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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525852/absolute-quantification-of-dna-methylation-using-microfluidic-chip-based-digital-pcr
#1
Zhenhua Wu, Yanan Bai, Zule Cheng, Fangming Liu, Ping Wang, Dawei Yang, Gang Li, Qinghui Jin, Hongju Mao, Jianlong Zhao
Hypermethylation of CpG islands in the promoter region of many tumor suppressor genes downregulates their expression and in a result promotes tumorigenesis. Therefore, detection of DNA methylation status is a convenient diagnostic tool for cancer detection. Here, we reported a novel method for the integrative detection of methylation by the microfluidic chip-based digital PCR. This method relies on methylation-sensitive restriction enzyme HpaII, which cleaves the unmethylated DNA strands while keeping the methylated ones intact...
May 12, 2017: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523341/cost-of-unnecessary-testing-in-the-evaluation-of-pediatric-syncope
#2
Connor Redd, Cameron Thomas, Martha Willis, Michelle Amos, Jeffrey Anderson
Syncope is a common and a typically benign clinical problem in children and adolescents. The majority of tests ordered in otherwise healthy pediatric patients presenting with syncope have low diagnostic yield. This study quantifies testing and corresponding patient charges in a group of pediatric patients presenting for outpatient evaluation for syncope. Patients seen between 3/2011 and 4/2013 in the multi-disciplinary Syncope Clinic at Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center were enrolled in a registry which was reviewed for patient information...
May 18, 2017: Pediatric Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511705/pd-l1-expressing-circulating-tumour-cells-in-head-and-neck-cancers
#3
Arutha Kulasinghe, Chris Perry, Liz Kenny, Majid E Warkiani, Colleen Nelson, Chamindie Punyadeera
BACKGROUND: Blockade of the PD-1/PD-L1 immune checkpoint pathway is emerging as a promising immunotherapeutic approach for the management and treatment of head and neck cancer patients who do not respond to 1st/2nd line therapy. However, as checkpoint inhibitors are cost intensive, identifying patients who would most likely benefit from anti PD-L1 therapy is required. Developing a non-invasive technique would be of major benefit to the patient and to the health care system. CASE PRESENTATION: We report the case of a 56 year old man affected by a supraglottic squamous cell carcinoma (SCC)...
May 16, 2017: BMC Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28511226/contrast-enhanced-ultrasound-in-the-follow-up-of%C3%A2-endoleaks-after-endovascular-aortic-repair-evar
#4
Johannes Rübenthaler, Hanna Zimmermann, Marco Armbruster, Katharina Müller-Peltzer, Florian Bogner, Maximilian Reiser, Dirk-André Clevert
Endovascular aortic repair (EVAR) has become established in the treatment of abdominal aortic aneurysms and shows potential benefits such as a low perioperative morbidity and a short hospitalization duration. The follow-up after EVAR primarily consists of lifelong postinterventional imaging of the aneurysm size in order to detect complications such as endoleaks or stent dislocation. Computed tomography angiography, an imaging modality that uses ionizing radiation and that relies on a contrast medium which is dependent on thyroid and renal function, is widely used for follow-up...
May 16, 2017: Ultraschall in der Medizin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506743/peptide-modified-nanomedicines-for-targeting-cells-at-the-tumor-microenvironment
#5
Ayelet David
Since their initial discovery more than 30 years ago, tumor-homing peptides have become an increasingly useful tool for targeted delivery of therapeutic and diagnostic agents into tumors. Today, it is well accepted that cells at tumor microenvironment (TME) contributes in many ways to cancer development and progression. Tumor-homing peptide are highly suitable ligands to actively target cells at the TME owing to their small size, low immunogenicity, stability, easy manufacturing and low cost. When conjugated to nanosized medicines (nanomedicines) these ligands can interact specifically with surface receptors expressed on cells in the heterogeneous TME, improve cellular uptake of nanomedicines by target cells, and potentially impair tumor growth and progression...
