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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531983/development-of-haptic-based-piezoresistive-artificial-fingertip-toward-efficient-tactile-sensing-systems-for-humanoids
#1
Amin TermehYousefi, Saman Azhari, Amin Khajeh, Mohd Nizar Hamidon, Hirofumi Tanaka
Haptic sensors are essential devices that facilitate human-like sensing systems such as implantable medical devices and humanoid robots. The availability of conducting thin films with haptic properties could lead to the development of tactile sensing systems that stretch reversibly, sense pressure (not just touch), and integrate with collapsible. In this study, a nanocomposite based hemispherical artificial fingertip fabricated to enhance the tactile sensing systems of humanoid robots. To validate the hypothesis, proposed method was used in the robot-like finger system to classify the ripe and unripe tomato by recording the metabolic growth of the tomato as a function of resistivity change during a controlled indention force...
August 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28531236/psychosine-enhances-the-shedding-of-membrane-microvesicles-implications-in-demyelination-in-krabbe-s-disease
#2
Ludovic D'Auria, Cory Reiter, Emma Ward, Ana Lis Moyano, Michael S Marshall, Duc Nguyen, Giuseppe Scesa, Zane Hauck, Richard van Breemen, Maria I Givogri, Ernesto R Bongarzone
In prior studies, our laboratory showed that psychosine accumulates and disrupts lipid rafts in brain membranes of Krabbe's disease. A model of lipid raft disruption helped explaining psychosine's effects on several signaling pathways important for oligodendrocyte survival and differentiation but provided more limited insight in how this sphingolipid caused demyelination. Here, we have studied how this cationic inverted coned lipid affects the fluidity, stability and structure of myelin and plasma membranes...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530831/blue-shifted-green-fluorescent-protein-homologs-are-brighter-than-enhanced-green-fluorescent-protein-under-two-photon-excitation
#3
Rosana S Molina, Tam M Tran, Robert E Campbell, Gerard Glenn Lambert, Anya Salih, Nathan C Shaner, Thomas E Hughes, Mikhail Drobizhev
Fluorescent proteins (FPs) are indispensable markers for two-photon imaging of live tissue, especially in the brains of small model organisms. The quantity of physiologically relevant data collected, however, is limited by heat-induced damage of the tissue due to the high intensities of the excitation laser. We seek to minimize this damage by developing FPs with improved brightness. Among FPs with the same chromophore structure, the spectral properties can vary widely due to differences in the local protein environment...
May 22, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530340/-can-post-traumatic-stress-disorder-be-prevented-with-glucocorticoids
#4
REVIEW
Hagit Cohen, Zeev Kaplan, Joseph Zohar
Glucocorticoids (GCs) play a major role in orchestrating the complex physiological and behavioral reactions essential for the maintenance of homeostasis. These compounds enable the organism to prepare for, respond to and cope with the acute demands of physical and emotional stressors. The appropriate GC release, commensurate with stressor severity, enables the body to properly contain stress responses so as to promote recovery by rapidly restoring homeostasis. Indeed, inadequate GC release following stress not only delays recovery by disrupting biological homeostasis in the short run but can also interfere with the processing or interpretation of stressful information that results in long-term disruptions in memory integration...
December 2016: Harefuah
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529762/enhanced-inter-subject-brain-computer-interface-with-associative-sensorimotor-oscillations
#5
Simanto Saha, Khawza I Ahmed, Raqibul Mostafa, Ahsan H Khandoker, Leontios Hadjileontiadis
Electroencephalography (EEG) captures electrophysiological signatures of cortical events from the scalp with high-dimensional electrode montages. Usually, excessive sources produce outliers and potentially affect the actual event related sources. Besides, EEG manifests inherent inter-subject variability of the brain dynamics, at the resting state and/or under the performance of task(s), caused probably due to the instantaneous fluctuation of psychophysiological states. A wavelet coherence (WC) analysis for optimally selecting associative inter-subject channels is proposed here and is being used to boost performances of motor imagery (MI)-based inter-subject brain computer interface (BCI)...
