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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742643/sensitive-troponin-i-and-stress-testing-in-the-emergency-department-for-the-early-management-of-chest-pain-using-2-hour-protocol
#1
Shahriar Dadkhah, Zakaria Almuwaqqat, Samian Sulaiman, Husein Husein, Quang Nguyen, Saad Ali, Tuncay Taskesen
BACKGROUND: Despite improvements in identifying high-risk patients with non-ST segment ACS (acute coronary syndrome), low risk patients presenting with atypical chest pain and non-diagnostic Electrocardiogram (ECG) continued to undergo unnecessary admissions and testing. Since 1992, our chest pain protocol included using 4-hour serial biomarkers from ED admission in combination with stress testing to evaluate these patients. Our study aimed at determining whether a new accelerated diagnostic protocol using sensitive cardiac troponin I (cTnI) 2 hours after admission to the ED followed by stress testing is safe and effective in emergency settings, allowing for appropriate triage, earlier discharge and reducing costs...
September 2017: Critical Pathways in Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742507/severe-neurological-abnormalities-in-a-young-boy-with-impaired-thyroid-hormone-sensitivity-due-to-a-novel-mutation-in-the-mct8-gene
#2
Teresa Rego, Carmen Gomez Lado, Paloma Cabanas Rodríguez, Francisco Sousa Santos, Francisco Barros Angueira, Lidia Castro-Feijóo, Jesús Barreiro Conde, Manuel Castro-Gago
Monocarboxylate transporter 8 (MCT8) is an active and specific thyroid hormone transporter into neurons. MCT8 mutations cause an X-linked condition known as Allan-Herndon-Dudley syndrome and are characterized by impaired psychomotor development and typical abnormal thyroid function. We describe a 10-year-old boy with severe cognitive disability, axial hypotonia, spastic quadriplegia and sporadic dyskinetic episodes. He initially presented with thyroid dysfunction (high FT3, low rT3, low FT4 and normal TSH) and generalized retardation of the cerebral and cerebellar myelination in brain magnetic resonance imaging...
April 2017: Hormones: International Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740441/detection-of-ros1-rearrangement-in-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-current-and-future-perspectives
#3
REVIEW
Giulio Rossi, Genny Jocollé, Antonia Conti, Marcello Tiseo, Federica Zito Marino, Giovanni Donati, Renato Franco, Francesca Bono, Francesca Barbisan, Francesco Facchinetti
ROS1 rearrangement characterizes a small subset (1%-2%) of non-small cell lung cancer and is associated with slight/never smoking patients and adenocarcinoma histology. Identification of ROS1 rearrangement is mandatory to permit targeted therapy with specific inhibitors, demonstrating a significantly better survival when compared with conventional chemotherapy. Detection of ROS1 rearrangement is based on in situ (immunohistochemistry, fluorescence in situ hybridization) and extractive non-in situ assays. While fluorescence in situ hybridization still represents the gold standard in clinical trials, this technique may fail to recognize rearrangements of ROS1 with some gene fusion partner...
2017: Lung Cancer: Targets and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740397/eligibility-for-alirocumab-or-evolocumab-treatment-in-1090-hypercholesterolemic-patients-referred-to-a-regional-cholesterol-treatment-center-with-ldl-cholesterol-%C3%A2-70-mg-dl-despite-maximal-tolerated-ldl-cholesterol-lowering-therapy
#4
Vybhav Jetty, Charles J Glueck, Kevin Lee, Naila Goldenberg, Marloe Prince, Ashwin Kumar, Michael Goldenberg, Ishan Anand, Ping Wang
BACKGROUND: Proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 inhibitors, Praluent (alirocumab [ALI]) and Repatha (evolocumab [EVO]) have been approved as adjuncts to the standard-of-care maximal-tolerated dose (MTD) of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLC)-lowering therapy (LLT), statin therapy, in heterozygous (HeFH) (ALI or EVO) or homozygous (EVO) familial hypercholesterolemia, or clinical atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (CVD) where LDLC lowering is insufficient (both). Since LDLC lowering has been revolutionized by ALI and EVO, specialty pharmaceutical pricing models will be applied to a mass market...
