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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28230975/tuning-of-recombinant-protein-expression-in-escherichia-coli-by-manipulating-transcription-translation-initiation-rates-and-incorporation-of-non-canonical-amino-acids
#1
Orr Schlesinger, Yonatan Chemla, Mathias Heltberg, Eden Ozer, Ryan Marshall, Vincent Noireaux, Mogens Hogh Jensen, Lital Alfonta
Protein synthesis in cells has been thoroughly investigated and characterized over the past 60 years. However, some fundamental issues remain unresolved, including the reasons for genetic code redundancy and codon bias. In this study, we changed the kinetics of the E. coli transcription and translation processes by mutating the promoter and ribosome binding domains and by using genetic code expansion. The results expose a counterintuitive phenomenon, whereby an increase in the initiation rates of transcription and translation lead to a decrease in protein expression...
February 23, 2017: ACS Synthetic Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228043/impact-of-exercise-on-clinical-symptom-report-and-neurocognition-following-concussion-in-children-and-adolescents
#2
Vicky Manikas, Franz Babl, Stephen J C Hearps, Julian Dooley, Vicki Anderson
Recovery from concussion in childhood is poorly understood, despite its importance in decisions regarding return to normal activity. Resolution of post-concussive symptoms (PCS) is widely employed as a marker of recovery in clinical practice, however it is unclear if subtle impairments persist only to re-emerge in the context of increased physical or cognitive demands. This study aimed to examine the effect of strenuous exercise on clinical symptom report and neurocognition in children and adolescents after PCS resolution following concussion We recruited concussed children and adolescents (n=30) on presentation to an Emergency Department (ED)...
February 22, 2017: Journal of Neurotrauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28226843/comparison-of-mean-frequency-and-median-frequency-in-evaluating-muscle-fiber-type-selection-in-varying-gait-speed-across-healthy-young-adult-individuals
#3
C K Chan, G Fu Timothy, C H Yeow, C K Chan, G Fu Timothy, C H Yeow, C K Chan, C H Yeow
The preferential slow and fast twitches fiber involvement in varying gait speed has not been thoroughly investigated. Attempt to classify fiber type in changing speed should be closely investigated and scrutinized as the histochemical-related experiments are cumbersome and time consuming. In addressing this issue, electromyography (EMG) is utilized to extract the muscle fiber type features by altering the muscle fatigue indices, namely mean frequency (MNF) and median frequency (MDF). Recently, there are no universal indices to determine the muscle type...
August 2016: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215021/sluggish-cognitive-tempo-processing-speed-and-internalizing-symptoms-the-moderating-effect-of-age
#4
Lisa A Jacobson, Megan Geist, E Mark Mahone
Sluggish Cognitive Tempo (SCT) has been defined by a constellation of caregiver-reported symptoms that includes daydreaming, difficulty initiating and sustaining effort, lethargy, and physical underactivity. These symptoms have been observed in both typically developing children and in some children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)-especially those with the predominantly inattentive presentation. Symptoms of SCT (typically identified via rating scales) appear separable from DSM inattentive ADHD symptoms, but have also been associated with internalizing symptoms...
February 18, 2017: Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213919/diuretic-sensitive-electroneutral-na-movement-and-temperature-effects-on-central-axons
#5
Meneka Kanagaratnam, Christopher Pendleton, Danilo Almeida Souza, Joseph Pettit, James Howells, Mark D Baker
Raising the temperature of optic nerve from room temperature to near physiological has effects on the threshold, refractoriness and superexcitability of the shortest latency (fast, F) nerve fibres, consistent with hyperpolarization. The temperature dependence of peak impulse latency was weakened at temperatures above 30°C suggesting a temperature sensitive process that slows impulse propagation. The amplitude of the supramaximal compound action potential gets larger on warming, whereas in the presence of bumetanide and amiloride (blockers of electroneutral Na(+) movement), the action potential amplitude consistently falls...
