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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030082/adx-47273-a-mglu5-receptor-positive-allosteric-modulator-attenuates-deficits-in-cognitive-flexibility-induced-by-withdrawal-from-binge-like-ethanol-exposure-in-rats
#1
Marta Marszalek-Grabska, Ewa Gibula-Bruzda, Anna Bodzon-Kulakowska, Piotr Suder, Kinga Gawel, Sylwia Talarek, Joanna Listos, Ewa Kędzierska, Wojciech Danysz, Jolanta H Kotlinska
Repeated exposure to and withdrawal from ethanol induces deficits in spatial reversal learning. Data indicate that metabotropic glutamate 5 (mGlu5) receptors are implicated in synaptic plasticity and learning and memory. These receptors functionally interact with N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptors, and activation of one type results in the activation of the other. We examined whether (S)-(4-fluorophenyl)(3-(3-(4-fluorophenyl)-1,2,4-oxadiazol-5-yl)-piperidin-1-yl (ADX-47273), a positive allosteric modulator (PAM) of mGlu5 receptor, attenuates deficits in reversal learning induced by withdrawal (11-13days) from 'binge-like' ethanol input (5...
October 10, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029315/7-8-dihydroxyflavone-rescues-lead-induced-impairment-of-vesicular-release-a-novel-therapeutic-approach-for-lead-intoxicated-children
#2
Xiao-Lei Zhang, Jennifer L McGlothan, Omid Miry, Kirstie H Stansfield, Meredith K Loth, Patric K Stanton, Tomás R Guilarte
Childhood lead (Pb2+) intoxication is a public health problem of global proportion. Lead exposure during development produces multiple effects on the central nervous system including impaired synapse formation, altered synaptic plasticity, and learning deficits.In primary hippocampal neurons in culture and hippocampal slices, Pb2+ exposure inhibits vesicular release and reduces the number of fast-releasing sites, an effect associated with Pb2+ inhibition of NMDA receptor-mediated trans-synaptic Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor (BDNF) signaling...
October 4, 2017: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029200/lateral-cerebellar-nucleus-stimulation-has-selective-effects-on-glutamatergic-and-gabaergic-perilesional-neurogenesis-after-cortical-ischemia-in-the-rodent-model
#3
Hugh H Chan, Jessica Cooperrider, Zhihong Chen, John T Gale, Kenneth B Baker, Connor A Wathen, Claire R Modic, Hyun-Joo Park, Andre G Machado
BACKGROUND: Chronic deep brain stimulation of the rodent lateral cerebellar nucleus (LCN) has been demonstrated to enhance motor recovery following cortical ischemia. This effect is concurrent with synaptogenesis and expression of long-term potentiation markers in the perilesional cerebral cortex. OBJECTIVE: To further investigate the cellular changes associated with chronic LCN stimulation in the ischemic rodent by examining neurogenesis along the cerebellothalamocortical pathway...
September 27, 2017: Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029039/the-effects-of-audiovisual-inputs-on-solving-the-cocktail-party-problem-in-the-human-brain-an-fmri-study
#4
Yuanqing Li, Fangyi Wang, Yongbin Chen, Andrzej Cichocki, Terrence Sejnowski
At cocktail parties, our brains often simultaneously receive visual and auditory information. Although the cocktail party problem has been widely investigated under auditory-only settings, the effects of audiovisual inputs have not. This study explored the effects of audiovisual inputs in a simulated cocktail party. In our fMRI experiment, each congruent audiovisual stimulus was a synthesis of 2 facial movie clips, each of which could be classified into 1 of 2 emotion categories (crying and laughing). Visual-only (faces) and auditory-only stimuli (voices) were created by extracting the visual and auditory contents from the synthesized audiovisual stimuli...
September 25, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028509/delayed-onset-mri-findings-in-acute-chorea-related-to-anoxic-brain-injury
#5
Mehdi Ghasemi, Firas Kaddouh, Anindita Deb, Margaret A Owegi
Anoxic brain injury can manifest with various abnormal movements. We describe acute chorea in a young patient with anoxic brain injury due to chlordiazepoxide toxicity who had delayed radiographic lesions in bilateral globus pallidus. Although brain MRI 8days after the anoxic event was unremarkable, repeat brain MRI 15days after the event showed T2 hyperintensities and enhancement within the bilateral globus pallidi. It is possible that MRI brain findings of bilateral basal ganglia lesions may appear later than onset of chorea in anoxic brain injury...