February 2017: Healthcare Technology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529492/depression-in-men-and-women-one-year-following-traumatic-brain-injury-tbi-a-tbi-model-systems-study
#6
Sarah Lavoie, Samantha Sechrist, Nhung Quach, Reza Ehsanian, Thao Duong, Ian H Gotlib, Linda Isaac
In the general population, females experience depression at significantly higher rates than males. Individuals with traumatic brain injury (TBI) are at substantially greater risk for depression compared to the overall population. Treatment of, and recovery from, TBI can be hindered by depression; comorbid TBI and depression can lead to adverse outcomes and negatively affect multiple aspects of individuals' lives. Gender differences in depression following TBI are not well understood, and relevant empirical findings have been mixed...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529112/myeloid-differentiation-factor-88-is-up-regulated-in-epileptic-brain-and-contributes-to-experimental-seizures-in-rats
#7
Na Wang, Xiong Han, Haipeng Liu, Ting Zhao, Jie Li, Yan Feng, Xiujuan Mi, Yanke Zhang, Yanan Chen, Xuefeng Wang
Accumulating evidence supports that activation of inflammatory pathways is a crucial factor contributing to the pathogenesis of seizures. In particular, the activation of interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) system exerts proconvulsant effects in a large variety of seizure models. Myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88) is a critical adaptor protein in the signaling cascade elicited by IL-1β. The present study aimed to investigate the expression pattern of MyD88 in rat models of seizures and in patients with refractory temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), and to study the role of MyD88 in epileptic seizures...
May 18, 2017: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529059/a-review-of-human-neuroimaging-investigations-involved-with-central-autonomic-regulation-of-baroreflex-mediated-cardiovascular-control
#8
Derek S Kimmerly
Effective regulation of central blood volume and arterial pressure is critical for optimal cardiovascular homeostasis. Inadequate regulation of mean arterial pressure has important pathophysiological implications including syncope, end organ damage, and stroke. Such regulation requires appropriate central integration of barosensory afferents and reflex autonomic control of the heart and blood vessels. The neural pathways involved with the baroreflex include brainstem nuclei that receive modulatory input from higher brain centres...
May 15, 2017: Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic & Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529053/unusual-intra-parenchymal-pontomedullary-epidermoid-cyst-in-a-2-year-old-case-report-and-literature-review
#9
Anan Shtaya, Bassam Dabbous, Evgenia Fanou, Leslie Bridges, Samantha Hettige
BACKGROUND: Intrinsic brainstem epidermoid cysts are rare, benign, slow growing lesions. Their eloquence preclude complete excision, however subtotal resection will often result in prolonged or sometimes permanent relief of presenting symptoms and signs. We describe an unusual case and review the literature of this pathology in the paediatric population. CASE DESCRIPTION: We report an intra-axial pontine epidermoid cyst in a 2-year-old girl who presented with developmental delay, multiple cranial nerve palsies and pneumonia...
May 18, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528968/amylin-and-its-g-protein-coupled-receptor-a-probable-pathological-process-and-drug-target-for-alzheimer-s-disease
#10
REVIEW
Wei Qiao Qiu
G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are shown to be involved in Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathogenesis. However, because GPCRs include a large family of membrane receptors, it is unclear which specific GPCR or pathway with rational ligands can become effective therapeutic targets for AD. Amylin receptor (AmR) is a GPCR that mediates several activities, such as improving glucose metabolism, relaxing cerebrovascular structure, modulating inflammatory reactions and potentially enhancing neural regeneration. Recent studies show that peripheral treatments with amylin or its clinical analog, pramlintide, reduced several components of AD pathology, including amyloid plaques, tauopathy, neuroinflammation and other components in the brain, corresponding with improved learning and memory in AD mouse models...
May 18, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528909/melanopsin-contributions-to-the-representation-of-images-in-the-early-visual-system
#11
Annette E Allen, Riccardo Storchi, Franck P Martial, Robert A Bedford, Robert J Lucas
Melanopsin photoreception enhances retinal responses to variations in ambient light (irradiance) and drives non-image-forming visual reflexes such as circadian entrainment [1-6]. Melanopsin signals also reach brain regions responsible for form vision [7-9], but melanopsin's contribution, if any, to encoding visual images remains unclear. We addressed this deficit using principles of receptor silent substitution to present images in which visibility for melanopsin versus rods+cones was independently modulated, and we recorded evoked responses in the mouse dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (dLGN; thalamic relay for cortical vision)...