2017: Vascular Health and Risk Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28740385/application-of-nanodiagnostics-in-point-of-care-tests-for-infectious-diseases
#5
REVIEW
Yongzhong Wang, Li Yu, Xiaowei Kong, Leming Sun
Although tremendous efforts have been put into the treatment of infectious diseases to prevent epidemics and mortality, it is still one of the major health care issues that have a profound impact on humankind. Therefore, the development of specific, sensitive, accurate, rapid, low-cost, and easy-to-use diagnostic tools is still in urgent demand. Nanodiagnostics, defined as the application of nanotechnology to medical diagnostics, can offer many unique opportunities for more successful and efficient diagnosis and treatment for infectious diseases...
2017: International Journal of Nanomedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28739301/a-new-pcr-assay-for-the-detection-and-differentiation-of-babesia-canis-and-babesia-vogeli
#6
Giada Annoscia, Maria Stefania Latrofa, Cinzia Cantacessi, Emanuela Olivieri, Maria Teresa Manfredi, Filipe Dantas-Torres, Domenico Otranto
Babesia spp. are globally distributed tick-borne protozoan parasites that infect the red blood cells of a wide range of vertebrate hosts, including humans. Diagnosis of babesiosis is often impeded by the transient presence of the parasites in peripheral blood, as well as by their pleomorphic nature. Given the reports of an expanding and, in some cases, sympatric geographical distribution of Babesia canis and Babesia vogeli in dogs and associated vectors, in Europe, the development of time-efficient and cost-effective diagnostic tools to detect and differentiate these two species is warranted...
July 8, 2017: Ticks and Tick-borne Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737304/investigation-and-diagnostic-formulation-in-patients-admitted-with-transient-loss-of-consciousness
#7
R Briggs, T Coughlan, J Doherty, D R Collins, D O'Neill, S P Kennelly
Several commonly completed tests have low diagnostic yield in the setting of transient loss of consciousness (T-LOC). We estimated the use and cost of inappropriate investigations in patients admitted with T-LOC and assessed if these patients were given a definitive diagnosis for their presentation. We identified 80 consecutive patients admitted with T-LOC to a university teaching hospital. Eighty-eight percent (70/80) had a computerized topography (CT) brain scan and 49% (34/70) of these scans were inappropriate based on standard guidelines...
May 10, 2017: Irish Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735487/targeted-next-generation-sequencing-of-acute-leukemia
#8
Eric Konnick, Christina M Lockwood, David Wu
Mutation profiling of acute leukemias is a valuable tool for identifying genetic mutations with prognostic, predictive, therapeutic, and diagnostic utility. Technological advances, such as massively parallel sequencing, have allowed laboratories to assess for variation across dozens or hundreds of genes simultaneously with relatively low cost per target.Here, we describe a procedure for designing and using a TruSeq Custom Amplicon assay targeting genes involved in acute leukemias. This method is a fully customizable, amplicon-based assay for targeted resequencing, allowing interrogation of selected genomic regions of interest...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734843/a-high-resolution-melting-hrm-technology-based-assay-for-cost-efficient-clinical-detection-and-genotyping-of-herpes-simplex-virus-hsv-1-and-hsv-2
#9
M Lieveld, A Carregosa, I Benoy, N Redzic, M Berth, D Vanden Broeck
Genital herpes can be caused by two very similar viruses, herpes simplex virus (HSV)-1 or HSV-2. These two HSV types cannot be distinguished clinically, but genotyping is recommended in the first-episodes of genital herpes to guide counselling and management. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) is the preferred diagnostic method for HSV typing. However, commercial qPCR methods use expensive fluorescent labeled probes for detection. Furthermore, most low-cost methods are not able to differentiate between HSV-1 and -2...