May 12, 2017: Advanced Drug Delivery Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502728/technical-validation-of-a-next-generation-sequencing-assay-for-detecting-clinically-relevant-levels-of-breast-cancer-related-single-nucleotide-variants-and-copy-number-variants-using-simulated-cell-free-dna
#6
Xin Yang, Yuxing Chu, Rui Zhang, Yanxi Han, Lucheng Zhang, Yu Fu, Dan Li, Rongxue Peng, Dongdong Li, Jiansheng Ding, Ziyang Li, Meiru Zhao, Kuo Zhang, Tian Lu, Lang Yi, Qisheng Wu, Guigao Lin, Jiehong Xie, Tao Liu, Ling Yang, Xin Yi, Jinming Li
Next-generation sequencing (NGS) is commonly used in a clinical setting for diagnostic and prognostic testing of genetic mutations to select optimal targeted therapies. Herein, we describe the development of a custom NGS assay for detecting single-nucleotide variants (SNVs) and copy number variations (CNVs) in a panel of 51 genes related to breast cancer. We designed and implemented a validation strategy in accordance with principles and guidelines developed by the Next-Generation Sequencing: Standardization of Clinical Testing work group using artificial, cell-free DNA (cfDNA) with mutant fragments prepared in a simple, rapid, and cost-effective manner...
May 11, 2017: Journal of Molecular Diagnostics: JMD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501745/paper-based-diagnostics-for-personalized-health-care-emerging-technologies-and-commercial-aspects
#7
REVIEW
Kuldeep Mahato, Ananya Srivastava, Pranjal Chandra
Personalized health care (PHC) is being appreciated globally to combat clinical complexities underlying various metabolic or infectious disorders including diabetes, cardiovascular, communicable diseases etc. Effective diagnoses majorly depend on initial identification of the causes which are nowadays being practiced in disease-oriented approach, where personal health profile is often overlooked. The adoption of PHC has shown significantly improved diagnoses in various conditions including emergency, ambulatory, and remote area...
May 1, 2017: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501619/a-label-free-immunoassay-for-flavivirus-detection-by-the-reflective-phantom-interface-technology
#8
Giovanni Tagliabue, Valentina Faoro, Serena Rizzo, Daniele Sblattero, Andrea Saccani, Gabriele Riccio, Tommaso Bellini, Matteo Salina, Marco Buscaglia, Alessandro Marcello
Members of Flaviviridae are widespread and cause clinically relevant arboviral diseases that impact locally and as imported travel-related infections. Direct detection of viraemia is limited, being typically undetectable at onset of symptoms. Therefore, diagnosis is primarily based on serology, which is complicated by high cross-reactivity across different species. The overlapping geographical distribution of the vectors in areas with a weak healthcare system, the increase of international travel and the similarity of symptoms highlight the need for rapid and reliable multi-parametric diagnostic tests in point-of-care formats...
May 10, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501373/evaluating-appropriate-use-of-pediatric-echocardiograms-for-chest-pain-in-outpatient-clinics
#9
Reid C Chamberlain, Jonathan H Pelletier, Sarah Blanchard, Christoph P Hornik, Kevin D Hill, Michael J Campbell
BACKGROUND: Echocardiography is often used in the evaluation of pediatric chest pain, but the incidence of cardiac pathology is low. In 2014, the American College of Cardiology published appropriate use criteria (AUC) for echocardiography including recommendations for pediatric chest pain. We evaluated the frequency and diagnostic yield of echocardiograms performed for each AUC indication and cost associated with echocardiograms performed for indications meeting the "rarely appropriate" criteria...
May 10, 2017: Journal of the American Society of Echocardiography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28499838/brain-responses-to-sound-intensity-changes-dissociate-depressed-participants-and-healthy-controls
#10
Elisa M Ruohonen, Piia Astikainen
Depression is associated with bias in emotional information processing, but less is known about the processing of neutral sensory stimuli. Of particular interest is processing of sound intensity which is suggested to indicate central serotonergic function. We tested weather event-related brain potentials (ERPs) to occasional changes in sound intensity can dissociate first-episode depressed, recurrent depressed and healthy control participants. The first-episode depressed showed larger N1 amplitude to deviant sounds compared to recurrent depression group and control participants...
