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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654773/increased-anxiety-and-fear-memory-in-adult-mice-lacking-type-2-deiodinase
#1
Soledad Bárez-López, Ana Montero-Pedrazuela, Daniel Bosch-García, César Venero, Ana Guadaño-Ferraz
A euthyroid state in the brain is crucial for its adequate development and function. Impairments in thyroid hormones (THs; T3 or 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine and T4 or thyroxine) levels and availability in brain can lead to neurological alterations and to psychiatric disorders, particularly mood disorders. The thyroid gland synthetizes mainly T4, which is secreted to circulating blood, however, most actions of THs are mediated by T3, the transcriptionally active form. In the brain, intracellular concentrations of T3 are modulated by the activity of type 2 (D2) and type 3 (D3) deiodinases...
June 16, 2017: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654759/taurine-reverses-sodium-fluoride-mediated-increase-in-inflammation-caspase-3-activity-and-oxidative-damage-along-the-brain-pituitary-gonadal-axis-in-male-rats
#2
Isaac A Adedara, Bolanle F Olabiyi, TeminiJesu D Ojuade, Umar F Idris, Esther M Onibiyo, Ebenezer O Farombi
Excessive exposure to fluoride is associated with male reproductive dysfunction in humans and animals. Taurine (2-aminoethane sulfonic acid) is a free intracellular β-amino acid with antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective properties. However, the effect of taurine on fluoride-induced reproductive toxicity has not been reported. The present study investigated the influence of taurine on sodium fluoride (NaF)-induced functional changes along the brain-pituitary-gonadal axis in male rats. NaF was administered singly in drinking water at 15 mg/L alone or orally co-administered by gavage with taurine at 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight for 45 consecutive days...
June 27, 2017: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654472/the-past-present-and-future-of-neurorehabilitation-from-nustep-through-iv-step-and-beyond
#3
Susan R Harris, Carolee J Winstein
PURPOSES: To present the history and aims of the STEP conferences; describe the interdependence of prevention, prediction, plasticity, and participation; reflect on where we stand today regarding those 4 Ps; and discuss how future neurorehabilitation should look for individuals with movement disorders. KEY POINTS: Physical therapists have focused primarily on tertiary prevention, emphasizing primary/secondary prevention far less. Predicting optimal response to intervention is essential for primary prevention...
July 2017: Pediatric Physical Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654387/phosphatidylserine-targeted-nanotheranostics-for-brain-tumor-imaging-and-therapeutic-potential
#4
Lulu Wang, Amyn A Habib, Akiva Mintz, King C Li, Dawen Zhao
Phosphatidylserine (PS), the most abundant anionic phospholipid in cell membrane, is strictly confined to the inner leaflet in normal cells. However, this PS asymmetry is found disruptive in many tumor vascular endothelial cells. We discuss the underlying mechanisms for PS asymmetry maintenance in normal cells and its loss in tumor cells. The specificity of PS exposure in tumor vasculature but not normal blood vessels may establish it a useful biomarker for cancer molecular imaging. Indeed, utilizing PS-targeting antibodies, multiple imaging probes have been developed and multimodal imaging data have shown their high tumor-selective targeting in various cancers...
January 1, 2017: Molecular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654379/multimodal-imaging-of-patients-with-gliomas-confirms-11-c-met-pet-as-a-complementary-marker-to-mri-for-noninvasive-tumor-grading-and-intraindividual-follow-up-after-therapy
#5
Kai R Laukamp, Florian Lindemann, Matthias Weckesser, Volker Hesselmann, Sandra Ligges, Johannes Wölfer, Astrid Jeibmann, Bastian Zinnhardt, Thomas Viel, Michael Schäfers, Werner Paulus, Walter Stummer, Otmar Schober, Andreas H Jacobs
The value of combined L-( methyl-[(11)C]) methionine positron-emitting tomography (MET-PET) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) with regard to tumor extent, entity prediction, and therapy effects in clinical routine in patients with suspicion of a brain tumor was investigated. In n = 65 patients with histologically verified brain lesions n = 70 MET-PET and MRI (T1-weighted gadolinium-enhanced [T1w-Gd] and fluid-attenuated inversion recovery or T2-weighted [FLAIR/T2w]) examinations were performed. The computer software "visualization and analysis framework volume rendering engine (Voreen)" was used for analysis of extent and intersection of tumor compartments...
