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Rifqi O Affan, Siyuan Huang, Stephen M Cruz, Lee A Holcomb, Edward Nguyen, Ksenija Marinkovic
Heavy episodic alcohol consumption (also termed binge drinking) contributes to a wide range of health and cognitive deficits, but the associated brain-based indices are poorly understood. The current study used electroencephalography (EEG) to examine spontaneous neural oscillations in young adults as a function of quantity, frequency, and the pattern of their alcohol consumption. Sixty-one young adults (23.4 ± 3.4 years of age) were assigned to binge drinking (BD) and light drinking (LD) groups that were equated on gender, race/ethnic identity, age, educational background, and family history of alcoholism...
January 8, 2018: Alcohol
Preet Amol Singh, Sapna D Desai, Jasbir Singh
As per WHO reports, about three-quarters (65-80%) of the world's population seeks plants or plant-derived natural products for various diseases. The slow discovery of new synthetic molecules and rising resistance in microbes against existing ones has triggered an alarm for speeding up the development process for new molecules. Traditional system(s) of medicine and plant resources has been foresighted again by researchers to circumvent the situation. This review represents various plant genera which, either as a whole plant or their parts, have been reported possessing antimicrobial properties during the last decade...
May 16, 2018: Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry
Frank Seifart, Jan Strunk, Swintha Danielsen, Iren Hartmann, Brigitte Pakendorf, Søren Wichmann, Alena Witzlack-Makarevich, Nivja H de Jong, Balthasar Bickel
By force of nature, every bit of spoken language is produced at a particular speed. However, this speed is not constant-speakers regularly speed up and slow down. Variation in speech rate is influenced by a complex combination of factors, including the frequency and predictability of words, their information status, and their position within an utterance. Here, we use speech rate as an index of word-planning effort and focus on the time window during which speakers prepare the production of words from the two major lexical classes, nouns and verbs...
May 14, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Kuangda Tian, Lijun Wu, Shungeng Min, Rasmus Bro
PARAFAC2 is a powerful decomposition method which is ideally suited for modeling gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) data. However, the most widely used fitting algorithms (alternating least squares, ALS) are very slow which hinders use of the model. In this paper, an iterative method called geometric search is proposed to fit the PARAFAC2 model. This method models the PARAFAC2 loading parameters as geometric sequences with offsets during the ALS iterations. It extrapolates the optimal parameters from prior iterations to accelerate ALS convergence process...
August 1, 2018: Talanta
Sara R Knigge, Birgit Glasmacher
A lot of research has been done in the field of magnesium-based implant material. This study is focused on finding an explanation for the large disparity in results from similar experiments in literature. The hypothesis is that many different measurement protocols are used to quantify magnesium degradation and this leads to inconsistent results. Cylindrical, pure magnesium samples were used for this study. The degradation took place in revised simulated body fluid at 37°C. Hydrogen evolution was measured to quantify the degradation...
May 1, 2018: International Journal of Artificial Organs
Kang-Kang Wang, Hui Ye, Ya-Jun Wang, Sheng-Hong Li
In this paper, the modified potential function, the stationary probability distribution function (SPDF), the mean growth time and the mean degeneration time for a vegetation growth system with time delay are investigated, where the vegetation system is assumed to be disturbed by cross-correlated multiplicative and additive noises. The results reveal some fact that the multiplicative and additive noises can both reduce the stability and speed up the decline of the vegetation system, while the strength of the noise correlation and time delay can both enhance the stability of the vegetation and slow down the depression process of the ecological system...
May 14, 2018: European Physical Journal. E, Soft Matter
Tom A Fuchs, Michael G Dwyer, Amy Kuceyeski, Sanjeevani Choudhery, Keith Carolus, Xian Li, Matthew Mallory, Bianca Weinstock-Guttman, Dejan Jakimovski, Deepa Ramasamy, Robert Zivadinov, Ralph H B Benedict
Quantifying white matter (WM) tract disruption in people with multiple sclerosis (PwMS) provides a novel means for investigating the relationship between defective network connectivity and clinical markers. PwMS exhibit perturbations in personality, where decreased Conscientiousness is particularly prominent. This trait deficit influences disease trajectory and functional outcomes such as work capacity. We aimed to identify patterns of WM tract disruption related to decreased Conscientiousness in PwMS. Personality assessment and brain MRI were obtained in 133 PwMS and 49 age- and sex-matched healthy controls (HC)...
May 8, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
Zeang Zhao, Xiao Kuang, Chao Yuan, H Jerry Qi, Dai-Ning Fang
Swelling-induced shape transformation has been widely investigated and applied to the design and fabrication of smart polymer devices, such as soft robotics, biomedical devices, and origami patterns. Previous shape-shifting designs using soft hydrogels have several limitations, including relatively small actuation force, slow responsive speed, and relatively complicated fabrication process. In this paper, we develop a novel hydrophilic/hydrophobic composite structure by using photopolymers. The rubbery nature of the materials used in this composite provides desirable actuation speed and actuation force...
May 8, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Jemal Abawajy, Andrei Kelarev, Xun Yi, Herbert F Jelinek
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Early diagnosis of cardiac autonomic neuropathy (CAN) is critical for reversing or decreasing its progression and prevent complications. Diagnostic accuracy or precision is one of the core requirements of CAN detection. As the standard Ewing battery tests suffer from a number of shortcomings, research in automating and improving the early detection of CAN has recently received serious attention in identifying additional clinical variables and designing advanced ensembles of classifiers to improve the accuracy or precision of CAN diagnostics...