May 10, 2017: Biological Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28498197/overuse-of-health-care-services-in-the-management-of-cancer-a-systematic-review
#11
Shrujal S Baxi, Minal Kale, Salomeh Keyhani, Benjamin R Roman, Annie Yang, Antonio P Derosa, Deborah Korenstein
BACKGROUND: Overuse, the provision of health services for which harms outweigh the benefits, results in suboptimal patient care and may contribute to the rising costs of cancer care. We performed a systematic review of the evidence on overuse in oncology. METHODS: We searched Medline, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library, Web of Science, SCOPUS databases, and 2 grey literature sources, for articles published between December 1, 2011 and March 10, 2017. We included publications from December 2011 to evaluate the literature since the inception of the ABIM Foundation's Choosing Wisely initiative in 2012...
May 11, 2017: Medical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28497281/preoperative-chest-radiographs-in-hip-fracture-patients-is-there-any-additional-value
#12
Sverre A I Loggers, Georgios F Giannakopoulos, Edwin Vandewalle, Micha Erwteman, Ferco Berger, Wietse P Zuidema
PURPOSE: Preoperative screening in hip fracture patients is vital to minimize perioperative complications. Preoperative chest radiographs (POCR) are performed in many hip fracture patients. Earlier research showed that few POCR abnormalities influence perioperative policy. However, no studies in nonelective patient with a specific surgical conditions have been performed. With many hip fractures per year worldwide, a significant cost reduction could be made by performing selective POCR without compromising the quality of care...
May 11, 2017: European Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery & Traumatology: Orthopédie Traumatologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28496928/idiopathic-paroxysmal-atrio-ventricular-block-what-is-the-mechanism
#13
REVIEW
Francisco J Guerrero-Márquez, Eduardo Arana-Rueda, Alonso Pedrote
Idiopathic paroxysmal atrioventricular (AV) block poses a true diagnostic challenge. What is clear about this entity is the confusion about its definition and consequently about its etiology. According to certain sources, the diagnosis of this block requires the lack of a structural cardiac pathology that justifies the observed manifestations and an absence of electrocardiographic disorders prior to an episode. The clinical presentation of idiopathic paroxysmal AV block does not differ from that of another cardiogenic syncope or of a vasovagal syncope with a significant cardioinhibitory component...
October 2016: Journal of Atrial Fibrillation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495477/quantification-of-saxitoxin-in-human-blood-by-elisa
#14
Rebekah E Wharton, Melanie C Feyereisen, Andrea L Gonzalez, Nicole L Abbott, Elizabeth I Hamelin, Rudolph C Johnson
Saxitoxin (STX) is a potent marine toxin that causes paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP) which can result in significant morbidity and mortality in humans. Low lethal doses, rapid onset of PSP symptoms, and brief STX half-life in vivo require sensitive and rapid diagnostic techniques to monitor human exposures. Our laboratory has validated an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for quantitative detection of STX from 0.020 to 0.80 ng/mL in human whole blood and from 0.06 to 2.0 ng/mL in dried human blood which is simple, sensitive, rapid, and cost-effective...
May 7, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28489677/futility-of-imaging-to-stage-melanoma-patients-with-a-positive-sentinel-lymph-node
#15
Lodewijka H J Holtkamp, Rebecca L Read, Louise Emmett, John F Thompson, Omgo E Nieweg
The use of staging imaging in melanoma patients with a positive sentinel lymph node (SLN) has been reported to be of limited value. Improved accuracy resulting from the development of time-of-flight positron emission tomography (PET) and ongoing image quality improvement of computed tomography (CT) may challenge this statement. Our retrospective study assessed the clinical value of routine staging CT and PET/CT imaging in a recent cohort of asymptomatic SLN-positive patients. Between January 2011 and April 2014, 143 patients with a positive SLN were routinely staged using CT of various parts of the body or whole-body PET/CT...
