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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677642/diagnostic-value-of-18-f-fluordesoxyglucose-positron-emission-tomography-for-patients-with-brain-metastasis-from-unknown-primary-site
#1
Fabian Wolpert, Michael Weller, Anna Sophie Berghoff, Elisabeth Rushing, Lisa Michaela Füreder, Gregory Petyt, Henning Leske, Nicolaus Andratschke, Luca Regli, Marian Christoph Neidert, Roger Stupp, Rolf Stahel, Reinhard Dummer, Thomas Frauenfelder, Patrick Roth, Nicolas Reyns, Philipp Antonio Kaufmann, Matthias Preusser, Emilie Le Rhun
BACKGROUND: In 30% of patients with brain metastasis (BM), neurological symptoms are the first clinical manifestation of systemic malignancy, referred to as BM from cancer of unknown primary site (BM-CUPS). Here, we define the diagnostic value of 18 F-fluordesoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET/CT) in the workup of BM-CUPS. METHODS: We screened 565 patients operated for BM at the University Hospital Zurich and identified 64 patients with BM-CUPS with data on both FDG-PET/CT and contrast-enhanced chest/abdomen computed tomography (CT) available at BM diagnosis...
April 17, 2018: European Journal of Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677620/hippocampal-fxr-plays-a-role-in-the-pathogenesis-of-depression-a-preliminary-study-based-on-lentiviral-gene-modulation
#2
Wei-Guan Chen, Jia-Xuan Zheng, Xi Xu, Yu-Ming Hu, Yu-Min Ma
As a well-known bile acid receptor, the role of Farnesoid X receptor (FXR) in the digestive system and cardiovascular system has been widely explored. However, there are very few studies involving FXR in the central nervous system. In this study, we explored the role of FXR in the pathogenesis of depression, a serious and worldwide neuropsychiatric disease. It was found that chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS) fully enhanced the protein and mRNA expressions of FXR in hippocampus, but not medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC)...
April 10, 2018: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677490/egfr-phosphorylated-platelet-isoform-of-phosphofructokinase-1-promotes-pi3k-activation
#3
Jong-Ho Lee, Rui Liu, Jing Li, Yugang Wang, Lin Tan, Xin-Jian Li, Xu Qian, Chuanbao Zhang, Yan Xia, Daqian Xu, Wei Guo, Zhiyong Ding, Linyong Du, Yanhua Zheng, Qianming Chen, Philip L Lorenzi, Gordon B Mills, Tao Jiang, Zhimin Lu
EGFR activates phosphatidylinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), but the mechanism underlying this activation is not completely understood. We demonstrated here that EGFR activation resulted in lysine acetyltransferase 5 (KAT5)-mediated K395 acetylation of the platelet isoform of phosphofructokinase 1 (PFKP) and subsequent translocation of PFKP to the plasma membrane, where the PFKP was phosphorylated at Y64 by EGFR. Phosphorylated PFKP binds to the N-terminal SH2 domain of p85α, which is distinct from binding of Gab1 to the C-terminal SH2 domain of p85α, and recruited p85α to the plasma membrane resulting in PI3K activation...
April 19, 2018: Molecular Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677102/implications-of-pi3k-akt-pten-signaling-on-superoxide-dismutases-expression-and-in-the-pathogenesis-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#4
REVIEW
Satoru Matsuda, Yukie Nakagawa, Ai Tsuji, Yasuko Kitagishi, Atsuko Nakanishi, Toshiyuki Murai
Alzheimer’s disease is a neurodegenerative sickness, where the speed of personal disease progression differs prominently due to genetic and environmental factors such as life style. Alzheimer’s disease is described by the construction of neuronal plaques and neurofibrillary tangles composed of phosphorylated tau protein. Mitochondrial dysfunction may be a noticeable feature of Alzheimer’s disease and increased production of reactive oxygen species has long been described. Superoxide dismutases (SODs) protect from excess reactive oxygen species to form less reactive hydrogen peroxide...
