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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454130/abscess-within-a-glioblastoma-mimicking-a-matryoshka-doll
#1
Kislay Kishore, Manish Beniwal, Shilpa Rao, K V L N Rao, Vikas Vazhayil, Dwarkanath Srinivas, Sampath Somanna
BACKGROUND: Abscess co-existing within a brain tumor is a rare entity. Case reports in literature primarily consist of sellar pathology and parenchymal lesions including meningioma, glioma, and metastases. We report a case of glioblastoma with an intra-tumoral abscess in a middle-aged lady with no prior invasive procedure or systemic focus of infection. CASE DESCRIPTION: A 45-year old lady presented with new onset generalized seizures and rapidly progressive left hemiparesis...
February 14, 2018: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454023/interaction-between-hypothermia-and-delayed-mesenchymal-stem-cell-therapy-in-neonatal-hypoxic-ischemic-brain-injury
#2
Josephine Herz, Christian Köster, Barbara S Reinboth, Mark Dzietko, Wiebke Hansen, Hemmen Sabir, Cindy van Velthoven, Ivo Bendix, Ursula Felderhoff-Müser
Acute hypothermia treatment (HT) is the only clinically established intervention following neonatal hypoxic-ischemic brain injury. However, almost half of all cooled infants still die or suffer from long-lasting neurological impairments. Regenerative therapies, such as mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) appear promising as adjuvant therapy. In the present study, we hypothesized that HT combined with delayed MSC therapy results in augmented protection, improving long-term neurological outcome. Postnatal day 9 (P9) C57BL/6 mice were exposed to hypoxia-ischemia followed by 4 hours HT...
February 14, 2018: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454010/enhancing-creative-cognition-with-a-rapid-right-parietal-neurofeedback-procedure
#3
Sergio Agnoli, Marco Zanon, Serena Mastria, Alessio Avenanti, Giovanni Emanuele Corazza
The present article describes an innovative neurofeedback training (NFT) procedure aimed at increasing creative cognition through the enhancement of specific brain activities previously associated with divergent thinking. We designed and tested two NFT protocols based on training alpha and beta EEG oscillations selectively measured over the right parietal region. A total of 80 participants were involved, 40 in the alpha NFT protocol and 40 in the beta NFT protocol. The NFT loop was closed on a video stream that would advance only when oscillation power exceeded a normalized threshold...
February 14, 2018: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453976/cell-type-specific-expression-of-constitutively-active-rheb-promotes-regeneration-of-bulbospinal-respiratory-axons-following-cervical-sci
#4
Mark W Urban, Biswarup Ghosh, Laura R Strojny, Cole G Block, Sara M Blazejewski, Megan C Wright, George M Smith, Angelo C Lepore
Damage to respiratory neural circuitry and consequent loss of diaphragm function is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in individuals suffering from traumatic cervical spinal cord injury (SCI). Repair of CNS axons after SCI remains a therapeutic challenge, despite current efforts. SCI disrupts inspiratory signals originating in the rostral ventral respiratory group (rVRG) of the medulla from their phrenic motor neuron (PhMN) targets, resulting in loss of diaphragm function. Using a rat model of cervical hemisection SCI, we aimed to restore rVRG-PhMN-diaphragm circuitry by stimulating regeneration of injured rVRG axons via targeted induction of Rheb (ras homolog enriched in brain), a signaling molecule that regulates neuronal-intrinsic axon growth potential...
February 14, 2018: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453493/altered-prepulse-inhibition-of-the-acoustic-startle-response-in-bdnf-deficient-mice-in-a-model-of-early-postnatal-hypoxia-implications-for-schizophrenia
#5
Juan M Lima-Ojeda, Anne S Mallien, Christiane Brandwein, Undine E Lang, Dimitri Hefter, Dragos Inta
The brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a major proliferative agent in the nervous system. Both BDNF-deficiency and perinatal hypoxia represent genetic/environmental risk factors for schizophrenia. Moreover, a decreased BDNF response to birth hypoxia was associated with the disease. BDNF expression is influenced by neuronal activity and environmental conditions such as hypoxia. Thus, it may partake in neuroprotective and reparative mechanisms in acute or chronic neuronal insults. However, the interaction of hypoxia and BDNF is insufficiently understood and the behavioral outcome unknown...
