keyword
MENU ▼
Read by QxMD icon Read
search

Slow processing speed

keyword
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346136/environment-determines-evolutionary-trajectory-in-a-constrained-phenotypic-space
#1
David T Fraebel, Harry Mickalide, Diane Schnitkey, Jason Merritt, Thomas E Kuhlman, Seppe Kuehn
Constraints on phenotypic variation limit the capacity of organisms to adapt to the multiple selection pressures encountered in natural environments. To better understand evolutionary dynamics in this context, we select Escherichia coli for faster migration through a porous environment, a process which depends on both motility and growth. We find that a trade-off between swimming speed and growth rate constrains the evolution of faster migration. Evolving faster migration in rich medium results in slow growth and fast swimming, while evolution in minimal medium results in fast growth and slow swimming...
March 27, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323775/inadequate-antioxidative-responses-in-kidneys-of-brain-dead-rats
#2
Dane Hoeksma, Rolando A Rebolledo, Maximilia Hottenrott, Yves S Bodar, Janneke J Wiersema-Buist, Harry Van Goor, Henri G D Leuvenink
BACKGROUND: Brain death (BD)-related lipid peroxidation, measured as serum malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, correlates with delayed graft function in renal transplant recipients. How BD affects lipid peroxidation is not known. The extent of BD-induced organ damage is influenced by the speed at which intracranial pressure increases. To determine possible underlying causes of lipid peroxidation, we investigated the renal redox balance by assessing oxidative and antioxidative processes in kidneys of brain-dead rats after fast and slow BD induction...
April 2017: Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28318285/reading-through-the-life-span-individual-differences-in-psycholinguistic-effects
#3
Rob A I Davies, Ruth Arnell, Julia M H Birchenough, Debbie Grimmond, Sam Houlson
The effects of psycholinguistic variables are critical to the evaluation of theories about the cognitive reading system. However, reading research has tended to focus on the impact of key variables on average performance. We report the first investigation examining variation in psycholinguistic effects across the life span, from childhood into old age. We analyzed the performance of a sample of 535 readers, aged 8-83 years in lexical decision and pronunciation tasks. Our findings show that the effects on reading of two key variables, frequency and AoA, decrease in size with increasing age over the life span...
March 20, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302161/cognitive-profile-in-prodromal-dementia-with-lewy-bodies
#4
Jennifer Kemp, Nathalie Philippi, Clélie Phillipps, Catherine Demuynck, Timothée Albasser, Catherine Martin-Hunyadi, Catherine Schmidt-Mutter, Benjamin Cretin, Frédéric Blanc
BACKGROUND: Cortical and subcortical cognitive impairments have been found in dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB). Roughly, they comprise visuoconstructive and executive dysfunction, whereas memory would remain relatively spared. However, the cognitive profile of patients with prodromal DLB remains poorly illustrated to date. METHODS: We included 37 patients with prodromal DLB (age 67.2 ± 8.6 years, 18 men, Mini Mental State Examination [MMSE] score 27.4 ± 2) and 29 healthy control subjects (HCs; age 68...
March 16, 2017: Alzheimer's Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300007/the-consistency-of-the-subjective-concept-of-randomness
#5
Ru Qi Yu, Jordan Gunn, Daniel Osherson, Jiaying Zhao
A pervasive bias in the subjective concept of randomness is that people often expect random sequences to exhibit more alternations than produced by genuine random processes. What is less known is the stability of this bias. Here we examine two important aspects of the over-alternation bias: first, whether this bias is present in stimuli that vary across feature dimensions, sensory modalities, presentation modes, and probing methods; and second, how consistent the bias is across these stimulus variations. In Experiment 1, participants adjusted sequences until they looked maximally random...
March 16, 2017: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298485/mcak-mediated-regulation-of-endothelial-cell-microtubule-dynamics-is-mechano-sensitive-to-myosin-ii-contractility
#6
Lauren D'Angelo, Nicole M Myer, Kenneth A Myers
Compliance and dimensionality mechanosensing, the processes by which cells sense the physical attributes of the extracellular environment (ECM), are known to drive cell branching and shape change largely through a myosin-II-mediated reorganization of the actin and microtubule (MT) cytoskeletons. Subcellular regulation of MT dynamics is spatially controlled through a Rac1-Aurora-A kinase pathway that locally inhibits the MT depolymerizing activity of MCAK, thereby promoting leading-edge MT growth and cell polarization...
March 15, 2017: Molecular Biology of the Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28284087/evaluating-the-motor-slowing-hypothesis-of-depression
#7
Robert D Shura, Jared A Rowland, Sarah L Martindale, Timothy W Brearly, Mariah B Delahanty, Holly M Miskey
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the hypothesis that processing speed deficits are the primary cognitive deficits in those with depression, consistent with the motor slowing hypothesis. Participants (n=223) were research volunteers who served in the US military since September 11, 2001, and denied a history of significant brain injuries. Depression was measured using a structured interview, the Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI), and the Beck Depression Inventory-II (BDI-II). Outcomes included performance on 10 processing speed variables...