April 20, 2018: Diseases (Basel)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676844/differentiation-of-brain-infection-from-necrotic-glioblastoma-using-combined-analysis-of-diffusion-and-perfusion-mri
#5
Sanjeev Chawla, Sumei Wang, Suyash Mohan, MacLean Nasrallah, Gaurav Verma, Steven Brem, Donald M O'Rourke, Ronald L Wolf, Harish Poptani, S Ali Nabavizadeh
BACKGROUND: Accurate differentiation of brain infections from necrotic glioblastomas (GBMs) may not always be possible on morphologic MRI or on diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and dynamic susceptibility contrast perfusion-weighted imaging (DSC-PWI) if these techniques are used independently. PURPOSE: To investigate the combined analysis of DTI and DSC-PWI in distinguishing brain injections from necrotic GBMs. STUDY TYPE: Retrospective. POPULATION: Fourteen patients with brain infections and 21 patients with necrotic GBMs...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29676103/-protective-effect-and-mechanism-of-p-hydroxybenzaldehyde-on-blood-brain-barrier
#6
Yan-Ping Zhu, Xin Li, Yao Du, Lu Zhang, Li Ran, Ning-Na Zhou
The disruption of blood-brain barrier(BBB) induced by oxidative stress is an important pathological reaction which results in secondary brain injury during the cerebral ischemia-reperfusion. This study was designed to investigate the protective effect and mechanism of p-hydroxybenzaldehyde (p-HBA) from Gastrodia elata on BBB. The BBB is mainly consisted of vascular endothelial cells and astrocytes, so brain microvascular endothelial cell line (bEnd.3) and astrocytes (Ast) in mice were used in this study to establish BBB model...
March 2018: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675957/endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-induces-spatial-memory-deficits-by-activating-gsk-3
#7
Li Lin, Jie Cao, Shu-Sheng Yang, Zheng-Qi Fu, Peng Zeng, Jiang Chu, Lin-Na Ning, Teng Zhang, Yan Shi, Qing Tian, Xin-Wen Zhou, Jian-Zhi Wang
Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is involved in Alzheimer's disease (AD), but the mechanism is not fully understood. Here, we injected tunicamycin (TM), a recognized ER stress inducer, into the brain ventricle of Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats to induce the unfolded protein response (UPR), demonstrated by the enhanced phosphorylation of pancreatic ER kinase (PERK), inositol-requiring enzyme-1 (IRE-1) and activating transcription factor-6 (ATF-6). We observed that UPR induced spatial memory deficits and impairments of synaptic plasticity in the rats...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675682/development-of-nanoparticle-assisted-pcr-assay-in-the-rapid-detection-of-brain-eating-amoebae
#8
Shobana Gabriel, Abdul Khaliq Rasheed, Ruqaiyyah Siddiqui, Jimmy Nelson Appaturi, Leo Bey Fen, Naveed Ahmed Khan
Brain-eating amoebae (Acanthamoeba spp., Balamuthia mandrillaris, Naegleria fowleri) have gained increasing attention owing to their capacity to produce severe human and animal infections involving the brain. Early detection is a pre-requisite in successful prognosis. Here, we developed a nanoPCR assay for the rapid detection of brain-eating amoebae using various nanoparticles. Graphene oxide, copper and alumina nanoparticles used in this study were characterized using Raman spectroscopy measurements through excitation with a He-Ne laser, while powder X-ray diffraction patterns were taken on a PANanalytical, X'Pert HighScore diffractometer and the morphology of the materials was confirmed using high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM)...
April 20, 2018: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675474/brain-tumor-characterization-using-multibiometric-evaluation-of-mri
#9
Faris Durmo, Jimmy Lätt, Anna Rydelius, Silke Engelholm, Sara Kinhult, Krister Askaner, Elisabet Englund, Johan Bengzon, Markus Nilsson, Isabella M Björkman-Burtscher, Thomas Chenevert, Linda Knutsson, Pia C Sundgren
The aim was to evaluate volume, diffusion, and perfusion metrics for better presurgical differentiation between high-grade gliomas (HGG), low-grade gliomas (LGG), and metastases (MET). For this retrospective study, 43 patients with histologically verified intracranial HGG (n = 18), LGG (n = 10), and MET (n = 15) were chosen. Preoperative magnetic resonance data included pre- and post-gadolinium contrast-enhanced T1-weighted fluid-attenuated inversion recover, cerebral blood flow (CBF), cerebral blood volume (CBV), fractional anisotropy, and apparent diffusion coefficient maps used for quantification of magnetic resonance biometrics by manual delineation of regions of interest...