January 1, 2017: Molecular Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654081/aging-affects-the-balance-of-neural-entrainment-and-top-down-neural-modulation-in-the-listening-brain
#6
Molly J Henry, Björn Herrmann, Dunja Kunke, Jonas Obleser
Healthy aging is accompanied by listening difficulties, including decreased speech comprehension, that stem from an ill-understood combination of sensory and cognitive changes. Here, we use electroencephalography to demonstrate that auditory neural oscillations of older adults entrain less firmly and less flexibly to speech-paced (∼3 Hz) rhythms than younger adults' during attentive listening. These neural entrainment effects are distinct in magnitude and origin from the neural response to sound per se...
June 27, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28653925/nsaids-ameliorate-cognitive-and-motor-impairment-in-a-model-of-parkinsonism-induced-by-chlorpromazine
#7
Sadaf Naeem, Rahila Ikram, Saira Saeed Khan, Sadia Saleem Rao
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a long-lasting neurodegenerative brain disease. It is characterized by a gradual decline in motor and non motor symptoms especially postural instability, tremors and memory impairment with localized loss of neurons mainly in the Substantia nigra. In the current research we evaluated the effects of Non-steroidal anti inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) on motor coordination and memory in chlorpromazine (CPZ) induced Parkinson's experimental model. Intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of CPZ (3 mg/kg) was given to all rats for 21 days to induce Parkinson like symptoms; ibuprofen (40mg/kg/day) and celecoxib (20mg/kg) were administered 30 minutes after CPZ injection...
May 2017: Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28653883/the-nitric-oxide-donor-js-k-sensitizes-u87-glioma-cells-to-repetitive-irradiation
#8
Max Heckler, Nadja Osterberg, Jessica Guenzle, Nina Kristin Thiede-Stan, Wilfried Reichardt, Claudia Weidensteiner, Joseph E Saavedra, Astrid Weyerbrock
As a potent radiosensitizer nitric oxide (NO) may be a putative adjuvant in the treatment of malignant gliomas which are known for their radio- and chemoresistance. The NO donor prodrug JS-K (O2-(2.4-dinitrophenyl) 1-[(4-ethoxycarbonyl) piperazin-1-yl] diazen-1-ium-1,2-diolate) allows cell-type specific intracellular NO release via enzymatic activation by glutathione-S-transferases overexpressed in glioblastoma multiforme. The cytotoxic and radiosensitizing efficacy of JS-K was assessed in U87 glioma cells in vitro focusing on cell proliferation, induction of DNA damage, and cell death...
June 2017: Tumour Biology: the Journal of the International Society for Oncodevelopmental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28653860/gadolinium-deposition-in-human-brain-tissues-after-contrast-enhanced-mr-imaging-in-adult-patients-without-intracranial-abnormalities
#9
Robert J McDonald, Jennifer S McDonald, David F Kallmes, Mark E Jentoft, Michael A Paolini, David L Murray, Eric E Williamson, Laurence J Eckel
Purpose To determine whether gadolinium deposits in neural tissues of patients with intracranial abnormalities following intravenous gadolinium-based contrast agent (GBCA) exposure might be related to blood-brain barrier integrity by studying adult patients with normal brain pathologic characteristics. Materials and Methods After obtaining antemortem consent and institutional review board approval, the authors compared postmortem neuronal tissue samples from five patients who had undergone four to 18 gadolinium-enhanced magnetic resonance (MR) examinations between 2005 and 2014 (contrast group) with samples from 10 gadolinium-naive patients who had undergone at least one MR examination during their lifetime (control group)...
June 27, 2017: Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28653801/a-putative-lysophosphatidylinositol-receptor-gpr55-modulates-hippocampal-synaptic-plasticity
#10
Katrina Hurst, Corinne Badgley, Tanner Ellsworth, Spencer Bell, Lindsey Friend, Brad Prince, Jacob Welch, Zack Cowan, Ryan Williamson, Chris Lyon, Brandon Anderson, Brian Poole, Michael Christensen, Michael McNeil, Jarrod Call, Jeffrey G Edwards
GPR55, an orphan G-protein coupled receptor, is activated by lysophosphatidylinositol (LPI) and the endocannabinoid anandamide, as well as by other compounds including THC. LPI is a potent endogenous ligand of GPR55 and neither GPR55 nor LPIs' functions in the brain are well understood. While endocannabinoids are well known to modulate brain synaptic plasticity, the potential role LPI could have on brain plasticity has never been demonstrated. Therefore, we examined not only GPR55 expression, but also the role its endogenous ligand could play in long-term potentiation, a common form of synaptic plasticity...