January 27, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28268659/comparison-of-mean-frequency-and-median-frequency-in-evaluating-muscle-fiber-type-selection-in-varying-gait-speed-across-healthy-young-adult-individuals
#8
C K Chan, G Fu Timothy, C H Yeow
The preferential slow and fast twitches fiber involvement in varying gait speed has not been thoroughly investigated. Attempt to classify fiber type in changing speed should be closely investigated and scrutinized as the histochemical-related experiments are cumbersome and time consuming. In addressing this issue, electromyography (EMG) is utilized to extract the muscle fiber type features by altering the muscle fatigue indices, namely mean frequency (MNF) and median frequency (MDF). Recently, there are no universal indices to determine the muscle type...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28264037/cognitive-change-trajectories-in-virally-suppressed-hiv-infected-individuals-indicate-high-prevalence-of-disease-activity
#9
Chloe Gott, Thomas Gates, Nadene Dermody, Bruce J Brew, Lucette A Cysique
BACKGROUND: The longitudinal rate and profile of cognitive decline in persons with stable, treated, and virally suppressed HIV infection is not established. To address this question, the current study quantifies the rate of cognitive decline in a cohort of virally suppressed HIV+ persons using clinically relevant definitions of decline, and determine cognitive trajectories taking into account historical and baseline HAND status. METHODS: Ninety-six HIV+ (clinically stable and virally undetectable) and 44 demographically comparable HIV- participants underwent standard neuropsychological testing at baseline and 18-months follow-up...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28245500/rapid-learning-of-visual-ensembles
#10
Andrey Chetverikov, Gianluca Campana, Árni Kristjánsson
We recently demonstrated that observers are capable of encoding not only summary statistics, such as mean and variance of stimulus ensembles, but also the shape of the ensembles. Here, for the first time, we show the learning dynamics of this process, investigate the possible priors for the distribution shape, and demonstrate that observers are able to learn more complex distributions, such as bimodal ones. We used speeding and slowing of response times between trials (intertrial priming) in visual search for an oddly oriented line to assess internal models of distractor distributions...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28242736/a-pause-then-cancel-model-of-stopping-evidence-from-basal-ganglia-neurophysiology
#11
REVIEW
Robert Schmidt, Joshua D Berke
Many studies have implicated the basal ganglia in the suppression of action impulses ('stopping'). Here, we discuss recent neurophysiological evidence that distinct hypothesized processes involved in action preparation and cancellation can be mapped onto distinct basal ganglia cell types and pathways. We examine how movement-related activity in the striatum is related to a 'Go' process and how going may be modulated by brief epochs of beta oscillations. We then describe how, rather than a unitary 'Stop' process, there appear to be separate, complementary 'Pause' and 'Cancel' mechanisms...
April 19, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230975/tuning-of-recombinant-protein-expression-in-escherichia-coli-by-manipulating-transcription-translation-initiation-rates-and-incorporation-of-noncanonical-amino-acids
#12
Orr Schlesinger, Yonatan Chemla, Mathias Heltberg, Eden Ozer, Ryan Marshall, Vincent Noireaux, Mogens Høgh Jensen, Lital Alfonta
Protein synthesis in cells has been thoroughly investigated and characterized over the past 60 years. However, some fundamental issues remain unresolved, including the reasons for genetic code redundancy and codon bias. In this study, we changed the kinetics of the Eschrichia coli transcription and translation processes by mutating the promoter and ribosome binding domains and by using genetic code expansion. The results expose a counterintuitive phenomenon, whereby an increase in the initiation rates of transcription and translation lead to a decrease in protein expression...
March 9, 2017: ACS Synthetic Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228043/impact-of-exercise-on-clinical-symptom-report-and-neurocognition-after-concussion-in-children-and-adolescents
#13
Vicky Manikas, Franz E Babl, Stephen Hearps, Julian Dooley, Vicki Anderson
Recovery from concussion in childhood is poorly understood, despite its importance in decisions regarding return to normal activity. Resolution of post-concussive symptoms (PCS) is widely employed as a marker of recovery in clinical practice; however, it is unclear whether subtle impairments persist only to re-emerge in the context of increased physical or cognitive demands. This study aimed to examine the effect of strenuous exercise on clinical symptom report and neurocognition in children and adolescents after PCS resolution after concussion...
