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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244749/serum-levels-of-s100b-and-nse-proteins-in-patients-with-non-transfusion-dependent-thalassemia-as-biomarkers-of-brain-ischemia-and-cerebral-vasculopathy
#1
Aikaterini Kanavaki, Konstantinos Spengos, Maria Moraki, Polyxeni Delaporta, Catherine Kariyannis, Ioannis Papassotiriou, Antonis Kattamis
Patients with non-transfusion-dependent thalassemia (NTDT) are at risk of developing brain ischemia. Transcranial Doppler (TCD) has been established as a useful screening tool of cerebrovascular disease in patients with sickle cell disease. Proteins neuron specific enolase (NSE) and S100B are biomarkers that reflect CNS injury. The purpose of this study is to evaluate cerebral vessel vasculopathy and brain damage in NTDT patients using non-invasive methods as TCD and measurement serum levels of NSE and S100B...
December 15, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244638/memory-contextualization-the-role-of-prefrontal-cortex-in-functional-integration-across-item-and-context-representational-regions
#2
Wei Zhang, Vanessa A van Ast, Floris Klumpers, Karin Roelofs, Erno J Hermans
Memory recall is facilitated when retrieval occurs in the original encoding context. This context dependency effect likely results from the automatic binding of central elements of an experience with contextual features (i.e., memory "contextualization") during encoding. However, despite a vast body of research investigating the neural correlates of explicit associative memory, the neural interactions during encoding that predict implicit context-dependent memory remain unknown. Twenty-six participants underwent fMRI during encoding of salient stimuli (faces), which were overlaid onto unique background images (contexts)...
December 15, 2017: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243252/predicting-calvarial-growth-in-normal-and-craniosynostotic-mice-using-a-computational-approach
#3
Arsalan Marghoub, Joseph Libby, Christian Babbs, Erwin Pauws, Michael J Fagan, Mehran Moazen
During postnatal calvarial growth the brain grows gradually and the overlying bones and sutures accommodate that growth until the later juvenile stages. The whole process is coordinated through a complex series of biological, chemical and perhaps mechanical signals between various elements of the craniofacial system. The aim of this study was to investigate to what extent a computational model can accurately predict the calvarial growth in wild-type (WT) and mutant type (MT) Fgfr2C342Y/+ mice displaying bicoronal suture fusion...
December 15, 2017: Journal of Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243237/beak-and-feather-disease-virus-carriage-by-knemidocoptes-pilae-in-a-sulphur-crested-cockatoo-cacatua-galerita
#4
T Portas, B Jackson, S Das, S Shamsi, S R Raidal
BACKGROUND: This paper describes the pathology associated with psittacine beak and feather disease in a wild sulphur-crested cockatoo with concurrent knemidocoptic mange, cestodiasis and mycotic encephalitis. METHODS & RESULTS: Large numbers of Knemidocoptes pilae Lavoipierre and Griffiths, 1951 (Acari: Epidermoptidae, Knemidokoptinae) were identified in affected skin associated with enhanced expression of beak and feather disease virus (BFDV) determined by immunohistochemistry...
December 2017: Australian Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243172/therapeutic-delivery-of-simvastatin-loaded-in-pla-peg-polymersomes-resulted-in-amplification-of-anti-inflammatory-effects-in-activated-microglia
#5
Dharani Manickavasagam, Kimberly Novak, Moses O Oyewumi
Simvastatin (Sim), a lipid-lowering drug has been studied in chronic neuroinflammation associated with degenerative brain disorders due to its potential protective properties against inflammatory reaction, oxidative damage, neuronal dysfunction, and death. Meanwhile, potential application of Sim in neuroinflammation will require a suitable delivery system that can overcome notable challenges pertaining to poor blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability and side/off-target effects. Herein, we engineered and characterized nano-sized polymersomes loaded with Sim (Sim-Ps) using PEG-PdLLA (methoxy polyethylene glycol-poly(D,L) lactic acid) diblock co-polymers...