October 5, 2017: Clinical Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028359/complex-interaction-between-circadian-rhythm-and-diet-on-bile-acid-homeostasis-in-male-rats
#6
Hannah M Eggink, Johanneke E Oosterman, Paul de Goede, Emmely M de Vries, Ewout Foppen, Martijn Koehorst, Albert K Groen, Anita Boelen, Johannes A Romijn, Susanne E la Fleur, Maarten R Soeters, Andries Kalsbeek
Desynchronization between the master clock in the brain, which is entrained by (day) light, and peripheral organ clocks, which are mainly entrained by food intake, may have negative effects on energy metabolism. Bile acid metabolism follows a clear day/night rhythm. We investigated whether in rats on a normal chow diet the daily rhythm of plasma bile acids and hepatic expression of bile acid metabolic genes is controlled by the light/dark cycle or the feeding/fasting rhythm. In addition, we investigated the effects of high caloric diets and time-restricted feeding on daily rhythms of plasma bile acids and hepatic genes involved in bile acid synthesis...
October 13, 2017: Chronobiology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028353/activated-microglia-targeting-dendrimer-minocycline-conjugate-as-therapeutics-for-neuroinflammation
#7
Rishi Sharma, Soo-Young Kim, Anjali Sharma, Zhi Zhang, Siva Pramodh Kambhampati, Sujatha Kannan, Rangaramanujam M Kannan
Brain related disorders have outmatched cancer and cardiovascular diseases worldwide as the leading cause of morbidity and mortality. The lack of effective therapies and the relatively dry central nervous system (CNS) drug pipeline pose formidable challenge. Superior, targeted delivery of current clinically approved drugs may offer significant potential. Minocycline has shown promise for the treatment of neurological diseases owing to its ability to penetrate the blood brain barrier (BBB), and potency. Despite its potential in the clinic, and in preclinical models, the high doses needed to affect a positive therapeutic response has led to side effects...
October 13, 2017: Bioconjugate Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29027859/quantitative-cerebral-blood-flow-using-xenon-enhanced-ct-after-decompressive-craniectomy-in-traumatic-brain-injury
#8
Aditya Vedantam, Claudia S Robertson, Shankar P Gopinath
OBJECTIVE Few studies have reported on changes in quantitative cerebral blood flow (CBF) after decompressive craniectomy and the impact of these measures on clinical outcome. The aim of the present study was to evaluate global and regional CBF patterns in relation to cerebral hemodynamic parameters in patients after decompressive craniectomy for traumatic brain injury (TBI). METHODS The authors studied clinical and imaging data of patients who underwent xenon-enhanced CT (XeCT) CBF studies after decompressive craniectomy for evacuation of a mass lesion and/or to relieve intractable intracranial hypertension...
October 13, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026663/ependymal-enhancement-on-magnetic-resonance-imaging-for-the-identification-of-high-grade-gliomas
#9
Muhammad Waqas, Muzna Iftikhar, Usman T Siddiqui, Syed Ather Enam
BACKGROUND: High-grade gliomas have high infiltrative potential and spread along white matter and blood vessels. Enhancement of ependymal lining on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is considered as a marker of parenchymal spread of disease. In this study, we aimed to assess the sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of ependymal enhancement (EE) for identification of high-grade glial tumors. METHODS: We reviewed preoperative MRI scans of 94 consecutive patients surgically treated for space occupying lesions of the brain for EE...
2017: Surgical Neurology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026617/cerebral-vasculitis-and-intracranial-multiple-aneurysms-in-a-child-with-lyme-neuroborreliosis
#10
Elisa Kortela, Jukka Hytönen, Jussi Numminen, Margit Overmyer, Harri Saxen, Jarmo Oksi
Introduction. Lyme borreliosis is a multisystem tick-borne disease caused by Borrelia burgdorferi. Neurological manifestations are reported in up to 15 % of adult patients with Lyme disease, while the frequency among children is higher. The most common manifestations are painful radiculopathy, facial nerve paresis and lymphocytic meningitis. Epileptic seizures and cerebral vasculitis with stroke or aneurysms are very rare complications. Case presentation. We describe a paediatric patient with sensorineural auditory dysfunction, headache, fatigue and epileptic seizures as sequelae of meningoencephalitis/Lyme neuroborreliosis (LNB) caused by B...
April 2017: JMM Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026292/the-effects-of-holistic-health-group-interventions-on-improving-the-cognitive-ability-of-persons-with-mild-cognitive-impairment-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#11
Kim-Wan Young, Petrus Ng, Timothy Kwok, Daphne Cheng
PURPOSE: Persons with mild cognitive impairment (PwMCI) are at a higher risk of developing dementia than those without cognitive impairment. This research study aims to evaluate the effectiveness of a holistic health group intervention, which is based on the holistic brain health approach as well as an Eastern approach to health care, on improving the cognitive ability of Chinese PwMCI. RESEARCH METHODS: In a randomized controlled trial (RCT), 38 Chinese PwMCI were randomly assigned to either a 10-session holistic health intervention group or the control group...