February 16, 2018: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452610/the-plasma-membrane-calcium-pumps-the-old-and-the-new
#6
REVIEW
Asma Zaidi, Mercy Adewale, Lauren McLean, Paul Ramlow
The plasma membrane Ca 2+ -ATPase (PMCA) pumps play a critical role in the maintenance of calcium (Ca 2+ ) homeostasis, crucial for optimal neuronal function and cell survival. Loss of Ca 2+ homeostasis is a key precursor in neuronal dysfunction associated with brain aging and in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders. In this article, we review evidence showing age-related changes in the PMCAs in synaptic plasma membranes (SPMs) and lipid raft microdomains isolated from rat brain. Both PMCA activity and protein levels decline progressively with increasing age...
January 10, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452330/atypical-teratoid-rhabdoid-tumor-after-in-vitro-fertilization-illustrative-case-report-and-systematic-literature-review
#7
REVIEW
Adomas Bunevicius, Algimantas Matukevicius, Vytenis Deltuva, Inga Gudinaviciene, Darius Pranys, Arimantas Tamsauskas
OBJECTIVE: In vitro fertilization (IVF) is increasingly used for treatment of infertile couples worldwide. The association between IVF and cancer risk in offsprings is conflicting. We present a case of atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor (AT/RT) in a girl conceived by IVF and present results of systematic review of literature of primary intracranial neoplasms diagnosed in children conceived by IVF. METHODS: A systematic review of literature was conducted on April 12, 2017 to identify previously published reports of intracranial brain tumors in patients conceived after IVF...
February 13, 2018: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452266/healthy-brain-aging-interplay-between-reactive-species-inflammation-and-energy-supply
#8
REVIEW
O Garaschuk, H M Semchyshyn, V I Lushchak
Brains' high energy expenditure with preferable utilization of glucose and ketone bodies, defines the specific features of its energy homeostasis. The extensive oxidative metabolism is accompanied by a concomitant generation of high amounts of reactive oxygen, nitrogen, and carbonyl species, which will be here collectively referred to as RONCS. Such metabolism in combination with high content of polyunsaturated fatty acids creates specific problems in maintaining brains' redox homeostasis. While the levels of products of interaction between RONCS and cellular components increase slowly during the first two trimesters of individuals' life, their increase is substantially accelerated towards the end of life...
February 13, 2018: Ageing Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451849/a-comprehensive-review-of-eggs-choline-and-lutein-on-cognition-across-the-life-span
#9
Taylor C Wallace
In 2030, one in five Americans will be older than 65 years, and with that an increase in the number of individuals who experience loss in cognitive capacity is to be expected. At the same time, nutrition within the first 1000 days postconception has been suggested to strongly influence cognitive outcomes across the life-span in humans. Eggs are a primary source of both choline and the xanthophyll carotenoid lutein in the western diet, and both have been suggested to influence cognitive function in humans. This comprehensive review critically examines the effects of eggs, choline, and lutein on cognition across the life-span...
February 16, 2018: Journal of the American College of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451335/mesenchymal-stem-cells-protect-against-hypoxia-ischemia-brain-damage-by-enhancing-autophagy-through-bdnf-mtor-signaling-pathway
#10
Zhen Zheng, Li Zhang, Yi Qu, Guoguang Xiao, Shiping Li, Shan Bao, Richard Lu, Dezhi Mu
Hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) is a serious disease for neonates. However, present therapeutic strategies are not effective enough for treating HIE. Previous study showed that mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) can exert neuroprotective effects for brain damage, but its mechanism remains elusive. Using in-vitro co-culture of rat cortical primary neurons and MSCs in HI conditions, we demonstrated that MSCs help increase BDNF and autophagy markers (LC3II and Beclin1) in the cultures and decrease cells death (LDH levels)...
February 16, 2018: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451327/microrna-365-modulates-astrocyte-conversion-into-neuron-in-adult-rat-brain-after-stroke-by-targeting-pax6
#11
Jia-Lin Mo, Qi Liu, Zeng-Wei Kou, Kun-Wei Wu, Ping Yang, Xian-Hua Chen, Feng-Yan Sun
Reactive astrocytes induced by ischemia can transdifferentiate into mature neurons. This neurogenic potential of astrocytes may have therapeutic value for brain injury. Epigenetic modifications are widely known to involve in developmental and adult neurogenesis. PAX6, a neurogenic fate determinant, contributes to the astrocyte-to-neuron conversion. However, it is unclear whether microRNAs (miRs) modulate PAX6-mediated astrocyte-to-neuron conversion. In the present study we used bioinformatic approaches to predict miRs potentially targeting Pax6, and transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) to model cerebral ischemic injury in adult rats...