February 17, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213760/endocrine-regulation-of-fueling-by-hyperphagia-in-migratory-birds
#6
Cas Eikenaar
To support migratory endurance flight, birds accumulate large amounts of fat by hyperphagia (fueling). Whereas the factors influencing migrants' motivation to fuel are well described, the physiological mechanism regulating fueling is largely unknown. Hormones are likely involved and arguably the best studied with respect to food intake and fueling is corticosterone. Corticosterone has a permissive effect, as blocking the hormone's actions prohibits efficient fueling. There are no indications, though that corticosterone stimulates fueling, and some studies even observed negative correlations between corticosterone level and food intake and speed of fueling...
February 17, 2017: Journal of Comparative Physiology. A, Neuroethology, Sensory, Neural, and Behavioral Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209589/second-generation-drosophila-chemical-tags-sensitivity-versatility-and-speed
#7
Ben Sutcliffe, Julian Ng, Thomas O Auer, Mathias Pasche, Richard Benton, Gregory S X E Jefferis, Sebastian Cachero
Labeling and visualizing cells and subcellular structures within thick tissues, whole organs and even intact animals is key to studying biological processes. This is particularly true for studies of neural circuits where neurons form submicron synapses but have arbors that may span millimeters in length. Traditionally, labeling is achieved by immunofluorescence; however diffusion of antibody molecules (>100 kDa) is slow and often results in uneven labeling with very poor penetration into the centre of thick specimens; these limitations can be partially addressed by extending staining protocols to over a week (Drosophila brain) and months (mice)...
February 16, 2017: Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28206827/validity-of-the-symbol-digit-modalities-test-as-a-cognition-performance-outcome-measure-for-multiple-sclerosis
#8
Ralph Hb Benedict, John DeLuca, Glenn Phillips, Nicholas LaRocca, Lynn D Hudson, Richard Rudick
Cognitive and motor performance measures are commonly employed in multiple sclerosis (MS) research, particularly when the purpose is to determine the efficacy of treatment. The increasing focus of new therapies on slowing progression or reversing neurological disability makes the utilization of sensitive, reproducible, and valid measures essential. Processing speed is a basic elemental cognitive function that likely influences downstream processes such as memory. The Multiple Sclerosis Outcome Assessments Consortium (MSOAC) includes representatives from advocacy organizations, Food and Drug Administration (FDA), European Medicines Agency (EMA), National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS), academic institutions, and industry partners along with persons living with MS...
February 1, 2017: Multiple Sclerosis: Clinical and Laboratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191989/rule-based-reasoning-is-fast-and-belief-based-reasoning-can-be-slow-challenging-current-explanations-of-belief-bias-and-base-rate-neglect
#9
Ian R Newman, Maia Gibb, Valerie A Thompson
It is commonly assumed that belief-based reasoning is fast and automatic, whereas rule-based reasoning is slower and more effortful. Dual-Process theories of reasoning rely on this speed-asymmetry explanation to account for a number of reasoning phenomena, such as base-rate neglect and belief-bias. The goal of the current study was to test this hypothesis about the relative speed of belief-based and rule-based processes. Participants solved base-rate problems (Experiment 1) and conditional inferences (Experiment 2) under a challenging deadline; they then gave a second response in free time...
February 13, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164461/flexible-polygon-mirror-based-laser-scanning-microscope-platform-for-multiphoton-in-vivo-imaging
#10
Y X Li, V Gautam, A Brüstle, I A Cockburn, V R Daria, C Gillespie, K Gaus, C Alt, W M Lee
Commercial microscopy systems make use of tandem scanning i.e. either slow or fast scanning. We constructed, for the first time, an advanced control system capable of delivering a dynamic line scanning speed ranging from 2.7 kHz to 27 kHz and achieve variable frame rates from 5 Hz to 50 Hz (512 × 512). The dynamic scanning ability is digitally controlled by a new customized open-source software named PScan1.0. This permits manipulation of scanning rates either to gain higher fluorescence signal at slow frame rate without increasing laser power or increase frame rates to capture high speed events...