May 17, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528772/early-interleukin-6-enhances-hepatic-ketogenesis-in-appswe-psen1de9-mice-via-3-hydroxy-3-methylglutary-coa-synthase-2-signaling-activation-by-p38-nuclear-factor-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-p65
#12
Le Shi, Daina Zhao, Chen Hou, Yunhua Peng, Jing Liu, Shuangxi Zhang, Jiankang Liu, Jiangang Long
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is considered a multifactorial disease that affects the central nervous system and periphery. A decline in brain glucose metabolism is an early feature of AD and is accompanied by a phenotypic shift from aerobic glycolysis to ketogenesis. The liver is responsible for the generation of the ketone body. However, the mechanism that underlies hepatic ketogenesis in AD remains unclear. Here, we investigated hepatic ketogenesis during the early stage of AD pathogenesis in amyloid precursor protein (APPSWE) and presenilin (PSEN1dE9) (APP/PS1) mice...
April 26, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528670/glycine-receptor-drug-discovery
#13
Joseph W Lynch, Yan Zhang, Sahil Talwar, Argel Estrada-Mondragon
Postsynaptic glycine receptor (GlyR) chloride channels mediate inhibitory neurotransmission in the spinal cord and brain stem, although presynaptic and extrasynaptic GlyRs are expressed more widely throughout the brain. In humans, GlyRs are assembled as homo- or heteromeric pentamers of α1-3 and β subunits. GlyR malfunctions have been linked to a range of neurological disorders including hyperekplexia, temporal lobe epilepsy, autism, breathing disorders, and chronic inflammatory pain. Although it is possible that GlyRs may eventually be clinically targeted for a variety of neurological disorders, most research to date has focused on developing GlyR-targeted treatments for chronic pain...
2017: Advances in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527997/zinc-oxide-nanoparticles-mediated-cytotoxicity-mitochondrial-membrane-potential-and-level-of-antioxidants-in-presence-of-melatonin
#14
Sruthi S, N Millot, Mohanan Pv
Zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) are widely used in a variety of products and are currently being investigated for biomedical applications. However, they have the potential to interact with macromolecules like proteins, lipids and DNA within the cells which makes the safe biomedical application difficult. The toxicity of the ZnO NP is mainly attributed reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. Different strategies like iron doping, polymer coating and external supply of antioxidants have been evaluated to minimize the toxic potential of ZnO NPs...
May 17, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527954/sex-differences-in-the-effect-of-chronic-mild-stress-on-mouse-prefrontal-cortical-bdnf-levels-a-role-of-major-ovarian-hormones
#15
Bhanu Chandra Karisetty, Pranav Chintamani Joshi, Arvind Kumar, Sumana Chakravarty
Depression induced by stress is affected by sex, age and hormonal status of the animal and also by duration and type of the stressors. Moreover, higher prevalence of depression and comorbidities in women than men implies the need to include the sex variable in studies on animal models of depression. The present study was therefore initiated to evaluate the effect of sex and ovarian hormones on depression-like phenotypes in mice exposed to a 21-day Chronic Variable Mild Stress (CVMS) paradigm. Adult male, intact female and, ovariectomized (OVX) female mice exposed to CVMS displayed despair behavior, a depression-like phenotype, in all the groups...
May 17, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527647/correlation-between-plasma-homocysteine-levels-and-craving-in-alcohol-dependent-stabilized-patients
#16
Maurizio Coppola, Raffaella Mondola
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Homocysteine is a sulfur amino acid strictly related with alcohol consumption. In alcoholics, hyperhomocysteinemia can increase the risk of various alcohol-related disorders such as: brain atrophy, epileptic seizures during withdrawal, and mood disorders. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the correlation among serum homocysteine concentrations, craving, hazardous and harmful patterns of alcohol consumption in patients stabilized for withdrawal symptoms. METHODS: Participants were adult outpatients accessed at the Addiction Treatment Unit...
