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Feng Sun, Chen Li, Chaochao Fu, Xiangbiao Zhou, Jun Luo, Wei Zou, Zhi-Jun Qiu, Dongping Wu
Dopant-segregated source/drain contacts in a p-channel Schottky-barrier metal-oxide semiconductor field-effect transistor (SB-MOSFET) require further hole Schottky barrier height (SBH) regulation toward sub-0.1 eV levels to improve their competitiveness with conventional field-effect transistors. Because of the solubility limits of dopants in silicon, the requirements for effective hole SBH reduction with dopant segregation cannot be satisfied using mono-implantation. In this study, we demonstrate a potential solution for further SBH tuning by implementing the dual implantation of boron (B) and aluminum (Al) in combination with microwave annealing (MWA)...
March 22, 2018: Materials
David Cameron, Jasper Ubels, Fredrik Norström
BACKGROUND: The amount a government should be willing to invest in adopting new medical treatments has long been under debate. With many countries using formal cost-effectiveness (C/E) thresholds when examining potential new treatments and ever-growing medical costs, accurately setting the level of a C/E threshold can be essential for an efficient healthcare system. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this systematic review is to describe the prominent approaches to setting a C/E threshold, compile available national-level C/E threshold data and willingness-to-pay (WTP) data, and to discern whether associations exist between these values, gross domestic product (GDP) and health-adjusted life expectancy (HALE)...
2018: Global Health Action
Torsten C Schmidt
Water analysis has been an important area since the beginning of analytical chemistry. The focus though has shifted substantially: from minerals and the main constituents of water in the time of Carl Remigius Fresenius to a multitude of, in particular, organic compounds at concentrations down to the sub-nanogram per liter level nowadays. This was possible only because of numerous innovations in instrumentation in recent decades, drivers of which are briefly discussed. In addition to the high demands on sensitivity, high throughput by automation and short analysis times are major requirements...
March 21, 2018: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
Lukumon A Odunmbaku, Sunday S Sobowale, Monilola K Adenekan, Taiwo Oloyede, Janet A Adebiyi, Oluwafemi A Adebo
The quest for high-quality starch that would meet the needs of manufacturers is ever increasing. This study investigated the effect of steeping duration, drying temperature, and duration on the chemical properties of sorghum starch, to possibly alter the characteristics of sorghum starch for food applications. Steeping duration, drying temperature, and drying time of starch isolation were optimized using a central composite design and nine parameters including pH, amylose content, moisture, protein, ash, crude fiber, fat, carbohydrate, and total energy determined...
March 2018: Food Science & Nutrition
Fei Chen, Yong Peng, Mao Chen
Cardiac involvement in idiopathic inflammatory myopathies (IIMs) attracts more attention than it ever did because of its morbidity and impact on worse prognosis, although the accurate information needs further epidemiological studies. Early identification and intervention for the diseased heart may help improve the clinical outcomes of IIMs with cardiac involvement. Cardiac troponin assays, allowing for sensitive detection of minor myocardium injury, may provide a new way for early detection for heart involvement in IIMs...
March 20, 2018: International Heart Journal
Filippos T Filippidis, Anthony A Laverty, Ute Mons, Carlos Jimenez-Ruiz, Constantine I Vardavas
BACKGROUND: The landscape of smoking cessation may have changed in Europe recently. OBJECTIVES: To identify changes in use of smoking cessation assistance in the European Union (EU) and factors associated with use of cessation assistance. METHODS: Data from the 2012 (n=9921) and 2017 (n=9489) waves of the Eurobarometer survey were used. Self-reported use of smoking cessation assistance was assessed among smokers who had ever tried to quit and former smokers...
March 21, 2018: Tobacco Control
Huang-Kai Kao, Charles Yuen Yung Loh, Hao-Wei Kou, Kuo-Chin Kao, Han-Chung Hu, Chia-Ming Chang, Chia-Hui Lee, Hsiang-Hao Hsu
BACKGROUND: Majority of current research focuses on pre-hospital care in mass casualty incidents (MCI) whereas this study is the first to examine multifactorial aspects of intensive care unit (ICU) resource management during a surge in massive burn injury (MBI) patients whilst identifying key outcome predictors that resulted in successful disaster managements. METHODS: Both critical care, surgical parameters and cost-effectiveness are investigated in patients admitted with severe burns resulting from the explosion...