February 6, 2017: Journal of Biophotonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28156037/ultra-fast-supercritical-hydrothermal-synthesis-of-tobermorite-under-thermodynamically-metastable-conditions
#11
Marta Diez-Garcia, Juan J Gaitero, Jorge S Dolado, Cyril Aymonier
Tobermorite is a fibrillar mineral of the family of calcium silicates. In spite of not being abundant in nature, its structure and properties are reasonably well known because of its interest in the construction industry. Currently, tobermorite is synthesized by hydrothermal methods at mild temperatures. The problem is that such processes are very slow (>5 h) and temperature cannot be increased to speed them up because tobermorite is metastable over 130 °C. Furthermore the product obtained is generally foil-like and not very crystalline...
February 3, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28154149/the-coupling-between-ca2-channels-and-the-exocytotic-ca2-sensor-at-hair-cell-ribbon-synapses-varies-tonotopically-along-the-mature-cochlea
#12
Stuart L Johnson, Jennifer Olt, Soyoun Cho, Henrique von Gersdorff, Walter Marcotti
: The cochlea processes auditory signals over a wide range of frequencies and intensities. However, the transfer characteristics at hair cell ribbon synapses are still poorly understood at different frequency locations along the cochlea. Using recordings from mature gerbils, we report here a surprisingly strong block of exocytosis by the slow Ca(2+) buffer EGTA (10 mM) in basal hair cells tuned to high frequencies (∼30 kHz). In addition, using recordings from gerbil, mouse and bullfrog auditory organs, we find that the spatial coupling between Ca(2+) influx and exocytosis changes from nanodomain in low-frequency tuned hair cells (<∼2 kHz) to progressively more microdomain in high-frequency cells (>∼2 kHz)...
February 2, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28149087/motor-cognitive-processing-speed-estimation-among-the-primary-schoolchildren-by-deriving-prediction-formula-a-cross-sectional-study
#13
Vencita Priyanka Aranha, Monika Moitra, Shikha Saxena, Kanimozhi Narkeesh, Narkeesh Arumugam, Asir John Samuel
OBJECTIVES: Motor cognitive processing speed (MCPS) is often reported in terms of reaction time. In spite of being a significant indicator of function, behavior, and performance, MCPS is rarely used in clinics and schools to identify kids with slowed motor cognitive processing. The reason behind this is the lack of availability of convenient formula to estimate MCPS. Thereby, the aim of this study is to estimate the MCPS in the primary schoolchildren. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Two hundred and four primary schoolchildren, aged 6-12 years, were recruited by the cluster sampling method for this cross-sectional study...
January 2017: Journal of Neurosciences in Rural Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28137968/two-independent-frontal-midline-theta-oscillations-during-conflict-detection-and-adaptation-in-a-simon-type-manual-reaching-task
#14
Thomas Töllner, Yijun Wang, Scott Makeig, Hermann J Müller, Tzyy-Ping Jung, Klaus Gramann
: One of the most firmly established factors determining the speed of human behavioral responses towards action-critical stimuli is the spatial correspondence between the stimulus and response locations. If both locations match, the time taken for response production is markedly reduced relative to when they mismatch-a phenomenon called Simon effect. While there is a consensus that this stimulus-response (S-R) conflict is associated with brief (4-7 Hz) frontal midline theta (fmθ) complexes generated in medial frontal cortex (MFC), it remains controversial (i) whether there are multiple, simultaneously active theta generator areas in the MFC that commonly give rise to conflict-related fmθ complexes; and if so, (ii) whether they are all related to the resolution of conflicting task information...