May 4, 2017: Melanoma Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28489410/strategically-designing-a-pumpless-microfluidic-device-on-an-inert-polypropylene-substrate-with-potential-application-in-biosensing-and-diagnostics
#16
Elham Shirani, Amir Razmjou, Hossein Tavassoli, Amir Landarani-Isfahani, Saghar Rezaei, Abolghasem Abbasi Kajani, Mohsen Asadnia, Jingwei Hou, Majid Ebrahimi Warkiani
This study is an attempt to make a step forward to implement the very immature concept of pumpless transportation of liquid into a real miniaturized device or lab-on-chip (LOC) on a plastic substrate. "Inert" plastic materials such as polypropylene (PP) are used in a variety of biomedical applications but their surface engineering is very challenging. Here, it was demonstrated that with a facile innovative wettability patterning route using fluorosilanized UV-independent TiO2 nanoparticle coating it is possible to create wedge-shape open microfluidic tracks on inert solid surfaces for low-cost biomedical devices (Lab-on-plastic)...
May 10, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488844/mri-in-prostate-cancer-detection-and-management-a-systematic-review
#17
Fabio Monni, Paolo Fontanella, Angelica Grasso, Peter Wiklund, Yen-Chuan Ou, Marco Randazzo, Bernardo Rocco, Emanuele Montanari, Giampaolo Bianchi
INTRODUCTION: The aim of our work was to evaluate the role of multi-parametric MRI (mpMRI) in detection and management of prostate cancer (PC); specifically investigating the efficacy of mpMRI-based biopsy techniques in terms of diagnostic yield of significant prostate neoplasm and the improved management of patient who choose conservative treatments or active surveillance. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: A systematic and critical analysis through Medline, Embase, Scopus and Web of Science databases was carried out in March 2016, following the PRISMA ("Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses") statement...
May 8, 2017: Minerva Urologica e Nefrologica, the Italian Journal of Urology and Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28487054/reduced-cost-chlamydia-trachomatis-specific-multiplex-real-time-pcr-diagnostic-assay-evaluated-for-ocular-swabs-and-use-by-trachoma-research-programmes
#18
Robert Butcher, Jo Houghton, Tamsyn Derrick, Athumani Ramadhani, Beatriz Herrera, Anna R Last, Patrick A Massae, Matthew J Burton, Martin J Holland, Chrissy H Roberts
INTRODUCTION: Trachoma, caused by the intracellular bacterium Chlamydia trachomatis (Ct) is the leading infectious cause of preventable blindness. Many commercial platforms are available that provide highly sensitive and specific detection of Ct DNA. However, the majority of these commercial platforms are inaccessible for population-level surveys in resource-limited settings typical to trachoma control programmes. We developed two low-cost quantitative PCR (qPCR) tests for Ct using readily available reagents on standard real-time thermocyclers...
May 6, 2017: Journal of Microbiological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28485179/what-to-do-when-you-question-cardiac-troponin-values
#19
Johannes Mair, Bertil Lindahl, Christian Müller, Evangelos Giannitsis, Kurt Huber, Martin Möckel, Mario Plebani, Kristian Thygesen, Allan S Jaffe
High-sensitivity cardiac troponin assays enable cardiac troponin measurement with a high degree of analytical sensitivity and a low level of analytical imprecision at the low measuring range. One of the most important advantages of these new assays is that they allow novel, more rapid approaches for ruling in or ruling out acute myocardial infarctions. The increase in the early diagnostic sensitivity of high-sensitivity cardiac troponin assays comes at the cost of a reduced acute myocardial infarction specificity of the biomarker, because more patients with other causes of acute or chronic myocardial injury without overt myocardial ischaemia are detected than with previous cardiac troponin assays...
May 1, 2017: European Heart Journal. Acute Cardiovascular Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482899/improving-access-to-health-care-amongst-vulnerable-populations-a-qualitative-study-of-village-malaria-workers-in-kampot-cambodia
#20
Marco Liverani, Chea Nguon, Ra Sok, Daro Kim, Panharith Nou, Sokhan Nguon, Shunmay Yeung
BACKGROUND: There is growing interest in the expansion of community health workers programmes in low- and middle-income countries as a cost-effective approach to address shortages of health professionals. However, our understanding of the reception of large-scale programmes and how to improve them remains limited, with knowledge gaps about factors that may promote or discourage equitable access to services. This paper examines the case of the Village Malaria Workers (VMW) programme in Cambodia, an extensive community-based intervention for the management of malaria cases in remote rural areas...
May 8, 2017: BMC Health Services Research
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