December 14, 2017: AAPS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243005/efficacy-and-safety-outcomes-in-vitamin-d-supplement-users-in-the-fingolimod-phase-3-trials
#6
Kira Hongell, Diego G Silva, Shannon Ritter, Daniela Piani Meier, Merja Soilu-Hänninen
BACKGROUND: Low serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D have been associated with worse outcomes in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients treated with interferon-beta. Association of vitamin D nutrition on the outcomes of other MS therapies has been studied less. OBJECTIVE: Whether patients in the phase 3 fingolimod trials using vitamin D supplements have better clinical, MRI and safety outcomes than non-users. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Pooled data from phase 3 FREEDOMS trials was analyzed post hoc...
December 14, 2017: Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242796/bilateral-femoral-neck-fractures-in-cerebrotendinous-xanthomatosis-treated-by-hip-arthroplasties-the-first-case-report-and-literature-review
#7
Witchuree Wejjakul, Swist Chatmaitri, Thongek Wattanarojanaporn, Anuwat Pongkunakorn, Chupong Ittiwut, Vorasuk Shotelersuk
Introduction: Cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis (CTX) is a rare autosomal recessive lipid storage disease caused by mutations of the CYP27A1 gene and deficiency of the sterol-27-hydroxylase enzyme in bile acid biosynthesis. It is characterized by the accumulation of cholestanol and bile alcohols in plasma, the formation of xanthomatous lesions in various tissues, and organ degeneration. This disorder is also associated with osteoporosis and increased risk of fracture. To date, only two CTX patients with femoral neck fractures have been reported...
September 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242363/diagnostic-accuracy-of-amino-acid-and-fdg-pet-in-differentiating-brain-metastasis-recurrence-from-radionecrosis-after-radiotherapy-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#8
H Li, L Deng, H X Bai, J Sun, Y Cao, Y Tao, L J States, M D Farwell, P Zhang, B Xiao, L Yang
BACKGROUND: Current studies that analyze the usefulness of amino acid and FDG-PET in distinguishing brain metastasis recurrence and radionecrosis after radiation therapy are limited by small cohort size. PURPOSE: Our aim was to assess the diagnostic accuracy of amino acid and FDG-PET in differentiating brain metastasis recurrence from radionecrosis after radiation therapy. DATA SOURCES: Studies were retrieved from PubMed, Embase, and the Cochrane Library...
December 14, 2017: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242136/anxiolytic-effect-of-cpeb1-knockdown-on-the-amygdala-of-a-mouse-model-of-inflammatory-pain
#9
Jiao Yue, Xin-Shang Wang, Yan-Yan Guo, Kai-Yin Zheng, Hai-Yan Liu, Li-Ning Hu, Ming-Gao Zhao, Shui-Bing Liu
Anxiety disorders are a category of mental disorders characterized by feelings of anxiety, stress, and fear attached to various sources. However, their pathogenesis is complicated and has not been fully elucidated. The amygdala is a vital brain region that regulates anxiety and mental disorders. Cytoplasmic polyadenylation element binding protein 1 (CPEB1) mediates the extension of the mRNA polyadenylation tail and facilitates the translation of target RNA. CPEB1 is closely related to neuronal diseases, such as Fragile X Syndrome, learning and memory disorders, and chronic pain...
December 11, 2017: Brain Research Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242091/association-between-microcephaly-zika-virus-infection-and-other-risk-factors-in-brazil-final-report-of-a-case-control-study
#10
Thalia Velho Barreto de Araújo, Ricardo Arraes de Alencar Ximenes, Demócrito de Barros Miranda-Filho, Wayner Vieira Souza, Ulisses Ramos Montarroyos, Ana Paula Lopes de Melo, Sandra Valongueiro, Maria de Fátima Pessoa Militão de Albuquerque, Cynthia Braga, Sinval Pinto Brandão Filho, Marli Tenório Cordeiro, Enrique Vazquez, Danielle di Cavalcanti Souza Cruz, Claudio Maierovitch Pessanha Henriques, Luciana Caroline Albuquerque Bezerra, Priscila Mayrelle da Silva Castanha, Rafael Dhalia, Ernesto Torres Azevedo Marques-Júnior, Celina Maria Turchi Martelli, Laura Cunha Rodrigues
BACKGROUND: A Zika virus epidemic emerged in northeast Brazil in 2015 and was followed by a striking increase in congenital microcephaly cases, triggering a declaration of an international public health emergency. This is the final report of the first case-control study evaluating the potential causes of microcephaly: congenital Zika virus infection, vaccines, and larvicides. The published preliminary report suggested a strong association between microcephaly and congenital Zika virus infection...