March 18, 2018: Burns: Journal of the International Society for Burn Injuries
Rukumani Devi Velayuthan, Chandramathi Samudi, Harvinder Kaur Lakhbeer Singh, Kee Peng Ng, Esaki M Shankar, David W Denning
Fungal infections (mycoses) are likely to occur more frequently as ever-increasingly sophisticated healthcare systems create greater risk factors. There is a paucity of systematic data on the incidence and prevalence of human fungal infections in Malaysia. We conducted a comprehensive study to estimate the burden of serious fungal infections in Malaysia. Our study showed that recurrent vaginal candidiasis (>4 episodes/year) was the most common of all cases with a diagnosis of candidiasis ( n = 501,138). Oesophageal candidiasis ( n = 5850) was most predominant among individuals with HIV infection...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Fungi (Basel, Switzerland)
Patrizia Mecocci, Marta Baroni, Umberto Senin, Virginia Boccardi
Alzheimer's disease (AD) represents the most common form of dementia in old age subjects, and despite decades of studies, the underlying etiopathogenetic mechanisms remain unsolved. The definition of AD has changed over the past years, offering an ever more detailed definition of pre-morbid and pre-clinical status, but without a similar strong emphasis on the role of aging as the main risk factor. In fact, while early-onset AD is a clear consequence of gene mutations, late-onset AD is more likely due to a gradual accumulation of age-related damages...
March 16, 2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Peter F M Teunis, Eric G Evers, Paul D Hengeveld, Cindy M Dierikx, Cornelia C C H Wielders, Engeline van Duijkeren
A subset of the study population from a cross-sectional study of carriership of ESBL/pAmpC-producing E. coli (ESBL-E) in the general population was followed up by five successive samples over an approximate half year period, leading to six samples in 333 persons. Fecal samples were cultured and analyzed for the presence of E. coli types as characterized by MLST, and ESBL/pAmpC genes were analysed by PCR and sequencing. The study included 255 persons who had a negative first sample, to allow observations of acquiring carriership of ESBL-E...
2018: PloS One
Jennifer L Perret, Melanie C Matheson, Lyle C Gurrin, David P Johns, John A Burgess, Bruce R Thompson, Adrian J Lowe, James Markos, Stephen S Morrison, Christine F McDonald, Richard Wood-Baker, Cecilie Svanes, Paul S Thomas, John L Hopper, Graham G Giles, Michael J Abramson, E Haydn Walters, Shyamali C Dharmage
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) has potential origins in childhood but an association between childhood measles and post-bronchodilator (BD) airflow obstruction (AO) has not yet been shown. We investigated whether childhood measles contributed to post-BD AO through interactions with asthma and/or smoking in a non-immunized middle-aged population. METHODS: The population-based Tasmanian Longitudinal Health Study (TAHS) cohort born in 1961 (n = 8583) underwent spirometry in 1968 before immunization was introduced...
March 20, 2018: Respirology: Official Journal of the Asian Pacific Society of Respirology
Andrea Cipriano, Monica Ballarino
The completion of the human genome sequence together with advances in sequencing technologies have shifted the paradigm of the genome, as composed of discrete and hereditable coding entities, and have shown the abundance of functional noncoding DNA. This part of the genome, previously dismissed as "junk" DNA, increases proportionally with organismal complexity and contributes to gene regulation beyond the boundaries of known protein-coding genes. Different classes of functionally relevant nonprotein-coding RNAs are transcribed from noncoding DNA sequences...
2018: Frontiers in Molecular Biosciences
Xiaoqi Wang
Ozone was discovered in the mid-nineteenth century and is proven to have many therapeutic effects, including its common application as a disinfectant to kill microorganisms in various conditions. Ozone therapies have been utilized for various purposes ever since it was discovered. Extensive studies over a century have verified its therapeutic effects, consistency, and safety with minimal and preventable side effects in medical care. Emerging evidence revealed that ozone also plays important roles in the management and prevention of various skin disorders including infectious skin diseases, skin related allergic diseases, erythema scaly diseases, wound healing and ulcer recovery...
February 28, 2018: Zhong Nan da Xue Xue Bao. Yi Xue Ban, Journal of Central South University. Medical Sciences
Rajiv Dhand, Donald A Mahler, Brian Carlin, Nicola Hanania, Jill Ohar, Victor Pinto-Plata, Tina Shah, David Eubanks, Sidney S Braman
BACKGROUND: Successful inhalation therapy depends on the ability of patients with COPD to properly use devices. We explored subjects' COPD knowledge, including education they receive from health care providers, treatment experiences, and practices with inhalation devices. METHODS: A multiple-choice online survey, developed by a steering committee of American Thoracic Society clinicians and scientists, was administered to subjects with COPD who were sourced from the Harris Poll Online panel...