June 8, 2017: Hippocampus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28653748/adaptive-dynamics-of-the-5-ht-systems-following-chronic-administration-of-selective-serotonin-reuptake-inhibitors-a-meta-analysis
#11
Stefan Fritze, Rainer Spanagel, Hamid R Noori
Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are the most frequently prescribed antidepressants. However, a major concern is their delayed onset of action, which is hypothesized to be associated with the time required for serotonin (5-HT) autoreceptors to desensitize, which should be reflected by actual neurochemical changes. Numerous in vivo microdialysis studies have been published that report on 5-HT levels in different brain sites following SSRI administration. Here we performed a meta-analysis on dynamic changes of 5-HT neurotransmission during the course of chronic SSRI treatment...
June 27, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28653428/effects-of-dextroamphetamine-in-subacute-traumatic-brain-injury-a-randomized-placebo-controlled-pilot-study
#12
Tessa Hart, John Whyte, Thomas Watanabe, Inna Chervoneva
Psychostimulants that affect neurotransmitters implicated in cognitive function and neural plasticity have potential to enhance the rate and extent of recovery after traumatic brain injury (TBI). Ten milligrams dextroamphetamine (DEX) or an identical placebo was administered daily for 3 weeks to 32 participants with moderate to severe TBI, engaged in inpatient rehabilitation, at a mean of 2 months post injury. A variety of outcome measures assessing cognitive function and overall functional status was administered at weekly intervals, to examine effect sizes that may inform a larger trial, and to evaluate safety...
June 27, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28653212/higher-blood-brain-barrier-permeability-is-associated-with-higher-white-matter-hyperintensities-burden
#13
Yue Li, Man Li, Xiaoyu Zhang, Qinglei Shi, Shuna Yang, Huimin Fan, Wei Qin, Lei Yang, Junliang Yuan, Tao Jiang, Wenli Hu
The pathogenesis of white matter hyperintensities (WMH) is incompletely understood but blood-brain barrier (BBB) dysfunction may play a key role. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between BBB permeability and the severity of WMH burden. Consecutive participants without symptomatic stroke history presented for physical examination were recruited in this cross-sectional study and divided into three WMH burden groups according to total Fazekas scores. They received dynamic contrast-enhanced-magnetic resonance imaging to measure BBB permeability, and received Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA)...
June 26, 2017: Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28652857/fiber-optic-force-sensors-for-mri-guided-interventions-and-rehabilitation-a-review
#14
Hao Su, Iulian I Iordachita, Junichi Tokuda, Nobuhiko Hata, Xuan Liu, Reza Seifabadi, Sheng Xu, Bradford Wood, Gregory S Fischer
Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) provides both anatomical imaging with excellent soft tissue contrast and functional MRI imaging (fMRI) of physiological parameters. The last two decades have witnessed the manifestation of increased interest in MRI-guided minimally invasive intervention procedures and fMRI for rehabilitation and neuroscience research. Accompanying the aspiration to utilize MRI to provide imaging feedback during interventions and brain activity for neuroscience study, there is an accumulated effort to utilize force sensors compatible with the MRI environment to meet the growing demand of these procedures, with the goal of enhanced interventional safety and accuracy, improved efficacy and rehabilitation outcome...
April 1, 2017: IEEE Sensors Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28652619/testing-hypotheses-of-developmental-constraints-on-mammalian-brain-partition-evolution-using-marsupials
#15
Alison Carlisle, Lynne Selwood, Lyn A Hinds, Norman Saunders, Mark Habgood, Karine Mardon, Vera Weisbecker
There is considerable debate about whether the partition volumes of the mammalian brain (e.g. cerebrum, cerebellum) evolve according to functional selection, or whether developmental constraints of conserved neurogenetic scheduling cause predictable partition scaling with brain size. Here we provide the first investigation of developmental constraints on partition volume growth, derived from contrast-enhanced micro-computed tomography of hydrogel-stabilized brains from three marsupial species. ANCOVAs of partition vs...