December 11, 2017: Lancet Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242088/voluntarily-induced-vomiting-a-yoga-technique-to-enhance-pulmonary-functions-in-healthy-humans
#11
Ragavendrasamy Balakrishnan, Ramesh Mavathur Nanjundaiah, Nandi Krishnamurthy Manjunath
Vomiting is a complex autonomic reflex orchestrated by several neurological centres in the brain. Vagus, the cranial nerve plays a key role in regulation of vomiting. Kunjal Kriya (Voluntarily Induced Vomiting), is a yogic cleansing technique which involves voluntarily inducing vomiting after drinking saline water (5%) on empty stomach. This study was designed with an objective to understand the effect of voluntary induced vomiting (ViV) on pulmonary functions in experienced practitioners and novices and derive its possible therapeutic applications...
December 11, 2017: Journal of Ayurveda and Integrative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241839/the-theta-burst-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-over-the-right-pfc-affects-electroencephalogram-oscillation-during-emotional-processing
#12
Dan Cao, Yingjie Li, Margaret A Niznikiewicz, Yingying Tang, Jijun Wang
Prefrontal cortex (PFC) plays an important role in emotional processing and therefore is one of the most frequently targeted regions for non-invasive brain stimulation such as repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) in clinical trials, especially in the treatment of emotional disorders. As an approach to enhance the effectiveness of rTMS, continuous theta burst stimulation (cTBS) has been demonstrated to be efficient and safe. However, it is unclear how cTBS affects brain processes related to emotion...
December 11, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241651/distinct-roles-of-prelimbic-and-infralimbic-probdnf-in-extinction-of-conditioned-fear
#13
Wei Sun, Xiaoliang Li, Lei An
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) has been investigated for its positive role in regulation of fear acquisition and memory. The precursor of BDNF, proBDNF, has been identified as different protein from its mature form. The prelimbic (PL) and infralimbic (IL) sub-regions of the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) are functionally distinct in fear behavior. However, the role of PL and IL proBDNF in fear memory is unclear. Here, through the infusion of cleavage-resistant proBDNF and its antibody, we identified the dissociable roles of PL and IL proBDNF in fear expression and extinction memory as well as explored proBDNF's potential mechanism of action...
December 11, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241584/a-schizophrenia-linked-kalrn-coding-variant-alters-neuron-morphology-protein-function-and-transcript-stability
#14
Theron A Russell, Melanie J Grubisha, Christine L Remmers, Seok Kyu Kang, Marc P Forrest, Katharine R Smith, Katherine J Kopeikina, Ruoqi Gao, Robert A Sweet, Peter Penzes
BACKGROUND: Large-scale genetic studies have revealed that rare sequence variants, including single nucleotide variants (SNVs), in glutamatergic synaptic genes are enriched in schizophrenia patients. However, the majority are too rare to show any association with disease and have not been examined functionally. One such SNV, KALRN-P2255T, displays a penetrance that greatly exceeds that of previously identified schizophrenia-associated SNVs. Therefore, we sought to characterize its effects on the function of kalirin (Kal)-9, a dual Ras-related C3 botulinum toxin substrate 1 and Ras homologue gene family, member A (RhoA) guanine nucleotide exchange factor, upregulated in human schizophrenia brain tissue...
November 7, 2017: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241141/plasma-exchange-in-severe-acute-relapses-of-multiple-sclerosis-results-from-a-portuguese-cohort
#15
Inês Correia, Joana Jesus Ribeiro, Luís Isidoro, Sónia Batista, Carla Nunes, Carmo Macário, Catarina Borges, Jorge Tomaz, Lívia Sousa
BACKGROUND: Relapses in Multiple Sclerosis (MS) are often associated with significant disability impairment which is resultant from poor response to corticosteroids. In such severe cases, plasma exchange (PLEX) may be used, although only a few studies with MS patients have been reported. Our objective was to evaluate the effectiveness of PLEX in severe relapses of MS. METHODS: Retrospective study of MS patients treated with PLEX in acute relapses. Data regarding EDSS, annualized relapse rate (ARR), treatment with corticosteroids, number of PLEX sessions, adverse events, and gadolinium enhancement in brain MRI were analysed...