2017: Clinical Interventions in Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026142/stochastic-resonance-at-criticality-in-a-network-model-of-the-human-cortex
#12
Bertha Vázquez-Rodríguez, Andrea Avena-Koenigsberger, Olaf Sporns, Alessandra Griffa, Patric Hagmann, Hernán Larralde
Stochastic resonance is a phenomenon in which noise enhances the response of a system to an input signal. The brain is an example of a system that has to detect and transmit signals in a noisy environment, suggesting that it is a good candidate to take advantage of stochastic resonance. In this work, we aim to identify the optimal levels of noise that promote signal transmission through a simple network model of the human brain. Specifically, using a dynamic model implemented on an anatomical brain network (connectome), we investigate the similarity between an input signal and a signal that has traveled across the network while the system is subject to different noise levels...
October 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026139/partial-volume-correction-for-pet-quantification-and-its-impact-on-brain-network-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#13
Jiarui Yang, Chenhui Hu, Ning Guo, Joyita Dutta, Lucia M Vaina, Keith A Johnson, Jorge Sepulcre, Georges El Fakhri, Quanzheng Li
Amyloid positron emission tomography (PET) imaging is a valuable tool for research and diagnosis in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Partial volume effects caused by the limited spatial resolution of PET scanners degrades the quantitative accuracy of PET image. In this study, we have applied a method to evaluate the impact of a joint-entropy based partial volume correction (PVC) technique on brain networks learned from a clinical dataset of AV-45 PET image and compare network properties of both uncorrected and corrected image-based brain networks...
October 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026117/involvement-of-the-accumbal-osteopontin-interacting-transmembrane-protein-168-in-methamphetamine-induced-place-preference-and-hyperlocomotion-in-mice
#14
Kequan Fu, Yoshiaki Miyamoto, Kazuya Otake, Kazuyuki Sumi, Eriko Saika, Shohei Matsumura, Naoki Sato, Yuka Ueno, Seunghee Seo, Kyosuke Uno, Shin-Ichi Muramatsu, Atsumi Nitta
Chronic exposure to methamphetamine causes adaptive changes in brain, which underlie dependence symptoms. We have found that the transmembrane protein 168 (TMEM168) is overexpressed in the nucleus accumbens of mice upon repeated methamphetamine administration. Here, we firstly demonstrate the inhibitory effect of TMEM168 on methamphetamine-induced behavioral changes in mice, and attempt to elucidate the mechanism of this inhibition. We overexpressed TMEM168 in the nucleus accumbens of mice by using an adeno-associated virus vector (NAc-TMEM mice)...
October 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025926/enhancing-spinal-plasticity-amplifies-the-benefits-of-rehabilitative-training-and-improves-recovery-from-stroke
#15
Anna M Wiersma, Karim Fouad, Ian R Winship
The limited recovery that occurs following stroke happens almost entirely in the first weeks post injury. Moreover, the efficacy of rehabilitative training is limited beyond this narrow time frame. Sprouting of spared corticospinal tract axons in the contralesional spinal cord makes a significant contribution to sensorimotor recovery, but this structural plasticity is also limited to the first few weeks after stroke. Here, we tested the hypothesis that inducing plasticity in the spinal cord during chronic stroke could improve recovery from persistent sensorimotor impairment...
October 12, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025866/declining-levels-of-functionally-specialized-synaptic-proteins-in-plasma-neuronal-exosomes-with-progression-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#16
Edward J Goetzl, Erin L Abner, Gregory A Jicha, Dimitrios Kapogiannis, Janice B Schwartz
Interactions of the presynaptic proteins, neuronal pentraxin 2 (NPTX2) and neurexin 2α (NRXN2α), with their respective postsynaptic functional partners, GluA4-containing glutamate (AMPA4) receptor and neuroligin 1 (NLGN1), enhance excitatory synaptic activity in some areas of the hippocampus and cerebral cortex. As early damage of such excitatory circuits in the brain tissues of participants with Alzheimer's disease (AD) correlates with cognitive losses, plasma neuron-derived exosome (NDE) levels of these 2 pairs of specialized synaptic proteins were quantified to assess their biomarker characteristics...