May 6, 2017: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527057/behavioral-therapy-emotion-and-pain-a-common-anatomical-background
#17
Lauren A-M Dahlke, Jeffrey J Sable, Frank Andrasik
Emotion and pain are closely intertwined in the brain, as the human experience of pain includes both affective and nociceptive components. Although each of these components relies on a different system in the brain, the two systems converge on the anterior cingulate and insular cortices, which interact with the prefrontal cortex and other frontal structures to influence behavior. Both emotional and physical pain elicit activity in these common areas, and conditions that affect one system (e.g., drugs, neural plasticity) may affect the function of the other-ultimately altering the experience of pain...
May 2017: Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526811/proteomic-analysis-of-cerebrospinal-fluid-from-children-with-central-nervous-system-tumors-identifies-candidate-proteins-relating-to-tumor-metastatic-spread
#18
Filippo Spreafico, Italia Bongarzone, Sara Pizzamiglio, Ruben Magni, Elena Taverna, Maida De Bortoli, Chiara M Ciniselli, Elena Barzanò, Veronica Biassoni, Alessandra Luchini, Lance A Liotta, Weidong Zhou, Michele Signore, Paolo Verderio, Maura Massimino
Central nervous system (CNS) tumors are the most common solid tumors in childhood. Since the sensitivity of combined cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) cytology and radiological neuroimaging in detecting meningeal metastases remains relatively low, we sought to characterize the CSF proteome of patients with CSF tumors to identify biomarkers predictive of metastatic spread. CSF samples from 27 children with brain tumors and 13 controls (extra-CNS non-Hodgkin lymphoma) were processed using core-shell hydrogel nanoparticles, and analyzed with reverse-phase liquid chromatography/electrospray tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS)...
May 3, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526762/exacerbation-of-thromboinflammation-by-hyperglycemia-precipitates-cerebral-infarct-growth-and-hemorrhagic-transformation
#19
Jean-Philippe Desilles, Varouna Syvannarath, Véronique Ollivier, Clément Journé, Sandrine Delbosc, Célina Ducroux, William Boisseau, Liliane Louedec, Lucas Di Meglio, Stéphane Loyau, Martine Jandrot-Perrus, Louis Potier, Jean-Baptiste Michel, Mikael Mazighi, Benoit Ho-Tin-Noé
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Admission hyperglycemia is associated with a poor outcome in acute ischemic stroke. How hyperglycemia impacts the pathophysiology of acute ischemic stroke remains largely unknown. We investigated how preexisting hyperglycemia increases ischemia/reperfusion cerebral injury. METHODS: Normoglycemic and streptozotocin-treated hyperglycemic rats were subjected to transient middle cerebral artery occlusion. Infarct growth and brain perfusion were assessed by magnetic resonance imaging...
May 19, 2017: Stroke; a Journal of Cerebral Circulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526399/evaluation-of-the-effectiveness-of-chronic-antidepressant-drug-treatments-in-the-hippocampal-mitochondria-a-proteomic-study-in-an-animal-model-of-depression
#20
Katarzyna Głombik, Aneta Stachowicz, Ewa Trojan, Rafał Olszanecki, Joanna Ślusarczyk, Maciej Suski, Katarzyna Chamera, Bogusława Budziszewska, Władysław Lasoń, Agnieszka Basta-Kaim
Several lines of evidence indicate that adverse experience in early life may be a triggering factor for disturbances in the brain mitochondrial proteins and lead to the development of depression in adulthood. On the other hand, little is known about the impact of chronic administration of various antidepressant drugs on the brain mitochondria, as a target for the pharmacotherapy of depression. The purpose of our study was to compare the impact of chronic treatment with two antidepressant drugs with different mechanisms of action, a tricyclic antidepressant (TCA), imipramine, and an antidepressant of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) class, fluoxetine, on the mitochondria-enriched subproteome profile in the hippocampus of 3-month-old male rats following a prenatal stress procedure (an animal model of depression)...
May 16, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
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