keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Brain enhancement

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107684/non-invasive-brain-stimulation-targeting-the-right-fusiform-gyrus-selectively-increases-working-memory-for-faces
#1
Tad T Brunyé, Joseph M Moran, Amanda Holmes, Caroline R Mahoney, Holly A Taylor
The human extrastriate cortex contains a region critically involved in face detection and memory, the right fusiform gyrus. The present study evaluated whether transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) targeting this anatomical region would selectively influence memory for faces versus non-face objects (houses). Anodal tDCS targeted the right fusiform gyrus (Brodmann's Area 37), with the anode at electrode site PO10, and cathode at FP2. Two stimulation conditions were compared in a repeated-measures design: 0...
January 17, 2017: Brain and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107480/drosophila-vps13-is-required-for-protein-homeostasis-in-the-brain
#2
Jan J Vonk, Wondwossen M Yeshaw, Francesco Pinto, Anita I E Faber, Liza L Lahaye, Bart Kanon, Marianne van der Zwaag, Antonio Velayos-Baeza, Raimundo Freire, Sven C van IJzendoorn, Nicola A Grzeschik, Ody C M Sibon
Chorea-Acanthocytosis is a rare, neurodegenerative disorder characterized by progressive loss of locomotor and cognitive function. It is caused by loss of function mutations in the Vacuolar Protein Sorting 13A (VPS13A) gene, which is conserved from yeast to human. The consequences of VPS13A dysfunction in the nervous system are still largely unspecified. In order to study the consequences of VPS13A protein dysfunction in the ageing central nervous system we characterized a Drosophila melanogaster Vps13 mutant line...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28107262/suspected-cerebral-edema-in-diabetic-ketoacidosis-is-there-still-a-role-for-head-ct-in-treatment-decisions
#3
Carmen L Soto-Rivera, Lisa A Asaro, Michael S D Agus, Danielle D DeCourcey
OBJECTIVES: Neurologic deterioration associated with cerebral edema in diabetic ketoacidosis is typically sudden in onset, progresses rapidly, and requires emergent treatment. The utility of brain imaging by head CT in decisions to treat for cerebral edema has not been previously studied. The objective of this study was to describe the characteristics of pediatric patients with diabetic ketoacidosis who develop altered mental status and evaluate the role of head CT in this cohort. DESIGN: Retrospective analysis of clinical, biochemical, and radiologic data...
January 19, 2017: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106129/retooling-laser-speckle-contrast-analysis-algorithm-to-enhance-non-invasive-high-resolution-laser-speckle-functional-imaging-of-cutaneous-microcirculation
#4
Surya C Gnyawali, Kevin Blum, Durba Pal, Subhadip Ghatak, Savita Khanna, Sashwati Roy, Chandan K Sen
Cutaneous microvasculopathy complicates wound healing. Functional assessment of gated individual dermal microvessels is therefore of outstanding interest. Functional performance of laser speckle contrast imaging (LSCI) systems is compromised by motion artefacts. To address such weakness, post-processing of stacked images is reported. We report the first post-processing of binary raw data from a high-resolution LSCI camera. Sharp images of low-flowing microvessels were enabled by introducing inverse variance in conjunction with speckle contrast in Matlab-based program code...
January 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106117/norovirus-p-particle-based-active-a%C3%AE-immunotherapy-elicits-sufficient-immunogenicity-and-improves-cognitive-capacity-in-a-mouse-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#5
Lu Fu, Yingnan Li, Yue Hu, Yayuan Zheng, Bin Yu, Haihong Zhang, Jiaxin Wu, Hui Wu, Xianghui Yu, Wei Kong
Disease-modifying immunotherapies focusing on reducing amyloid-beta (Aβ) deposition are the main treatment for Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, none of the Aβ immunotherapies has produced clinically meaningful results to date. The main reason for this lack of efficacy is that the vaccine induces insufficiently high antibody titers, as it contains small B-cell epitope of Aβ to avoid Aβ42-specific T-cell activation. With the aim of generating a potent AD vaccine, we designed the protein PP-3copy-Aβ1-6-loop123, comprising three copies of Aβ1-6 inserted into three loops of a novel vaccine platform, the norovirus P particle, which could present Aβ at its surface and remarkably enhance the immunogenicity of the vaccine...