March 2018: Tomography: a Journal for Imaging Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674970/hypothesis-the-psychedelic-ayahuasca-heals-traumatic-memories-via-a-sigma-1-receptor-mediated-epigenetic-mnemonic-process
#10
Antonio Inserra
Ayahuasca ingestion modulates brain activity, neurotransmission, gene expression and epigenetic regulation. N,N -Dimethyltryptamine (DMT, one of the alkaloids in Ayahuasca) activates sigma 1 receptor (SIGMAR1) and others. SIGMAR1 is a multi-faceted stress-responsive receptor which promotes cell survival, neuroprotection, neuroplasticity, and neuroimmunomodulation. Simultaneously, monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) also present in Ayahuasca prevent the degradation of DMT. One peculiarity of SIGMAR1 activation and MAOI activity is the reversal of mnemonic deficits in pre-clinical models...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674968/peripherally-administered-y-2-receptor-antagonist-biie0246-prevents-diet-induced-obesity-in-mice-with-excess-neuropeptide-y-but-enhances-obesity-in-control-mice
#11
Liisa Ailanen, Laura H Vähätalo, Henriikka Salomäki-Myftari, Satu Mäkelä, Wendy Orpana, Suvi T Ruohonen, Eriika Savontaus
Neuropeptide Y (NPY) plays an important role in the regulation of energy homeostasis in the level of central and sympathetic nervous systems (SNSs). Genetic silencing of peripheral Y2 -receptors have anti-obesity effects, but it is not known whether pharmacological blocking of peripheral Y2 -receptors would similarly benefit energy homeostasis. The effects of a peripherally administered Y2 -receptor antagonist were studied in healthy and energy-rich conditions with or without excess NPY. Genetically obese mice overexpressing NPY in brain noradrenergic nerves and SNS (OE-NPYDβH ) represented the situation of elevated NPY levels, while wildtype (WT) mice represented the normal NPY levels...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674959/meal-sensing-signaling-pathways-in-functional-dyspepsia
#12
REVIEW
Amanda J Page, Hui Li
The upper gastrointestinal tract plays an important role in sensing the arrival, amount and chemical composition of a meal. Ingestion of a meal triggers a number of sensory signals in the gastrointestinal tract. These include the response to mechanical stimulation (e.g., gastric distension), from the presence of food in the gut, and the interaction of various dietary nutrients with specific "taste" receptors on specialized enteroendocrine cells in the small intestine culminating in the release of gut hormones...
2018: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674956/mir-103-promotes-neurite-outgrowth-and-suppresses-cells-apoptosis-by-targeting-prostaglandin-endoperoxide-synthase-2-in-cellular-models-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#13
Hui Yang, Hongcai Wang, Yongwei Shu, Xuling Li
miR-103 has been reported to be decreased in brain of transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of AD patients, while the detailed mechanism of its effect on AD is obscure, thus this study aimed to investigate the effect of miR-103 expression on neurite outgrowth and cells apoptosis as well as its targets in cellular models of AD. Blank mimic (NC1-mimic), miR-103 mimic, blank inhibitor (NC2-mimic) and miR-103 inhibitor plasmids were transferred into PC12 cellular AD model and Cellular AD model of cerebral cortex neurons which were established by Aβ1-42 insult...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674624/brain-and-spinal-cord-injury-repair-by-implantation-of-human-neural-progenitor-cells-seeded-onto-polymer-scaffolds
#14
Jeong Eun Shin, Kwangsoo Jung, Miri Kim, Kyujin Hwang, Haejin Lee, Il-Sun Kim, Bae Hwan Lee, Il-Shin Lee, Kook In Park
Hypoxic-ischemic (HI) brain injury and spinal cord injury (SCI) lead to extensive tissue loss and axonal degeneration. The combined application of the polymer scaffold and neural progenitor cells (NPCs) has been reported to enhance neural repair, protection and regeneration through multiple modes of action following neural injury. This study investigated the reparative ability and therapeutic potentials of biological bridges composed of human fetal brain-derived NPCs seeded upon poly(glycolic acid)-based scaffold implanted into the infarction cavity of a neonatal HI brain injury or the hemisection cavity in an adult SCI...
April 20, 2018: Experimental & Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674605/brain-training-games-enhance-cognitive-function-in-healthy-subjects
#15
Abdulrahman Al-Thaqib, Fahad Al-Sultan, Abdullah Al-Zahrani, Fahad Al-Kahtani, Khalid Al-Regaiey, Muhammad Iqbal, Shahid Bashir
BACKGROUND Brain training games (BTG) are believed to play a major role in improving cognitive functions. The current study evaluated if BTG showed positive impact on attention and memory functions compared with baseline visit in healthy subjects. MATERIAL AND METHODS The study was carried out from October 2015 until April 2016 in the Department of Physiology, College of Medicine, King Saud University and in King Khalid University Hospital (KKUH), Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. We enrolled 51 normal healthy subjects to use a computerized cognitive training game (Lumosity) for exercises that target a range of cognitive functions, including attention, processing speed, visual memory, and executive functions for about 15 min per day, at least 7 days per week, for 3 weeks...
