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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28875540/the-physiological-motor-patterns-produced-by-neurons-in-the-nucleus-retroambiguus-in-the-rat-and-their-modulation-by-vagal-peripheral-chemosensory-and-nociceptive-stimulation
#1
Hari H Subramanian, Zheng-Gui Huang, Peter A Silburn, Ron J Balnave, Gert Holstege
The nucleus retroambiguus (NRA) is a neuronal cell group in the medullary ventrolateral tegmentum, rostrocaudally between the obex and the first cervical spinal segment. NRA neurons are premotor interneurons with direct projections to the motoneurons of soft palate, pharynx and larynx in the nucleus ambiguus in the lateral medulla as well as to the motoneurons in the spinal cord innervating diaphragm, abdominal, and pelvic floor muscles and the lumbosacral motoneurons generating sexual posture. These NRA premotor interneurons receive very strong projections from the periaqueductal gray (PAG) in the context of basic survival mechanisms as fight, flight, freezing, sound production and sexual behavior...
September 5, 2017: Journal of Comparative Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28871074/acoustics-of-snoring-and-automatic-snore-sound-detection-in-children
#2
Mustafa Cavusoglu, Christian Poets, Michael Urschitz
Acoustic analyses of snoring sounds have been efficiently used to objectively assess snoring and to apply in various clinical problems for adult patients. Such studies require highly automatized tools to analyze the whole night sleep sound recordings to extract clinically relevant snore related statistics. The existing techniques and software for adults are not efficiently applicable to snoring sounds in pediatric patients basically because of different acoustic signal properties. In this paper, we present a broad range of acoustic characterization of snoring sounds in children (N=38) in comparison to adult (N=30) patients...
September 5, 2017: Physiological Measurement
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28840490/usability-of-computerized-lung-auscultation-sound-software-class-for-learning-pulmonary-auscultation
#3
Ana Machado, Ana Oliveira, Cristina Jácome, Marco Pereira, José Moreira, João Rodrigues, José Aparício, Luis M T Jesus, Alda Marques
The mastering of pulmonary auscultation requires complex acoustic skills. Computer-assisted learning tools (CALTs) have potential to enhance the learning of these skills; however, few have been developed for this purpose and do not integrate all the required features. Thus, this study aimed to assess the usability of a new CALT for learning pulmonary auscultation. Computerized Lung Auscultation-Sound Software (CLASS) usability was assessed by eight physiotherapy students using computer screen recordings, think-aloud reports, and facial expressions...
August 24, 2017: Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28837726/respiratory-and-laryngeal-changes-with-vocal-loading-in-younger-and-older-individuals
#4
Anusha Sundarrajan, Jessica E Huber, M Preeti Sivasankar
Purpose: The objective of the current study was to investigate the effects of age and vocal loading on the respiratory and laryngeal systems. Method: Fourteen younger (M = 20 years) and 13 older (M = 75 years) healthy individuals participated in a 40-min vocal loading challenge in the presence of 70-dB background noise. Respiratory kinematic and laryngeal measurements were obtained before and after the challenge. Results: Following the loading challenge, participants in both groups reported greater speaking effort...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Speech, Language, and Hearing Research: JSLHR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28835381/reliability-of-examination-findings-in-suspected-community-acquired-pneumonia
#5
Todd A Florin, Lilliam Ambroggio, Cole Brokamp, Mantosh S Rattan, Eric J Crotty, Andrea Kachelmeyer, Richard M Ruddy, Samir S Shah
BACKGROUND: The authors of national guidelines emphasize the use of history and examination findings to diagnose community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) in outpatient children. Little is known about the interrater reliability of the physical examination in children with suspected CAP. METHODS: This was a prospective cohort study of children with suspected CAP presenting to a pediatric emergency department from July 2013 to May 2016. Children aged 3 months to 18 years with lower respiratory signs or symptoms who received a chest radiograph were included...
September 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28831197/a-pulsed-air-model-of-blue-whale-b-call-vocalizations
#6
R P Dziak, J H Haxel, T-K Lau, S Heimlich, J Caplan-Auerbach, D K Mellinger, H Matsumoto, B Mate
Blue whale sound production has been thought to occur by Helmholtz resonance via air flowing from the lungs into the upper respiratory spaces. This implies that the frequency of blue whale vocalizations might be directly proportional to the size of their sound-producing organs. Here we present a sound production mechanism where the fundamental and overtone frequencies of blue whale B calls can be well modeled using a series of short-duration (<1 s) wavelets. We propose that the likely source of these wavelets are pneumatic pulses caused by opening and closing of respiratory valves during air recirculation between the lungs and laryngeal sac...
August 22, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28828360/transpulmonary-pressure-importance-and-limits
#7
REVIEW
Domenico Luca Grieco, Lu Chen, Laurent Brochard
Transpulmonary pressure (PL) is computed as the difference between airway pressure and pleural pressure and separates the pressure delivered to the lung from the one acting on chest wall and abdomen. Pleural pressure is measured as esophageal pressure (PES) through dedicated catheters provided with esophageal balloons. We discuss the role of PL in assessing the effects of mechanical ventilation in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). In the supine position, directly measured PL represents the pressure acting on the alveoli and airways...