January 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106089/release-activity-dependent-control-of-vesicle-endocytosis-by-the-synaptic-adhesion-molecule-n-cadherin
#6
Bernd van Stegen, Sushma Dagar, Kurt Gottmann
At synapses in the mammalian brain, continuous information transfer requires the long-term maintenance of homeostatic coupling between exo- and endocytosis of synaptic vesicles. Because classical endocytosis is orders of magnitude slower than the millisecond-range exocytosis of vesicles, high frequency vesicle fusion could potentially compromise structural stability of synapses. However, the molecular mechanisms mediating the tight coupling of exo- and endocytosis are largely unknown. Here, we investigated the role of the transsynaptic adhesion molecules N-cadherin and Neuroligin1 in regulating vesicle exo- and endocytosis by using activity-induced FM4-64 staining and by using synaptophysin-pHluorin fluorescence imaging...
January 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28106040/the-effects-of-prior-stress-on-anxiety-like-responding-to-intra-bnst-pituitary-adenylate-cyclase-activating-polypeptide-pacap-in-male-and-female-rats
#7
S Bradley King, Kim R Lezak, Micaela O'Reilly, Donna J Toufexis, William A Falls, Karen Braas, Victor May, Sayamwong E Hammack
Chronic or repeated exposure to stressful stimuli can result in several maladaptive consequences, including increased anxiety-like behaviors and altered peptide expression in anxiety-related brain structures. Among these structures, the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) has been implicated in emotional behaviors as well as regulation of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity. In male rodents, chronic variate stress (CVS) has been shown to increase BNST pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) and its cognate PAC1 receptor transcript, and BNST PACAP signaling may mediate the maladaptive changes associated with chronic stress...
January 20, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105532/machiavellian-emotion-regulation-in-a-cognitive-reappraisal-task-an-fmri-study
#8
Anita Deak, Barbara Bodrogi, Brigitte Biro, Gabor Perlaki, Gergely Orsi, Tamas Bereczkei
Affective coldness is one of the main features of Machiavellianism. Recent studies have revealed that Machiavellians are emotionally detached and that this "affective blunting" is associated with intense feelings, emotional instability, negative emotions, and difficulty in enduring distress. We used brain-imaging techniques to investigate emotion regulation in Machiavellianism at a neuropsychological level. We used situations in which participants were required to demonstrate emotional flexibility to explore the controversy surrounding the fact that Machiavellianism is associated with both cold-mindedness and emotional instability...
January 19, 2017: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105468/simulating-the-effect-of-spectroscopic-mri-as-a-metric-for-radiation-therapy-planning-in-patients-with-glioblastoma
#9
J Scott Cordova, Shravan Kandula, Saumya Gurbani, Jim Zhong, Mital Tejani, Oluwatosin Kayode, Kirtesh Patel, Roshan Prabhu, Eduard Schreibmann, Ian Crocker, Chad A Holder, Hyunsuk Shim, Hui-Kuo Shu
Due to glioblastoma's infiltrative nature, an optimal radiation therapy (RT) plan requires targeting infiltration not identified by anatomical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Here, high-resolution, whole-brain spectroscopic MRI (sMRI) is used to describe tumor infiltration alongside anatomical MRI and simulate the degree to which it modifies RT target planning. In 11 patients with glioblastoma, data from preRT sMRI scans were processed to give high-resolution, whole-brain metabolite maps normalized by contralateral white matter...
December 2016: Tomography: a Journal for Imaging Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105214/detection-value-of-tumor-cells-in-cerebrospinal-fluid-in-the-diagnosis-of-meningeal-metastasis-from-lung-cancer-by-immuno-fish-technology
#10
Yuan Lv, Ning Mu, Chunhua Ma, Rong Jiang, Qiaoli Wu, Jinduo Li, Bin Wang, Liwei Sun
To investigate the detection value of tumor cells in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in the adjuvant diagnosis of meningeal metastasis from lung cancer by immunofluorescence in situ hybridization (immuno-FISH) technology. The circulating tumor cells (CTCs) in the CSF of 16 patients with meningeal metastasis from lung cancer and 8 with non-tumor diseases in the brain were detected using immuno-FISH technology. The diagnosis of meningeal metastasis from lung cancer was based on neurological symptoms, enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans and CSF cytological examination...