March 21, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226843/comparison-of-mean-frequency-and-median-frequency-in-evaluating-muscle-fiber-type-selection-in-varying-gait-speed-across-healthy-young-adult-individuals
#14
C K Chan, G Fu Timothy, C H Yeow, C K Chan, G Fu Timothy, C H Yeow, C K Chan, C H Yeow
The preferential slow and fast twitches fiber involvement in varying gait speed has not been thoroughly investigated. Attempt to classify fiber type in changing speed should be closely investigated and scrutinized as the histochemical-related experiments are cumbersome and time consuming. In addressing this issue, electromyography (EMG) is utilized to extract the muscle fiber type features by altering the muscle fatigue indices, namely mean frequency (MNF) and median frequency (MDF). Recently, there are no universal indices to determine the muscle type...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215021/sluggish-cognitive-tempo-processing-speed-and-internalizing-symptoms-the-moderating-effect-of-age
#15
Lisa A Jacobson, Megan Geist, E Mark Mahone
Sluggish Cognitive Tempo (SCT) has been defined by a constellation of caregiver-reported symptoms that includes daydreaming, difficulty initiating and sustaining effort, lethargy, and physical underactivity. These symptoms have been observed in both typically developing children and in some children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)-especially those with the predominantly inattentive presentation. Symptoms of SCT (typically identified via rating scales) appear separable from DSM inattentive ADHD symptoms, but have also been associated with internalizing symptoms...
February 18, 2017: Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213919/diuretic-sensitive-electroneutral-na-movement-and-temperature-effects-on-central-axons
#16
Meneka Kanagaratnam, Christopher Pendleton, Danilo Almeida Souza, Joseph Pettit, James Howells, Mark D Baker
Raising the temperature of optic nerve from room temperature to near physiological has effects on the threshold, refractoriness and superexcitability of the shortest latency (fast, F) nerve fibres, consistent with hyperpolarization. The temperature dependence of peak impulse latency was weakened at temperatures above 30°C suggesting a temperature sensitive process that slows impulse propagation. The amplitude of the supramaximal compound action potential gets larger on warming, whereas in the presence of bumetanide and amiloride (blockers of electroneutral Na(+) movement), the action potential amplitude consistently falls...
February 17, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213760/endocrine-regulation-of-fueling-by-hyperphagia-in-migratory-birds
#17
Cas Eikenaar
To support migratory endurance flight, birds accumulate large amounts of fat by hyperphagia (fueling). Whereas the factors influencing migrants' motivation to fuel are well described, the physiological mechanism regulating fueling is largely unknown. Hormones are likely involved and arguably the best studied with respect to food intake and fueling is corticosterone. Corticosterone has a permissive effect, as blocking the hormone's actions prohibits efficient fueling. There are no indications, though that corticosterone stimulates fueling, and some studies even observed negative correlations between corticosterone level and food intake and speed of fueling...
February 17, 2017: Journal of Comparative Physiology. A, Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209589/second-generation-drosophila-chemical-tags-sensitivity-versatility-and-speed
#18
Ben Sutcliffe, Julian Ng, Thomas O Auer, Mathias Pasche, Richard Benton, Gregory S X E Jefferis, Sebastian Cachero
Labeling and visualizing cells and subcellular structures within thick tissues, whole organs and even intact animals is key to studying biological processes. This is particularly true for studies of neural circuits where neurons form submicron synapses but have arbors that may span millimeters in length. Traditionally, labeling is achieved by immunofluorescence; however diffusion of antibody molecules (>100 kDa) is slow and often results in uneven labeling with very poor penetration into the centre of thick specimens; these limitations can be partially addressed by extending staining protocols to over a week (Drosophila brain) and months (mice)...
February 16, 2017: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28206827/validity-of-the-symbol-digit-modalities-test-as-a-cognition-performance-outcome-measure-for-multiple-sclerosis
#19
Ralph Hb Benedict, John DeLuca, Glenn Phillips, Nicholas LaRocca, Lynn D Hudson, Richard Rudick
Cognitive and motor performance measures are commonly employed in multiple sclerosis (MS) research, particularly when the purpose is to determine the efficacy of treatment. The increasing focus of new therapies on slowing progression or reversing neurological disability makes the utilization of sensitive, reproducible, and valid measures essential. Processing speed is a basic elemental cognitive function that likely influences downstream processes such as memory. The Multiple Sclerosis Outcome Assessments Consortium (MSOAC) includes representatives from advocacy organizations, Food and Drug Administration (FDA), European Medicines Agency (EMA), National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS), academic institutions, and industry partners along with persons living with MS...
February 1, 2017: Multiple Sclerosis: Clinical and Laboratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191989/rule-based-reasoning-is-fast-and-belief-based-reasoning-can-be-slow-challenging-current-explanations-of-belief-bias-and-base-rate-neglect
#20
Ian R Newman, Maia Gibb, Valerie A Thompson
It is commonly assumed that belief-based reasoning is fast and automatic, whereas rule-based reasoning is slower and more effortful. Dual-Process theories of reasoning rely on this speed-asymmetry explanation to account for a number of reasoning phenomena, such as base-rate neglect and belief-bias. The goal of the current study was to test this hypothesis about the relative speed of belief-based and rule-based processes. Participants solved base-rate problems (Experiment 1) and conditional inferences (Experiment 2) under a challenging deadline; they then gave a second response in free time...
February 13, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
keyword
keyword
85193
1
2
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read
×

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"