed global repression of DNA replication, in contrast to the natural, mitotic hair cell production in undamaged control utricles...
November 13, 2017: Journal of the Association for Research in Otolaryngology: JARO
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132760/hepatitis-c-in-sub-saharan-africa-the-current-status-and-recommendations-for-achieving-elimination-by-2030
#10
REVIEW
Mark W Sonderup, Mary Afihene, Reidwaan Ally, Betty Apica, Yaw Awuku, Lina Cunha, Geoffrey Dusheiko, Neliswa Gogela, Marie-Jeanne Lohouès-Kouacou, Phillip Lam, Olufunmilayo Lesi, Papa Saliou Mbaye, Emmanuel Musabeyezu, Betty Musau, Olesegun Ojo, John Rwegasha, Barbara Scholz, Abate B Shewaye, Christian Tzeuton, Chris Kassianides, C Wendy Spearman
In 2016, WHO adopted a strategy for the elimination of viral hepatitis by 2030. Africa, and more specifically, sub-Saharan Africa, carries a substantial portion of the global burden of viral hepatitis, especially chronic hepatitis B and hepatitis C virus infections. The task that lies ahead for sub-Saharan Africa to achieve elimination is substantial, but not insurmountable. Major developments in the management of hepatitis C have put elimination within reach, but several difficulties will need to be navigated on the path to elimination...
December 2017: Lancet. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131849/modelling-the-cost-effectiveness-of-hiv-care-shows-a-clear-benefit-when-transmission-risk-is-considered-in-the-calculations-a-message-for-central-and-eastern-europe
#11
Justyna D Kowalska, Grzegorz Wójcik, Jakub Rutkowski, Magdalena Ankiersztejn-Bartczak, Ewa Siewaszewicz
BACKGROUND: HIV epidemic remains a major global health issue. Data from cost-effectiveness analyses base on CD4+ count and morbidity in patients with symptomatic and asymptomatic HIV infection. The approach adopted in these analyses includes many other factors, previously not investigated. Additionally, we evaluate the impact of sexual HIV transmission due to delayed cART on the cost-effectiveness of care. METHODS: A lifetime Markov model (1-month cycle) was developed to estimate the cost per quality adjusted life years (QALY) for a 1- and 3-year delay in starting cART (as compared to starting immediately at linkage to care) lifetime costs, clinical outcomes and cost-effectiveness...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29131285/favourable-hypotensive-effect-after-standardised-tomato-extract-treatment-in-hypertensive-subjects-at-high-estimated-cardiovascular-risk-a-randomised-controlled-trial
#12
Beata Krasińska, Angelika Osińska, Aleksandra Krasińska, Maciej Osiński, Piotr Rzymski, Andrzej Tykarski, Zbigniew Krasiński
BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular (CV) diseases remain a leading global cause of death. Lowering blood pressure (BP) reduces the risk of CV complications, especially stroke and acute coronary events, and it delays the progression of kidney disease. Adequate non-pharmacological treatment improves the effectiveness of the antihypertensive therapy. A Mediterranean diet with high content of vegetables (rich in tomatoes) is associated with a reduced CV risk. AIM: The main objective of the present study was to assess if the addition of standardised extract of tomato (STE) or acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) to standard antihypertensive therapy can improve blood pressure control in patients with hypertension (HT)...
November 13, 2017: Kardiologia Polska
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130579/a-homozygous-deleterious-cdk10-mutation-in-a-patient-with-agenesis-of-corpus-callosum-retinopathy-and-deafness
#13
Vincent J Guen, Simon Edvardson, Nitay D Fraenkel, Aviva Fattal-Valevski, Chaim Jalas, Irene Anteby, Avraham Shaag, Talia Dor, David Gillis, Eitan Kerem, Jacqueline A Lees, Pierre Colas, Orly Elpeleg
The primary cilium is a key organelle in numerous physiological and developmental processes. Genetic defects in the formation of this non-motile structure, in its maintenance and function, underlie a wide array of ciliopathies in human, including craniofacial, brain and heart malformations, and retinal and hearing defects. We used exome sequencing to study the molecular basis of disease in an 11-year-old female patient who suffered from growth retardation, global developmental delay with absent speech acquisition, agenesis of corpus callosum and paucity of white matter, sensorineural deafness, retinitis pigmentosa, vertebral anomalies, patent ductus arteriosus, and facial dysmorphism reminiscent of STAR syndrome, a suspected ciliopathy...
November 12, 2017: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128703/new-results-on-global-exponential-dissipativity-analysis-of-memristive-inertial-neural-networks-with-distributed-time-varying-delays
#14
Guodong Zhang, Zhigang Zeng, Junhao Hu
This paper is concerned with the global exponential dissipativity of memristive inertial neural networks with discrete and distributed time-varying delays. By constructing appropriate Lyapunov-Krasovskii functionals, some new sufficient conditions ensuring global exponential dissipativity of memristive inertial neural networks are derived. Moreover, the globally exponential attractive sets and positive invariant sets are also presented here. In addition, the new proposed results here complement and extend the earlier publications on conventional or memristive neural network dynamical systems...