February 16, 2018: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451219/low-frequency-pulsed-electromagnetic-field-pretreated-bone-marrow-derived-mesenchymal-stem-cells-promote-the-regeneration-of-crush-injured-rat-mental-nerve
#12
NaRi Seo, Sung-Ho Lee, Kyung Won Ju, JaeMan Woo, BongJu Kim, SoungMin Kim, Jeong Won Jahng, Jong-Ho Lee
Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) have been shown to promote the regeneration of injured peripheral nerves. Pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF) reportedly promotes the proliferation and neuronal differentiation of BMSCs. Low-frequency PEMF can induce the neuronal differentiation of BMSCs in the absence of nerve growth factors. This study was designed to investigate the effects of low-frequency PEMF pretreatment on the proliferation and function of BMSCs and the effects of low-frequency PEMF pre-treated BMSCs on the regeneration of injured peripheral nerve using in vitro and in vivo experiments...
January 2018: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450940/statistical-inference-in-brain-graphs-using-threshold-free-network-based-statistics
#13
Hugo C Baggio, Alexandra Abos, Barbara Segura, Anna Campabadal, Anna Garcia-Diaz, Carme Uribe, Yaroslau Compta, Maria Jose Marti, Francesc Valldeoriola, Carme Junque
The description of brain networks as graphs where nodes represent different brain regions and edges represent a measure of connectivity between a pair of nodes is an increasingly used approach in neuroimaging research. The development of powerful methods for edge-wise group-level statistical inference in brain graphs while controlling for multiple-testing associated false-positive rates, however, remains a difficult task. In this study, we use simulated data to assess the properties of threshold-free network-based statistics (TFNBS)...
February 15, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29450903/extended-physical-education-in-children-aged-6-15-years-was-associated-with-improved-academic-achievement-in-boys
#14
M E Cöster, J Fritz, C Karlsson, B E Rosengren, M K Karlsson
AIM: Physical activity (PA) has been associated with enhanced cognition, brain development and concentration. This study evaluated if increased physical education (PE) improved academic achievement. METHODS: We recruited 304 children (55% boys) from a Swedish school in Skane county in 1998-2002 when they were 6-7 years of age and followed them through all nine mandatory school years. Their PE level was increased from 60 minutes to 200 minutes per week and their results were compared with 73,885 control children (51% boys) in the county who graduated in the same years and did the standard 60 minutes of PE per week...
February 16, 2018: Acta Paediatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449536/impaired-autophagic-flux-is-associated-with-the-severity-of-trauma-and-the-role-of-a-2a-r-in-brain-cells-after-traumatic-brain-injury
#15
Xu-Jia Zeng, Ping Li, Ya-Lei Ning, Yan Zhao, Yan Peng, Nan Yang, Zi-Ai Zhao, Jiang-Fan Chen, Yuan-Guo Zhou
Recent studies have shown that after traumatic brain injury (TBI), the number of autophagosomes is markedly increased in brain cells surrounding the wound; however, whether autophagy is enhanced or suppressed by TBI remains controversial. In our study, we used a controlled cortical impact system to establish models of mild, moderate and severe TBI. In the mild TBI model, the levels of autophagy-related protein 6 (Beclin1) and autophagy-related protein 12 (ATG12)-autophagy-related protein 5 (ATG5) conjugates were increased, indicating the enhanced initiation of autophagy...