December 7, 2017: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240733/use-of-tai-fish-to-visualize-neural-ensembles-activated-by-multiple-stimuli
#16
Qi Zhang, Qiye He, Jihua Wang, Chaoying Fu, Hailan Hu
Researchers in behavioral neuroscience have long sought imaging techniques that can identify and distinguish neural ensembles that are activated by sequentially applied stimuli at single-cell resolution across the whole brain. Taking advantage of the different kinetics of immediate-early genes' mRNA and protein expression, we addressed this problem by developing tyramide-amplified immunohistochemistry-fluorescence in situ hybridization (TAI-FISH), a dual-epoch neural-activity-dependent labeling protocol. Here we describe the step-by-step procedures for TAI-FISH on brain sections from mice that were sequentially stimulated by morphine (appetitive first stimulus) and foot shock (aversive second stimulus)...
January 2018: Nature Protocols
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239631/video-game-training-does-not-enhance-cognitive-ability-a-comprehensive-meta-analytic-investigation
#17
Giovanni Sala, K Semir Tatlidil, Fernand Gobet
As a result of considerable potential scientific and societal implications, the possibility of enhancing cognitive ability by training has been one of the most influential topics of cognitive psychology in the last two decades. However, substantial research into the psychology of expertise and a recent series of meta-analytic reviews have suggested that various types of cognitive training (e.g., working memory training) benefit performance only in the trained tasks. The lack of skill generalization from one domain to different ones-that is, far transfer-has been documented in various fields of research such as working memory training, music, brain training, and chess...
December 14, 2017: Psychological Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239478/the-effect-of-emotionally-valenced-eye-region-images-on-visuocortical-processing-of-surprised-faces
#18
Shuaixia Li, Ping Li, Wei Wang, Xiangru Zhu, Wenbo Luo
In this study, we presented pictorial representations of happy, neutral, and fearful expressions projected in the eye regions to determine whether the eye region alone is sufficient to produce a context effect. Participants were asked to judge the valence of surprised faces that had been preceded by a picture of an eye region. Behavioral results showed that affective ratings of surprised faces were context dependent. Prime-related ERPs with presentation of happy eyes elicited a larger P1 than those for neutral and fearful eyes, likely due to the recognition advantage provided by a happy expression...
December 14, 2017: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239327/influence-of-vascular-endothelial-growth-factor-and-radiation-on-gap-junctional-intercellular-communication-in-glioblastoma-multiforme-cell-lines
#19
Reinhardt Krcek, Pauline Latzer, Irenäus Anton Adamietz, Helmut Bühler, Carsten Theiss
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is a highly aggressive glial brain tumor with an unfavorable prognosis despite all current therapies including surgery, radiation and chemotherapy. One characteristic of this tumor is a strong synthesis of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), an angiogenesis factor, followed by pronounced vascularization. VEGF became a target in the treatment of GBM, for example with bevacizumab or the tyrosine kinase inhibitor axitinib, which blocks VEGF receptors. To improve patients' prognosis, new targets in the treatment of GBM are under investigations...
November 2017: Neural Regeneration Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239317/%C3%AE-n-bcl-xl-a-therapeutic-target-for-neuroprotection
#20
REVIEW
Han-A Park, Elizabeth A Jonas
The B-cell lymphoma-extra large (Bcl-xL) is a mitochondrial anti-apoptotic protein that plays a role in neuroprotection. However, during excitotoxic stimulation, Bcl-xL undergoes caspase-dependent cleavage and produces a fragmented form, ΔN-Bcl-xL. Accumulation of ΔN-Bcl-xL is associated with mitochondrial dysfunction and neuronal death. Therefore, strategies to inhibit the activity or formation of ΔN-Bcl-xL protect the brain against excitotoxic injuries. Our team found that the pharmacological inhibitor ABT-737 exerts dose dependent effects in primary neurons...
November 2017: Neural Regeneration Research
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