November 9, 2017: Neural Networks: the Official Journal of the International Neural Network Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128195/-what-support-of-young-presenting-a-first-psychotic-episode-when-schooling-is-being-challenged
#15
M-N Vacheron, H Veyrat-Masson, E Wehbe
Psychiatric disorders (more specifically mood disorders and psychosis) represent the 1st cause of disability among young people. Unemployment rate between 75 to 95% for the person with schizophrenia. It is correlated to poor social integration and bad economic status, worse symptomatology loss of autonomy as well as global bad functioning. It is responsible of more than half of the overall cost of psychosis. The onset of most of psychiatric disorders occur between the age of 25 and 35 years old, a critical time in young adult life when they should build their professional as well as social future...
November 8, 2017: L'Encéphale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128086/delayed-presentation-and-diagnosis-of-breast-cancer-in-african-women-a-systematic-review
#16
REVIEW
Carolina Espina, Fiona McKenzie, Isabel Dos-Santos-Silva
PURPOSE: Africa has low breast cancer incidence rates but high mortality rates from this disease due to poor survival. Delays in presentation and diagnosis are major determinants of breast cancer survival, but these have not been comprehensively investigated in Africa. METHODS: MEDLINE, Embase, and Global Health were searched to identify studies reporting on delays in presentation and/or diagnosis of breast cancer published between January 1, 2000 and May 31, 2016...
October 2017: Annals of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124873/exposure-to-predicted-precipitation-patterns-decrease-population-size-and-alter-community-structure-of-cyanobacteria-in-biological-soil-crusts-from-the-chihuahuan-desert
#17
Vanessa Moreira Câmara Fernandes, Náthali Maria Machado de Lima, Daniel Roush, Jennifer Rudgers, Scott L Collins, Ferran Garcia-Pichel
Cyanobacteria typically colonize the surface of arid soils, building biological soil crust (biocrusts) that provide a variety of ecosystem benefits, ranging from fertilization to stabilization against erosion. We investigated how future scenarios in precipitation anticipated for the Northern Chihuahuan Desert affected abundance and composition of biocrust cyanobacteria in two grassland ecosystems. Scenarios included a decrease in precipitation and a delay of monsoon rainfall. After three years, both treatments negatively affected cyanobacteria, although the effects of monsoon delay were milder than those of decreased precipitation...
November 10, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124116/toward-common-mechanisms-for-risk-factors-in-alzheimer-s-syndrome
#18
REVIEW
Miguel Medina, Zaven S Khachaturian, Martin Rossor, Jesús Avila, Angel Cedazo-Minguez
The global strategic goal of reducing health care cost, especially the prospects for massive increases due to expanding markets for health care services demanded by aging populations and/or people with a wide range of chronic disorders-disabilities, is a complex and formidable challenge with many facets. Current projections predict marked increases in the demand for health driven by both the exponential climb in the prevalence of chronic disabilities and the increases in the absolute numbers of people in need of some form of health care...
November 2017: Alzheimer's & Dementia: Translational Research & Clinical Interventions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123960/the-sting-agonist-dmxaa-triggers-a-cooperation-between-t-lymphocytes-and-myeloid-cells-that-leads-to-tumor-regression
#19
Julia M Weiss, Marion V Guérin, Fabienne Regnier, Gilles Renault, Isabelle Galy-Fauroux, Lene Vimeux, Vincent Feuillet, Elisa Peranzoni, Maxime Thoreau, Alain Trautmann, Nadège Bercovici
Regressing tumors are usually associated with a large immune infiltrate, but the molecular and cellular interactions that govern a successful anti-tumor immunity remain elusive. Here, we have triggered type I Interferon (IFN) signaling in a breast tumor model (MMTV-PyMT) using 5,6-dimethylxanthenone-4-acetic acid (DMXAA), a ligand of the STimulator of Interferon Genes, STING. The 2 main events rapidly triggered by DMXAA in transplanted PyMT tumors are 1) the disruption of the tumor vasculature, followed by hypoxia and cell death; 2) the release of chemokines...
2017: Oncoimmunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123090/global-patterns-of-nitrate-storage-in-the-vadose-zone
#20
M J Ascott, D C Gooddy, L Wang, M E Stuart, M A Lewis, R S Ward, A M Binley
Global-scale nitrogen budgets developed to quantify anthropogenic impacts on the nitrogen cycle do not explicitly consider nitrate stored in the vadose zone. Here we show that the vadose zone is an important store of nitrate that should be considered in future budgets for effective policymaking. Using estimates of groundwater depth and nitrate leaching for 1900-2000, we quantify the peak global storage of nitrate in the vadose zone as 605-1814 Teragrams (Tg). Estimates of nitrate storage are validated using basin-scale and national-scale estimates and observed groundwater nitrate data...
November 10, 2017: Nature Communications
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