July 19, 2017: Journal of Virological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734366/a-label-free-genetic-biosensor-for-diabetes-based-on-aunps-decorated-ito-with-electrochemiluminescent-signaling
#10
Suyan Zhai, Chen Fang, Jilin Yan, Qun Zhao, Yifeng Tu
The variation of I27L gene closely relates to increasing risk of type 2 diabetes, thus it is greatly significant to develop various methods for its identification or monitoring. We report here a novel label-free electrochemiluminescent (ECL) biosensor for simple and effective determination of I27L gene based on Au nanoparticles functionalized ITO electrode. The ECL technique is employed to monitor the hybridization of DNA strands by measuring the changes of its intensity. Here, the ECL signal was quenched by blocked access of probe (luminol anion) owing to the electrostatic repulsion of negatively charged sensor surface and the space resistance...
August 22, 2017: Analytica Chimica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733959/increasing-precision-of-clinical-diagnosis-of-alzheimer-s-disease-using-a-combined-algorithm-incorporating-clinical-and-novel-biomarker-data
#11
REVIEW
Marwan N Sabbagh, Lih-Fen Lue, Daniel Fayard, Jiong Shi
Establishing the in vivo diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) or other dementias relies on clinical criteria; however, the accuracy of these criteria can be limited. The diagnostic accuracy is 77% for a clinical diagnosis of AD, even among experts. We performed a review through PubMed of articles related to specific diagnostic modalities, including APOE genotyping, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) testing, fludeoxyglucose F 18 positron emission tomography (PET), amyloid PET, tau PET, computed tomography (CT), single-photon emission CT, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and B12 and thyroid-stimulating hormone screening, to determine the specificity and sensitivity of each test used in the clinical diagnosis of AD...
July 2017: Neurology and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733955/detection-of-plasma-biomarkers-using-immunomagnetic-reduction-a-promising-method-for-the-early-diagnosis-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#12
REVIEW
Shieh-Yueh Yang, Ming-Jang Chiu, Ta-Fu Chen, Herng-Er Horng
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia. The development of assay technologies able to diagnose early-stage AD is important. Blood tests to detect biomarkers, such as amyloid and total Tau protein, are among the most promising diagnostic methods due to their low cost, low risk, and ease of operation. However, such biomarkers in blood occur at extremely low levels and are difficult to detect precisely. In the early 2000s, a highly sensitive assay technology, immunomagnetic reduction (IMR), was developed...
July 2017: Neurology and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729044/the-clinical-utility-of-vertebral-fracture-assessment-in-predicting-fractures
#13
Joao Lindolfo C Borges, Isabella Santiago de M Miranda, E Michael Lewiecki
Vertebral fracture (VF) is the most common type of osteoporotic fracture. VFs are associated with diminished quality of life and high morbidity and mortality. The presence of a VF, especially a recent one, is an important risk factor for developing another fracture. However, most VFs are not clinically recognized. VF assessment by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry is a convenient, low-cost, low-radiation, reliable method to identify VFs during bone mineral density measurement. The finding of a previously unrecognized VF may change the diagnostic classification, assessment of fracture risk, and treatment strategies...
July 18, 2017: Journal of Clinical Densitometry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728879/identification-of-universal-diagnostic-peptide-candidates-for-neglected-tropical-diseases-caused-by-cestodes-through-the-integration-of-multi-genome-wide-analyses-and-immunoinformatic-predictions
#14
Sebastián Miles, Marco Navatta, Sylvia Dematteis, Gustavo Mourglia-Ettlin
Neglected tropical diseases caused by helminth infections currently affect millions of people worldwide. Among them, there are three tapeworm species of outstanding importance: Echinococcus granulosus, E. multilocularis, and Taenia solium, which are responsible for cystic echinococcosis, alveolar echinococcosis, and cysticercosis, respectively. Despite several attempts, there is still a need for an effective and low-cost serological diagnostic test that can be used in endemic countries. In the present work, we described an innovative bioinformatic workflow for a rational prediction of putative peptide candidates for one-step serological diagnosis of any of these infections...