July 2017: Annals of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28808334/cardiorespiratory-optimization-during-improvised-singing-and-toning
#8
N F Bernardi, S Snow, I Peretz, H D Orozco Perez, N Sabet-Kassouf, A Lehmann
We evaluated the effect of different forms of singing on cardiorespiratory physiology, and we aimed at disentangling the role of breathing from that of vocal production. Cardiorespiratory recordings were obtained from 20 healthy adults at rest and during: a) singing of familiar slow songs as in the standard form of Western culture; b) improvised vocalization of free vowel sounds, known as toning. To disentangle the role of breathing from that of vocal production, we compared the vocal conditions with matched breathing-only conditions...
August 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28796094/patulous-eustachian-tube-dysfunction-patient-demographics-and-comorbidities
#9
Bryan K Ward, Yehia Ashry, Dennis S Poe
OBJECTIVE: The objective is to describe a large cohort of patients presenting with patulous Eustachian tube (pET) dysfunction. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective patient series. SETTING: Tertiary referral center. PATIENTS: All outpatient visits (2004-2016) that were assigned ICD9 code (381.7-Patulous Eustachian tube) were screened. Only patients with observed tympanic membrane movements during ipsilateral nasal breathing or acoustic reflex decay testing demonstrating transmitted nasal breathing were included (n = 190, n = 239 ears)...
October 2017: Otology & Neurotology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782173/silent-navigator-triggered-silent-mri-of-the-abdomen
#10
Yuji Iwadate, Atsushi Nozaki, Yoshinobu Nunokawa, Shigeo Okuda, Masahiro Jinzaki, Hiroyuki Kabasawa
PURPOSE: To develop and demonstrate the feasibility of a silent respiratory navigator technique for prospective triggering, which was incorporated into a three-dimensional radial zero-echo-time sequence for respiratory navigated silent abdominal imaging. METHODS: A nonselective hard excitation radiofrequency pulse was used for the navigator sequence with a derated readout gradient, to avoid generation of high levels of acoustic noise. The acquired navigator signals were processed in real time and used for prospective triggering of the zero-echo-time sequence...
August 7, 2017: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759934/-apnea-detection-by-means-of-respiratory-sound-recordings-and-polysomnography-a-comparative-study
#11
M von Heydebrand, O Hildebrandt, W Cassel, A Schäfer, K Kesper, A Weissflog, N Taher, K Sohrabi, V Gross, U Koehler
Introduction In this study, recognition of apnoeas by means of polysomnography (PSG) and nocturnal respiratory sound recordings in patients with obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) was analyzed and compared. Methods In 45 patients with OSA requiring treatment (AHI > 15/h), concomitant polysomnographic recordings and long term respiratory sound recordings by means of LEOSound were performed. Patients' average age was 58 ± 12 years (mean ± standard deviation), average BMI was 33 ± 7 kg/m(2). Audio-visual apnoea detection by LEOSound was compared to polysomnographic apnoea detection...
September 2017: Pneumologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28752928/retrospective-evaluation-of-and-risk-factor-analysis-for-presumed-fluid-overload-in-cats-with-urethral-obstruction-11-cases-2002-2012
#12
Cassandra J Ostroski, Kenneth J Drobatz, Erica L Reineke
OBJECTIVE: To describe patient characteristics, treatment, and outcome in male cats with urethral obstruction (UO) and fluid overload (FO), and to determine risk factors for the development of FO. DESIGN: Retrospective case-control study from 2002-2012. ANIMALS: Eleven client-owned cats with UO that developed respiratory distress secondary to suspected FO and 51 control cats with UO without FO. INTERVENTIONS: None. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Medical records of cats with UO and FO were identified...
September 2017: Journal of Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739332/effects-of-voice-therapy-on-muscle-tension-dysphonia-a-systematic-literature-review
#13
REVIEW
Gabriela da Cunha Pereira, Isadora de Oliveira Lemos, Camila Dalbosco Gadenz, Mauriceia Cassol
The present study aimed to carry out a systematic review of the effects of voice therapy on individuals diagnosed with muscle tension dysphonia (MTD) or hyperfunctional dysphonia. This is a systematic literature review on the databases Medline (via PubMed), Cochrane Library, Scopus, and Lilacs using a search strategy related to the theme of the study. The selection included clinical trials that assessed the effects of speech therapy intervention on patients diagnosed with MTD or hyperfunctional dysphonia published over the last 10 years in Portuguese, English, or Spanish...