January 30, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28135892/neurocognitive-profiles-in-children-with-adhd-and-their-predictive-value-for-functional-outcomes
#15
Catharina Elisabeth Bergwerff, Marjolein Luman, Wouter D Weeda, Jaap Oosterlaan
OBJECTIVE: We examined whether neurocognitive profiles could be distinguished in children with ADHD and typically developing (TD) children, and whether neurocognitive profiles predicted externalizing, social, and academic problems in children with ADHD. METHOD: Neurocognitive data of 81 children with ADHD and 71 TD children were subjected to confirmatory factor analysis. The resulting factors were used for community detection in the ADHD and TD group. RESULTS: Four subgroups were detected in the ADHD group, characterized by (a) poor emotion recognition, (b) poor interference control, (c) slow processing speed, or (d) increased attentional lapses and fast processing speed...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Attention Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28127611/liquid-identification-by-using-a-micro-electro-mechanical-interdigital-transducer
#16
ThuHang Bui, Bruno Morana, Atef Akhnoukh, Trinh Chu Duc, Pasqualina M Sarro
A surface-acoustic-mode aluminum nitride (AlN) transducer is utilized to determine the type of liquid dropped on the propagation path. It is based on tracking the shrinking droplet radius and observing stagnant liquid molecules during and after the liquid evaporation process. The device configuration is suitable to test small amounts of liquids, in the microliter range. According to both mass loading and physical property mechanisms, eight samples of liquids, isopropanol (IPA), ethanol (ETH), deionized-water (DW), tap water (TW), heptane (HEP), propylene glycol monomethyl ether acetate (PGMEA), hexamethyldisilazane (HMDS) and acetone (ACE), which have different equilibrium vapor pressures, molecular weights and boiling points, are accurately detected...
January 27, 2017: Analyst
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28122395/memory-and-multitasking-performance-during-acute-allergic-inflammation-in-seasonal-allergic-rhinitis
#17
Katharina Trikojat, Angelika Buske-Kirschbaum, Franziska Plessow, Jochen Schmitt, Rico Fischer
BACKGROUND: In previous research patients with seasonal allergic rhinitis (SAR) showed poorer school and work performance during periods of acute allergic inflammation, supporting the idea of an impact of SAR on cognitive functions. However, the specific cognitive domains particularly vulnerable to inflammatory processes are unclear. OBJECTIVE: In the present study the influence of SAR on memory and multitasking performance, as two potentially vulnerable cognitive domains essential in everyday life functioning, was investigated in SAR patients...
January 25, 2017: Clinical and Experimental Allergy: Journal of the British Society for Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28122198/primary-motor-cortex-functionally-contributes-to-language-comprehension-an-online-rtms-study
#18
Nikola Vukovic, Matteo Feurra, Anna Shpektor, Andriy Myachykov, Yury Shtyrov
Among various questions pertinent to grounding human cognitive functions in a neurobiological substrate, the association between language and motor brain structures is a particularly debated one in neuroscience and psychology. While many studies support a broadly distributed model of language and semantics grounded, among other things, in the general modality-specific systems, theories disagree as to whether motor and sensory cortex activity observed during language processing is functional or epiphenomenal...
February 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28118813/tumblescore-run-and-tumble-analysis-for-low-frame-rate-motility-videos
#19
Alex Eli Pottash, Ryan McKay, Chelsea R Virgile, Hana Ueda, William E Bentley
Scientists often exploit the motility of peritrichously flagellated bacteria for various applications. A common alteration is modifying the frequency of mid-movement changes in direction, known as tumbles. Such differences in bacterial swimming patterns can prove difficult to quantify, especially for those without access to high-speed optical equipment. Traditionally, scientists have resorted to less accurate techniques, such as soft agar plate assays, or have been forced to invest in costly equipment. Here, we present TumbleScore, software designed to track and quantify bacterial movies with slow, as well as fast, frame-rates...
January 1, 2017: BioTechniques
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28112769/assessing-the-current-state-of-cognitive-frailty-measurement-properties
#20
L Sargent, R Brown
BACKGROUND: Currently, an estimated 25-30% of people ages 85 or older have dementia, with a projected 115 million people worldwide living with dementia by 2050. With this worldwide phenomenon fast approaching, early detection of at-risk older adults and development of interventions focused on preventing loss in quality of life are increasingly important. A new construct defined by the International Consensus Group (I.A.N.A/I.A.G.G) as «cognitive frailty» combines domains of physical frailty with cognitive impairment and provides a framework for research that may provide a means to identify individuals with cognitive impairment caused by nonneurodegenerative conditions...
2017: Journal of Nutrition, Health & Aging
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