April 20, 2018: Medical Science Monitor Basic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674371/automation-of-ct-based-haemorrhagic-stroke-assessment-for-improved-clinical-outcomes-study-protocol-and-design
#16
Betty Chinda, George Medvedev, William Siu, Martin Ester, Ali Arab, Tao Gu, Sylvain Moreno, Ryan C N D'Arcy, Xiaowei Song
INTRODUCTION: Haemorrhagic stroke is of significant healthcare concern due to its association with high mortality and lasting impact on the survivors' quality of life. Treatment decisions and clinical outcomes depend strongly on the size, spread and location of the haematoma. Non-contrast CT (NCCT) is the primary neuroimaging modality for haematoma assessment in haemorrhagic stroke diagnosis. Current procedures do not allow convenient NCCT-based haemorrhage volume calculation in clinical settings, while research-based approaches are yet to be tested for clinical utility; there is a demonstrated need for developing effective solutions...
April 19, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674364/health-and-prevention-enhancement-h-peace-a-retrospective-population-based-cohort-study-conducted-at-the-seoul-national-university-hospital-gangnam-center-korea
#17
Changhyun Lee, Eun Kyung Choe, Ji Min Choi, Yunji Hwang, Young Lee, Boram Park, Su Jin Chung, Min-Sun Kwak, Jong-Eun Lee, Joo Sung Kim, Sue Kyung Park, Sang-Heon Cho
PURPOSE: The Health and Prevention Enhancement (H-PEACE) study was designed to investigate the association of diagnostic imaging results, biomarkers and the predisease stage of non-communicable diseases (NCDs), such as malignancies and metabolic diseases, in an average-risk population in Korea. PARTICIPANTS: This study enrolled a large-scale retrospective cohort at the Healthcare System Gangnam Center, Seoul National University Hospital, from October 2003 to December 2014...
April 19, 2018: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673924/food-additives-food-and-the-concept-of-food-addiction-is-stimulation-of-the-brain-reward-circuit-by-food-sufficient-to-trigger-addiction
#18
REVIEW
A Y Onaolapo, O J Onaolapo
In the last few years, the concept of 'food addiction' has continued to gain popularity, with human and animal studies demonstrating the differential effects of foods that are high in fat, sugar or protein on appetite, satiety, eating behaviour and the development of food addiction. However, a number of studies have disputed the occurrence of food addiction in humans. Questions have also arisen regarding the possible impacts that food additives may have on the development of food addiction or eating disorders...
April 12, 2018: Pathophysiology: the Official Journal of the International Society for Pathophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673858/impact-of-high-intensity-interval-exercise-on-executive-function-and-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-in-healthy-college-aged-males
#19
Aaron L Slusher, Virginia T Patterson, Charles S Schwartz, Edmund O Acevedo
Prefrontal cortex (PFC)-dependent executive function is enhanced immediately following high intensity interval exercise (HIIE). Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is considered a biomarker associated with enhanced execute functioning capacity at rest and in response to exercise. However, the mechanisms responsible for the acute exercise-induced BDNF response in plasma and serum differ, and it is likely that the utilization of BDNF in plasma and/or serum as a biomarker of improved executive function following HIIE may be limited...
April 16, 2018: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673238/association-of-exercise-induced-autophagy-upregulation-and-apoptosis-suppression-with-neuroprotection-against-pharmacologically-induced-parkinson-s-disease
#20
Yong Chul Jang, Dong Joo Hwang, Jung Hoon Koo, Hyun Seob Um, Nam Hee Lee, Dong Cheol Yeom, Youngil Lee, Joon Yong Cho
PURPOSE: We investigated whether treadmill exercise (TE)-induced neuroprotection was associated with enhanced autophagy and reduced apoptosis in a mouse model of pharmacologically induced Parkinson's disease (PD). METHODS: PD was induced via the administration of 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP). C57BL/6 male mice were randomly assigned to the following three groups: control (C57BL, n=10), MPTP with probenecid (MPTP/C, n=10), and MPTP/ C plus exercise (MPTP-TE, n=10)...
March 30, 2018: Journal of Exercise Nutrition & Biochemistry
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