October 12, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025761/genome-wide-association-study-to-find-modifiers-for-tetralogy-of-fallot-in-the-22q11-2-deletion-syndrome-identifies-variants-in-the-gpr98-locus-on-5q14-3
#17
Tingwei Guo, Gabriela M Repetto, Donna M McDonald McGinn, Jonathan H Chung, Hiroko Nomaru, Christopher L Campbell, Anna Blonska, Anne S Bassett, Eva W C Chow, Elisabeth E Mlynarski, Ann Swillen, Joris Vermeesch, Koen Devriendt, Doron Gothelf, Miri Carmel, Elena Michaelovsky, Maude Schneider, Stephan Eliez, Stylianos E Antonarakis, Karlene Coleman, Aoy Tomita-Mitchell, Michael E Mitchell, M Cristina Digilio, Bruno Dallapiccola, Bruno Marino, Nicole Philip, Tiffany Busa, Leila Kushan-Wells, Carrie E Bearden, Małgorzata Piotrowicz, Wanda Hawuła, Amy E Roberts, Flora Tassone, Tony J Simon, Esther D A van Duin, Thérèse A van Amelsvoort, Wendy R Kates, Elaine Zackai, H Richard Johnston, David J Cutler, A J Agopian, Elizabeth Goldmuntz, Laura E Mitchell, Tao Wang, Beverly S Emanuel, Bernice E Morrow
BACKGROUND: The 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS; DiGeorge syndrome/velocardiofacial syndrome) occurs in 1 of 4000 live births, and 60% to 70% of affected individuals have congenital heart disease, ranging from mild to severe. In our cohort of 1472 subjects with 22q11.2DS, a total of 62% (n=906) have congenital heart disease and 36% (n=326) of these have tetralogy of Fallot (TOF), comprising the largest subset of severe congenital heart disease in the cohort. METHODS AND RESULTS: To identify common genetic variants associated with TOF in individuals with 22q11...
October 2017: Circulation. Cardiovascular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025134/cannabis-dampens-the-effects-of-music-in-brain-regions-sensitive-to-reward-and-emotion
#18
Tom P Freeman, Rebecca A Pope, Matthew B Wall, James A Bisby, Maartje Luijten, Chandni Hindocha, Claire Mokrysz, Will Lawn, Abigail Moss, Michael A P Bloomfield, Celia J A Morgan, David J Nutt, H Valerie Curran
Background: Despite the current shift towards permissive cannabis policies, few studies have investigated the pleasurable effects users seek. Here we investigate the effects of cannabis on listening to music - a rewarding activity that frequently occurs in the context of recreational cannabis use. We additionally tested how these effects are influenced by cannabidiol (CBD), which may offset cannabis-related harms. Methods: Across three sessions, sixteen cannabis users inhaled cannabis with CBD, cannabis without CBD, and placebo...
September 2, 2017: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024925/defining-functioning-levels-in-patients-with-schizophrenia-a-combination-of-a-novel-clustering-method-and-brain-spect-analysis
#19
Faget-Agius Catherine, Vincenti Aurélie, Guedj Eric, Michel Pierre, Richieri Raphaëlle, Alessandrini Marine, Auquier Pascal, Lançon Christophe, Boyer Laurent
This study aims to define functioning levels of patients with schizophrenia by using a method of interpretable clustering based on a specific functioning scale, the Functional Remission Of General Schizophrenia (FROGS) scale, and to test their validity regarding clinical and neuroimaging characterization. In this observational study, patients with schizophrenia have been classified using a hierarchical top-down method called clustering using unsupervised binary trees (CUBT). Socio-demographic, clinical, and neuroimaging SPECT perfusion data were compared between the different clusters to ensure their clinical relevance...
September 8, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024785/slow-intrathecal-injection-of-raavrh10-enhances-its-transduction-of-spinal-cord-and-therapeutic-efficacy-in-a-mutant-sod1-model-of-als
#20
Dongxiao Li, Chong Liu, Chunxing Yang, Dan Wang, Dongxia Wu, Yinkuang Qi, Qin Su, Guangping Gao, Zuoshang Xu, Yansu Guo
Mutant SOD1 causes amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) by a dominant gain of toxicity. Previous studies have demonstrated therapeutic potential of mutant SOD1-RNAi delivered by intrathecal (IT) injection of recombinant adeno-associated virus (rAAV). However, optimization of delivery is needed to overcome the high degree of variation in the transduction efficiency and therapeutic efficacy. Here, on the basis of our previously defined, efficient IT injection method, we investigated the influence of injection speed on transduction efficiency in the central nervous system (CNS)...
October 9, 2017: Neuroscience
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