December 2016: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105208/tpx2-promotes-glioma-cell-proliferation-and-invasion-via-activation-of-the-akt-signaling-pathway
#11
Jian-Jun Gu, Jian-He Zhang, Hong-Jie Chen, Shou-Sen Wang
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most common and most malignant type of primary adult brain cancer. The most common phenotype associated with GBM is cellular invasion; however, the molecular mechanisms governing this process are poorly understood. Targeting protein for Xenopus kinesin-like protein 2 (TPX2) is a nuclear protein with roles in cellular proliferation and mitotic spindle assembly. TPX2 is overexpressed in various malignancies, including human malignant astrocytoma. Despite this finding, the exact role of TPX2 in human glioma is not well defined...
December 2016: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104935/neurotuberculosis-immune-reconstitution-inflammatory-syndrome-in-the-setting-of-hiv-infection-a-case-report-and-review-of-literature
#12
Deepasree Jaganmohan, Sunitha V Chakkalakkoombil, Anjana A Beena, Nagarajan Krishnan
Immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) is an exaggerated immune response which can occur with various coinfections in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected patients, of which the most commonly implicated in central nervous system (CNS)-IRIS are progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML), cryptococcosis, and tuberculosis (TB). TB-IRIS is a known complication of pulmonary TB or TB lymphadenitis coinfection in HIV infected patients who are on antituberculosis treatment (ATT) after the initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART)...
October 2016: Indian Journal of Radiology & Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104720/when-dizziness-becomes-sinister-oropharyngeal-carcinoma-presenting-as-a-paraneoplastic-neurological-disorder
#13
Li Yong, Panagiotis Asimakopoulos, Colin Mumford, Ioanna Fragkandrea Nixon
Paraneoplastic neurological disorders are uncommon presentations of head and neck cancers. We present a case of a 68-year-old male patient who presented with dizziness, nausea and memory problems. MRI of his brain showed bilateral cerebellar leptomeningeal enhancing signal abnormality with cervical lymphadenopathy. CT imaging of his neck raised the suspicion of a tonsillar primary, which was later confirmed on biopsy. His poorly differentiated HPV positive squamous cell carcinoma was treated with chemoradiotherapy...
January 19, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104346/the-effect-of-lead-exposure-on-fatty-acid-composition-in-mouse-brain-analyzed-using-pseudo-catalytic-derivatization
#14
Jong-Min Jung, Jechan Lee, Ki-Hyun Kim, In Geon Jang, Jae Gwang Song, Kyeongjin Kang, Filip M G Tack, Jeong-Ik Oh, Eilhann E Kwon, Hyung-Wook Kim
We performed toxicological study of mice exposed to lead by quantifying fatty acids in brain of the mice. This study suggests that the introduced analytical method had an extremely high tolerance against impurities such as water and extractives; thus, it led to the enhanced resolution in visualizing the spectrum of fatty acid profiles in animal brain. Furthermore, one of the biggest technical advantages achieved in this study was the quantitation of fatty acid methyl ester profiles of mouse brain using a trace amount of sample (e...
January 16, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104251/efficacy-safety-and-pharmacokinetics-of-natalizumab-in-japanese-multiple-sclerosis-patients-a-double-blind-randomized-controlled-trial-and-open-label-pharmacokinetic-study
#15
Takahiko Saida, Jun-Ichi Kira, Shuji Kishida, Takashi Yamamura, Yukiko Sudo, Kazutaka Ogiwara, J T Tibung, Nisha Lucas, Meena Subramanyam
BACKGROUND: Natalizumab, an anti-α4 integrin monoclonal antibody, has demonstrated efficacy in phase 2 and 3 studies of predominantly Caucasian patients with relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS). OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the efficacy, safety, pharmacokinetics (PK), and pharmacodynamics (PD) of natalizumab in Japanese RRMS patients. METHODS: This multicenter, phase 2 study included an open-label PK/PD study in 12 patients (part A) and a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized (computer-generated sequence) study in 94 patients (part B)...
January 2017: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104188/maternal-multiple-micronutrient-supplementation-and-other-biomedical-and-socioenvironmental-influences-on-children-s-cognition-at-age-9-12-years-in-indonesia-follow-up-of-the-summit-randomised-trial
#16
Elizabeth L Prado, Susy K Sebayang, Mandri Apriatni, Siti R Adawiyah, Nina Hidayati, Ayuniarti Islamiyah, Sudirman Siddiq, Benyamin Harefa, Jarrad Lum, Katherine J Alcock, Michael T Ullman, Husni Muadz, Anuraj H Shankar
BACKGROUND: Brain and cognitive development during the first 1000 days from conception are affected by multiple biomedical and socioenvironmental determinants including nutrition, health, nurturing, and stimulation. An improved understanding of the long-term influence of these factors is needed to prioritise public health investments to optimise human development. METHODS: We did a follow-up study of the Supplementation with Multiple Micronutrients Intervention Trial (SUMMIT), a double-blind, cluster-randomised trial of maternal supplementation with multiple micronutrients (MMN) or iron and folic acid (IFA) in Indonesia...