July 21, 2017: Journal of Voice: Official Journal of the Voice Foundation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738893/anaphylaxis-with-delayed-appearance-of-skin-manifestations-during-general-anesthesia-two-case-reports
#14
Hiroshi Hanamoto, Fumi Kozu, Aiko Oyamaguchi, Mika Inoue, Chizuko Yokoe, Hitoshi Niwa
BACKGROUND: Anaphylaxis is difficult to diagnose in the absence of skin or mucosal signs and symptoms. We report two cases of anaphylaxis under general anesthesia, in which the initial presentation was in the form of respiratory signs, followed by skin manifestations 10-15 min later. Diagnosis of anaphylaxis was delayed because skin symptoms were absent early on in the presentation. CASE PRESENTATION: In the first case, a 23-year-old male patient with jaw deformity was scheduled to undergo maxillary alveolar osteotomy...
July 24, 2017: BMC Research Notes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731412/lung-sound-analysis-is-useful-for-monitoring-therapy-in-patients-with-bronchial-asthma
#15
T Shimoda, Y Obase, Y Nagasaka, H Nakano, R Kishikawa, T Iwanaga
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Lung sound analysis (LSA) has been reported to be useful for predicting airway obstruction and inflammation in patients with bronchial asthma. Objectives: We examined whether the exhalation-to-inhalation sound pressure ratio in the middle frequency range (200-400 Hz) (E/I MF) is useful for monitoring therapy in patients with asthma. METHODS: The study population comprised 84 patients with mild to moderate asthma whose LSA data were available before and after 1 year of daily treatment with (budesonide 800 μg)...
2017: Journal of Investigational Allergology & Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712601/the-effects-of-uvulopalatal-flap-operation-on-speech-nasalance-and-the-acoustic-parameters-of-the-final-nasal-consonants
#16
Soo Kyoung Park, Yong Soo Lee, Young Ae Kang, Jun Xu, Ki Sang Rha, Yong Min Kim
OBJECTIVE: The acoustic characteristics of voice are determined by the source of the sound and shape of the vocal tract. Various anatomical changes after uvulopalatal flap (UPF) operation can change nasalance and/or other voice characteristics. Our aim was to explore the possible effects of UPF creation on speech nasalance and the resonatory features of the final nasal consonants, and thus voice characteristics. METHODS: A total of 30 patients (26 males, 4 females) with obstructive sleep apnea who underwent UPF operation were recruited...
July 13, 2017: Auris, Nasus, Larynx
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692924/experimental-co-infection-of-infectious-bronchitis-and-low-pathogenic-avian-influenza-h9n2-viruses-in-commercial-broiler-chickens
#17
Kareem E Hassan, Ahmed Ali, Salama A S Shany, Magdy F El-Kady
In this study, commercial broilers were experimentally infected with single (classical IBV, variant IBV or AIV-H9N2) or mixed AIV-H9N2 with classical, variant or vaccine strains of IBV. Birds were monitored for clinical and pathological outcomes and virus shedding for 10days post infection (DPI). Clinical signs were limited to the respiratory tract in all challenged groups and varied from mild to moderate mouth breathing to severe respiratory signs with snorting sound and extended head. Mortalities were only recorded in mixed AIV-H9N2/variant IBV challenge group...
June 30, 2017: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676955/a-novel-approach-for-acoustic-estimation-of-neck-fluid-volume-between-men-and-women
#18
Mehrnaz Shokrollahi, Frank Rudzicz, Daniel Vena, T Douglas Bradley, Azadeh Yadollahi
Obstructive Sleep apnea can be caused by fluid shift from the legs to the neck that narrows the upper airway (UA) and contributes to changes in tracheal sound. Tracheal sound is generated from the turbulent airflow in the pharynx and respiratory airways and it has recently been used to estimate increases in neck fluid volume (NFV). However, tracheal sound is also highly variable among people, especially across the sexes. In this paper, a novel method is proposed to select tracheal sound features towards estimating NFV in men and women separately...
July 5, 2017: Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28668760/effect-of-contaminants-of-emerging-concern-on-liver-mitochondrial-function-in-chinook-salmon
#19
Andrew Yeh, David J Marcinek, James P Meador, Evan P Gallagher
We previously reported the bioaccumulation of contaminants of emerging concern (CECs), including pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) and perfluorinated compounds, in field-collected juvenile Chinook salmon from urban estuaries of Puget Sound, WA (Meador et al., 2016). Although the toxicological impacts of CECs on salmon are poorly understood, several of the detected contaminants disrupt mitochondrial function in other species. Here, we sought to determine whether environmental exposures to CECs are associated with hepatic mitochondrial dysfunction in juvenile Chinook...
September 2017: Aquatic Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641244/computerized-lung-sound-screening-for-pediatric-auscultation-in-noisy-field-environments
#20
Dimitra Emmanouilidou, Eric D McCollum, Daniel E Park, Mounya Elhilali
GOAL: Chest auscultations offer a non-invasive and low-cost tool for monitoring lung disease. However, they present many shortcomings including inter-listener variability, subjectivity, and vulnerability to noise and distortions. The current work proposes a computer-aided approach to process lung signals acquired in the field under adverse noisy conditions, by improving the signal quality and offering automated iden- tification of abnormal auscultations indicative of respiratory pathologies...
June 19, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Bio-medical Engineering
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