March 20, 2018: Respiratory Care
Manu Jamwal, Anu Aggarwal, Man Updesh Singh Sachdeva, Prashant Sharma, Pankaj Malhotra, Arindam Maitra, Reena Das
Overhydrated stomatocytosis is a rare autosomal dominant disorder known to cause variably severe haemolytic anaemia due to heterozygous mutations in the RHAG gene. We report a 26-year-old man with recurring jaundice, splenohepatomegaly and mild chronic haemolytic anaemia with significant stomatocytosis. Extensive haemolytic work-up including flow cytometry for eosin-5'-maleimide and CD47 expression levels was carried out. Targeted resequencing revealed two probably causative heterozygous mutations in RHAG (Leu336Ser and Ile149Met) and one heterozygous mutation in ANK1 (Glu1046Lys) ...
March 20, 2018: Journal of Clinical Pathology
Colleen A F Lawton
Prostate cancer is the most common nonskin cancer diagnosed in U.S. men and kills over 27 000 men annually. Thus, improving the outcomes for patients diagnosed with this disease is imperative. There has been a considerable amount of research done over the past several decades resulting in more cures than ever, but the death rate is still unacceptable. This oration addresses the progress that we have made over the past several decades and outlines the work yet to be done, as well as some processes to make that work happen...
April 2018: Radiology
Kenneth Maiese
BACKGROUND: With the global increase in life span expectancy, neurodegenerative disorders continue to affect an ever increasing number of individuals throughout the world. New treatment strategies for neurodegenerative diseases are desperately required given the lack of current treatment modalities. METHODS: Here we examine novel strategies for neurodegenerative disorders that include circadian clock genes, non-coding ribonucleic acids (RNAs), and the mammalian forkhead transcription factors of the O class (FoxOs)...
March 19, 2018: Current Neurovascular Research
Sufian S Ahmad, Michael T Hirschmann, Roland Becker, Ahmed Shaker, Atesch Ateschrang, Marius J B Keel, Christoph E Albers, Lukas Buetikofer, Sithombo Maqungo, Ulrich Stöckle, Sandro Kohl
PURPOSE: (1) To determine the overall accuracy of synovial alpha-defensin, synovial C-reactive protein (sCRP), interleukin-6 (sIL-6), and leukocyte esterase (sLE) as diagnostic markers for periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) and (2) to independantly evaluate the accuracy of both the laboratory-based ELISA alpha-defensin test and the Synovasure™ alpha-defensin test kit. METHODS: An EMBASE and MEDLINE (PubMed) database search was performed using a set of professionally set search terms...
March 20, 2018: Knee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy: Official Journal of the ESSKA
Addisu Alemayehu Assegie, Ju-Hsiang Cheng, Li-Ming Kuo, Wei-Nien Su, Bing-Joe Hwang
The practical implementation of an anode-free lithium-metal battery with promising high capacity is hampered by dendrite formation and low coulombic efficiency. Most notably, these challenges stem from non-uniform lithium plating and unstable SEI layer formation on the bare copper electrode. Herein, we revealed the homogeneous deposition of lithium and effective suppression of dendrite formation using a copper electrode coated with a polyethylene oxide (PEO) film in an electrolyte comprising 1 M LiTFSI, DME/DOL (1/1, v/v) and 2 wt% LiNO3...
March 20, 2018: Nanoscale
Zusen Ye, Hao Zhang, Lingli Sun, Huan Cai, Yonggang Hao, Zongliang Xu, Zhizhong Zhang, Xinfeng Liu
Elevated C-reactive protein (CRP) levels increase the risk of poor functional disability in patients with ischemic stroke (IS). This study aimed to investigate the association between CRP gene polymorphisms and 3-month functional disability of large artery atherosclerotic (LAA) stroke in Han Chinese. Patients with first-ever LAA IS were prospectively enrolled in Nanjing Stroke Registry Program between August 2013 and October 2015. Five single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (rs876537, rs2794520, rs3093059, rs7553007 and rs11265260) in CRP gene related to CRP levels in Asian by genome-wide association study were genotyped...
March 19, 2018: Neuromolecular Medicine
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