February 2017: Lancet Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103901/pathogenic-lrrk2-variants-are-gain-of-function-mutations-that-enhance-lrrk2-mediated-repression-of-%C3%AE-catenin-signaling
#17
Daniel C Berwick, Behzad Javaheri, Andrea Wetzel, Mark Hopkinson, Jonathon Nixon-Abell, Simone Grannò, Andrew A Pitsillides, Kirsten Harvey
BACKGROUND: LRRK2 mutations and risk variants increase susceptibility to inherited and idiopathic Parkinson's disease, while recent studies have identified potential protective variants. This, and the fact that LRRK2 mutation carriers develop symptoms and brain pathology almost indistinguishable from idiopathic Parkinson's disease, has led to enormous interest in this protein. LRRK2 has been implicated in a range of cellular events, but key among them is canonical Wnt signalling, which results in increased levels of transcriptionally active β-catenin...
January 19, 2017: Molecular Neurodegeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103571/identification-of-aurintricarboxylic-acid-as-a-selective-inhibitor-of-the-tweak-fn14-signaling-pathway-in-glioblastoma-cells
#18
Alison Roos, Harshil D Dhruv, Ian T Mathews, Landon J Inge, Serdar Tuncali, Lauren K Hartman, Donald Chow, Nghia Millard, Holly H Yin, Jean Kloss, Joseph C Loftus, Jeffrey A Winkles, Michael E Berens, Nhan L Tran
The survival of patients diagnosed with glioblastoma (GBM), the most deadly form of brain cancer, is compromised by the proclivity for local invasion into the surrounding normal brain, which prevents complete surgical resection and contributes to therapeutic resistance. Tumor necrosis factor-like weak inducer of apoptosis (TWEAK), a member of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) superfamily, can stimulate glioma cell invasion and survival via binding to fibroblast growth factor-inducible 14 (Fn14) and subsequent activation of the transcription factor NF-κB...
January 17, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103480/adrenergic-gate-release-for-spike-timing-dependent-synaptic-potentiation
#19
Yanling Liu, Lei Cui, Martin K Schwarz, Yan Dong, Oliver M Schlüter
Spike timing-dependent synaptic plasticity (STDP) serves as a key cellular correlate of associative learning, which is facilitated by elevated attentional and emotional states involving activation of adrenergic signaling. At cellular levels, adrenergic signaling increases dendrite excitability, but the underlying mechanisms remain elusive. Here we show that activation of β2-adrenoceptors promoted STD long-term synaptic potentiation at mouse hippocampal excitatory synapses by inactivating dendritic Kv1.1-containing potassium channels, which increased dendrite excitability and facilitated dendritic propagation of postsynaptic depolarization, potentially improving coincidental activation of pre- and postsynaptic terminals...
January 18, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103441/enantio-specific-allosteric-modulation-of-cannabinoid-1-receptor
#20
Robert B Laprairie, Pushkar M Kulkarni, Jeffrey R Deschamps, Melanie E M Kelly, David R Janero, Maria G Cascio, Lesley A Stevenson, Roger G Pertwee, Terry Kenakin, Eileen M Denovan-Wright, Ganesh A Thakur
The cannabinoid 1 receptor (CB1R) is one of the most widely expressed metabotropic G protein-coupled receptors in brain, and its participation in various (patho)physiological processes has made CB1R activation a viable therapeutic modality. Adverse psychotropic effects limit the clinical utility of CB1R orthosteric agonists and have promoted the search for CB1R positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) with the promise of improved drug-like pharmacology and enhanced safety over typical CB1R agonists. In this study, we describe the synthesis and in vitro and ex vivo pharmacology of the novel allosteric CB1R modulator GAT211 (racemic) and its resolved enantiomers, GAT228 (R) and GAT229 (S)...
January 19, 2017: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
keyword
keyword
85194
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"