July 17, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728181/the-value-of-diagnostic-work-up-in-the-evaluation-of-white-dot-syndromes
#15
Neal V Palejwala, Gagan Sawhney, Matthew Raecker, Chrstina J Flaxel, Steven Yeh
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: To determine the diagnostic yield of systemic work-up in white dot syndromes. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A retrospective chart review. RESULTS: Eighty-six consecutive patients with a diagnosis of a white dot syndrome were identified. Forty-three had a diagnosis of birdshot chorioretinopathy. Overall, 395 diagnostic tests were performed with a diagnostic yield of 11.9%. The test with the greatest diagnostic yield was HLA-A29 typing (89%)...
July 1, 2017: Ophthalmic Surgery, Lasers & Imaging Retina
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728010/advances-in-point-of-care-technologies-for-molecular-diagnostics
#16
REVIEW
Mohammad Zarei
Advances in miniaturization, nanotechnology, and microfluidics, along with developments in cloud-connected point-of-care (POC) diagnostics technologies are pushing the frontiers of POC devices toward low-cost, user-friendly, and enhanced sensitivity molecular-level diagnostics. The combination of various bio-sensing platforms within smartphone-integrated electronic readers provides accurate on-site and on-time diagnostics based on various types of chemical and biological targets. Further, 3D printing technology shows a huge potential toward fabrication and improving the performance of POC devices...
July 11, 2017: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727561/a-cots-based-microwave-imaging-system-for-breast-cancer-detection
#17
Mario R Casu, Marco Vacca, Jorge A Tobon, Azzurra Pulimeno, Imran Sarwar, Raffaele Solimene, Francesca Vipiana
Microwave imaging is an emerging breast cancer diagnostic technique, which aims at complementing already established methods like mammography, magnetic resonance imaging, and ultrasound. It offers two striking advantages: no-risk for the patient and potential low-cost for national health systems. So far, however, the prototypes developed for validation in labs and clinics used costly lab instruments such as a vector network analyzer (VNA). Moreover, the CPU time required by complex image reconstruction algorithms may not be compatible with the duration of a medical examination...
July 18, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726914/3d-printed-smartphone-based-point-of-care-tool-for-fluorescence-and-magnetophoresis-based-cytometry
#18
Stephanie Knowlton, Ashwini Joshi, Philip Syrrist, Ahmet F Coskun, Savas Tasoglu
In developing countries, there are often limited resources available to provide important medical diagnostics, which severely limits our ability to diagnose conditions and administer proper treatment, leading to high mortality rates for treatable conditions. Here, we propose a multiplex tool capable of density-based cell sorting via magnetic focusing in parallel with fluorescence imaging to provide highly specific clinical assays. While many cell sorting techniques and fluorescence microscopes generally are costly and require extensive user training, limiting accessibility and usability in developing countries, this device is compact, low-cost, and portable...
July 20, 2017: Lab on a Chip
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724318/validation-of-the-salivary-urea-and-creatinine-tests-as-screening-methods-of-chronic-kidney-disease-in-vietnamese-patients
#19
Thuy Anh Vu Pham
OBJECTIVES: The aims of this case control study were to correlate the serum and salivary urea as well as creatinine levels; and to evaluate salivary urea and creatinine as noninvasive alternatives to serum for creatinine estimation in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. METHODS: Blood and saliva samples were collected from 112 CKD patients and 108 subjects without CKD for quantitative analysis of urea and creatinine. Spearman's correlation coefficients between salivary and serum urea as well as creatinine were obtained...
July 20, 2017: Acta Odontologica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723694/exosomes-a-cancer-theranostics-road-map
#20
Angeliki Panagiotara, Athina Markou, Evi S Lianidou, George P Patrinos, Theodora Katsila
Interindividual variability is yet to be fully characterized, and for this, optimum patient stratification and companion diagnostics are still lacking. Especially when complex disease phenotypes and/or polygenic diseases are considered, patient monitoring and disease management become rather challenging, while acquired resistance to therapy and/or toxicity events are among the unmet needs in the clinic. No doubt, biomarkers are of great importance to disease management and tailor-made theranostics. Microfluidics has gathered great attention lately, mostly due to its low-invasive nature compared to tissue biopsies...
July 20, 2017: Public Health Genomics
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