February 14, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29449515/-therapeutic-effects-of-low-dose-bevacizumab-for-the-treatment-of-recurrent-brain-metastases
#16
Etsuko Hattori, Akinori Miyakoshi, Kohichi Go, Toshiharu Aotake, Yoshiyuki Kawakami, Masato Sakamoto, Takeshi Kawauchi, Yuuki Oichi, Noritaka Sano, Makoto Hayase, Makoto Ohta, Yuki Hirose, Hiroki Toda
OBJECTIVE: Molecularly targeted therapy has been adopted to treat a number of cancers. Bevacizumab, a recombinant humanized monoclonal antibody against vascular endothelial growth factor, is a representative agent used in molecularly targeted therapeutic regimens. However, the therapeutic effect of bevacizumab for the treatment of brain metastases remains unknown. We report the clinical effects of low dose bevacizumab(≤2.5mg/kg/week)to treat recurrent brain metastases. METHODS: We retrospectively analyzed patients with brain metastases who had been treated with bevacizumab between 2012 and 2016 at our institution...
February 2018: No Shinkei Geka. Neurological Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29448957/brain-region-specific-enhancement-of-remyelination-and-prevention-of-demyelination-by-the-csf1r-kinase-inhibitor-blz945
#17
Nicolau Beckmann, Elisa Giorgetti, Anna Neuhaus, Stefan Zurbruegg, Nathalie Accart, Paul Smith, Julien Perdoux, Ludovic Perrot, Mark Nash, Sandrine Desrayaud, Peter Wipfli, Wilfried Frieauff, Derya R Shimshek
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic inflammatory disease affecting the central nervous system (CNS). While multiple effective immunomodulatory therapies for MS exist today, they lack the scope of promoting CNS repair, in particular remyelination. Microglia play a pivotal role in regulating myelination processes, and the colony-stimulating factor 1 (CSF-1) pathway is a key regulator for microglia differentiation and survival. Here, we investigated the effects of the CSF-1 receptor kinase inhibitor, BLZ945, on central myelination processes in the 5-week murine cuprizone model by non-invasive and longitudinal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and histology...
February 15, 2018: Acta Neuropathologica Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29448884/ameliorating-the-in-vivo-antimalarial-efficacy-of-artemether-using-nanostructured-lipid-carriers
#18
Vanka Ravisankar, Gowthamarajan Kuppusamy, Praveen Kumar Simhadri, Uday Krishna Baruah, Veera Venkata Satyanarayana Reddy Karri, Vimal Pandey, Phanithi Prakash Babu
Cerebral malaria (CM) is a fatal neurological complication of Plasmodium falciparum infection that affects children (below five years old) in sub-Saharan Africa and adults in South-East Asia each year having the fatality rate of 10-25%. The survivors of CM also have high risk of long term neurological or cognitive deficits. The objective of the present investigation was to develop optimized nanostructured lipid carriers (NLCs) of artemether (ARM) for enhanced anti-malarial efficacy of ARM.NLCs of ARM were prepared by a combination of high speed homogenization (HSH) and probe sonication techniques...
February 16, 2018: Journal of Microencapsulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29448222/a-colorimetric-broth-microdilution-method-for-assessment-of-helicobacter-pylori-sensitivity-to-antimicrobial-agents
#19
Petar Knezevic, Verica Aleksic Sabo, Natasa Simin, Marija Lesjak, Neda Mimica-Dukic
Helicobacter pylori is a major infective etiological agent of the upper gastrointestinal tract diseases. The bacterium exhibits resistance to various conventional antibiotics, being usually challenging for eradication. Since there is an urge to consider alternative therapeutic strategies, the aim of the study was to examine selected essential oils of plants belonging to families Cupressaceae (Juniperus communis) and Lamiaceae (Hyssopus officinalis, Salvia officinalis, Melissa officinalis, Lavandula angustifolia, Ocimum basilicum and Thymus serpyllum) against H...
February 8, 2018: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29448100/post-ischemic-administration-of-5-methoxyindole-2-carboxylic-acid-at-the-onset-of-reperfusion-affords-neuroprotection-against-stroke-injury-by-preserving-mitochondrial-function-and-attenuating-oxidative-stress
#20
Jinzi Wu, Zhen Jin, Xiaorong Yang, Liang-Jun Yan
We previously reported that 5-methoxyindole-2-carboxylic acid (MICA) could induce preconditioning effect in the ischemic brain of rat. In the present study, we addressed the question of whether MICA could also trigger a postconditioning effect in ischemic stroke. To this end, MICA (100mgkg body weight) was injected intraperitoneally at the onset of 24 h reperfusion following 1 h ischemia in rat brain. Results indicate that stroked animals treated with MICA showed less brain infarction volume than that of vehicle-treated animals...
February 12, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
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