June 26, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28652571/discovery-of-long-range-inhibitory-signaling-to-ensure-single-axon-formation
#16
Tetsuya Takano, Mengya Wu, Shinichi Nakamuta, Honda Naoki, Naruki Ishizawa, Takashi Namba, Takashi Watanabe, Chundi Xu, Tomonari Hamaguchi, Yoshimitsu Yura, Mutsuki Amano, Klaus M Hahn, Kozo Kaibuchi
A long-standing question in neurodevelopment is how neurons develop a single axon and multiple dendrites from common immature neurites. Long-range inhibitory signaling from the growing axon is hypothesized to prevent outgrowth of other immature neurites and to differentiate them into dendrites, but the existence and nature of this inhibitory signaling remains unknown. Here, we demonstrate that axonal growth triggered by neurotrophin-3 remotely inhibits neurite outgrowth through long-range Ca(2+) waves, which are delivered from the growing axon to the cell body...
June 26, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28652333/functional-selectivity-for-face-processing-in-the-temporal-voice-area-of-early-deaf-individuals
#17
Stefania Benetti, Markus J van Ackeren, Giuseppe Rabini, Joshua Zonca, Valentina Foa, Francesca Baruffaldi, Mohamed Rezk, Francesco Pavani, Bruno Rossion, Olivier Collignon
Brain systems supporting face and voice processing both contribute to the extraction of important information for social interaction (e.g., person identity). How does the brain reorganize when one of these channels is absent? Here, we explore this question by combining behavioral and multimodal neuroimaging measures (magneto-encephalography and functional imaging) in a group of early deaf humans. We show enhanced selective neural response for faces and for individual face coding in a specific region of the auditory cortex that is typically specialized for voice perception in hearing individuals...
June 26, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28652078/extracellular-cytochrome-c-as-an-intercellular-signaling-molecule-regulating-microglial-functions
#18
Ayden Gouveia, Ekta Bajwa, Andis Klegeris
BACKGROUND: Cytochrome c is well known to be released from mitochondria into the cytosol where it can initiate apoptosis. Recent studies indicate that cytochrome c is also released into the extracellular space by both healthy and damaged cells, where its function is not well understood. We hypothesized that extracellular cytochrome c could function as an intercellular signaling molecule of the brain, which is recognized by brain microglia. These cells belong to the mononuclear phagocyte system and can be activated by endogenous substances associated with diverse pathologies including trauma, ischemic damage and neurodegenerative diseases...
June 23, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28652053/mr-imaging-in-hyperacute-ischemic-stroke
#19
Carla Vert, Carmen Parra Fariñas, Àlex Rovira
Brain and vascular imaging are required components of the emergency assessment of patients with suspected stroke. Either CT or MRI may be used as the initial imaging test. MRI is more sensitive to the presence of acute and chronic ischemic lesions, and chronic microbleeds, but CT remains the most practical and used initial brain imaging test. Although, a non-enhanced CT or T2* MRI sequence showing no haemorrhage is sufficient for deciding intravenous treatment eligibility within the first 4.5h after stroke onset, a non-invasive intracranial vascular study is strongly recommended during the initial imaging evaluation of the acute stroke patient, particularly if mechanical thrombectomy is contemplated...
June 19, 2017: European Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650441/neutrophil-mediated-anticancer-drug-delivery-for-suppression-of-postoperative-malignant-glioma-recurrence
#20
Jingwei Xue, Zekai Zhao, Lei Zhang, Lingjing Xue, Shiyang Shen, Yajing Wen, Zhuoyuan Wei, Lu Wang, Lingyi Kong, Hongbin Sun, Qineng Ping, Ran Mo, Can Zhang
Cell-mediated drug-delivery systems have received considerable attention for their enhanced therapeutic specificity and efficacy in cancer treatment. Neutrophils (NEs), the most abundant type of immune cells, are known to penetrate inflamed brain tumours. Here we show that NEs carrying liposomes that contain paclitaxel (PTX) can penetrate the brain and suppress the recurrence of glioma in mice whose tumour has been resected surgically. Inflammatory factors released after tumour resection guide the movement of the NEs into the inflamed brain...
June 19, 2017: Nature Nanotechnology
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