July 2018: Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine
Lin Zhang, Wenchen Zhou, Neil J Naples, Allen Y Yi
A novel fabrication method by combining high-speed single-point diamond milling and precision compression molding processes for fabrication of discontinuous freeform microlens arrays was proposed. Compared with slow tool servo diamond broaching, high-speed single-point diamond milling was selected for its flexibility in the fabrication of true 3D optical surfaces with discontinuous features. The advantage of single-point diamond milling is that the surface features can be constructed sequentially by spacing the axes of a virtual spindle at arbitrary positions based on the combination of rotational and translational motions of both the high-speed spindle and linear slides...
May 1, 2018: Applied Optics
Candice C Morey, Lauren V Hadley, Frances Buttelmann, Tanja Könen, Julie-Anne Meaney, Bonnie Auyeung, Julia Karbach, Nicolas Chevalier
Examining the impact of maintenance on processing speed allows us to test whether storage and processing resources are shared. Comparing these relationships in children of different ages allows further insight into whether one or multiple resources for these operations must be assumed and whether remembering is proactive throughout childhood. We tested 185 4- to 6- and 8- to 10-year-old children using adaptive complex span tasks, in which simple judgments were interleaved between to-be-remembered items. The adaptiveness of our tasks ensured that all participants frequently correctly recalled the items...
April 30, 2018: Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences
Jean K Ho, Daniel A Nation
OBJECTIVES: The present study investigated the independent and synergistic effects of amyloid beta (Aβ1-42) and phosphorylated tau (Ptau) pathologies on neuropsychological profiles and trajectories in cognitively normal older adults. METHODS: Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative participants identified as cognitively normal at baseline underwent longitudinal assessment (N=518; 0, 12, 24, 36 months), baseline lumbar puncture and follow-up cognitive exams...
April 30, 2018: Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society: JINS
Muyi Guo, Yan Cai, Xinke Yao, Zhiyong Li
Observational studies have identified angiogenesis from the adventitial vasa vasorum and intraplaque hemorrhage (IPH) as critical factors in atherosclerotic plaque progression and destabilization. Here we propose a mathematical model incorporating intraplaque neovascularization and hemodynamic calculation with plaque destabilization for the quantitative evaluation of the role of neoangiogenesis and IPH in the vulnerable atherosclerotic plaque formation. An angiogenic microvasculature is generated by two-dimensional nine-point discretization of endothelial cell proliferation and migration from the vasa vasorum...
April 25, 2018: Journal of Theoretical Biology
C J Brainerd, K Nakamura, W-F A Lee
We implemented a new approach to measuring the relative speeds of different cognitive processes, one that extends multinomial models of memory and reasoning from discrete decisions to latencies. We applied it to the dual-process prediction that familiarity is faster than recollection. Relative to prior work on this prediction, the advantages of the new approach are that it jointly measures specific retrieval processes and their latencies, provides separate sets of latency-retrieval parameters for list items and related distractors, and supplies latency parameters for bias processes as well as retrieval processes...
April 26, 2018: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
Kimberly Meier, Marita Partanen, Deborah Giaschi
It has been suggested that slow and medium-to-fast speeds of motion may be processed by at least partially separate mechanisms. The purpose of this study was to establish the cortical areas activated during motion-defined form and global motion tasks as a function of speed, using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Participants performed discrimination tasks with random dot stimuli at high coherence, at coherence near their own thresholds, and for random motion. Stimuli were moving at 0.1 or 5 deg/s. In the motion-defined form task, lateral occipital complex, V5/MT+ and intraparietal sulcus showed greater activation by high or near-threshold coherence than by random motion stimuli; V5/MT+ and intraparietal sulcus demonstrated greater activation for 5 than 0...
January 1, 2018: Perception
Sang Yong Park, Jeong Eun Park, Taewoo Eom, Jeong Hun Park, Jackson Bweupe, Donggun Lim
Cadmium sulfide buffer layer was replaced with zinc sulfide thin film owing to toxicity. ZnS thin films were fabricated using chemical bath deposition. The inhibition of Zn(OH)2 and high uniformity are important factors for the deposition of ZnS. The characteristics of ZnS thin films were analyzed by adding ethylenediamine tetra-acetate acid (EDTA) and hexamethylene tetramine (HMTA). The morphological characteristics of the ZnS buffer layer are closely related to the use of a complexing agent which controls the concentration of Zn2+ ions and Zn(OH)2 in the deposition process...
September 1, 2018: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
Christian Valt, Mona Katharina Sprengeler, Birgit Stürmer
The present study explored the relevance of internal signals for the dynamics of personal and nonpersonal feedback processing. To this end, pairs of participants performed concurrently a choice-response task and received external signals in four feedback contexts. In two contexts, feedback was informative about the personal performance (personal/private and personal/public); in the other two contexts, instructions suggested that feedback was informative about the other participant's performance (nonpersonal/other) or that it was random (nonpersonal/random)...
April 16, 2018: Psychophysiology
Jorge M Sztein, Toru Takeo, Naomi Nakagata
Confucius said study the past if you would define the future and a popular statement says that history depends on who writes it. To talk about history it is necessary to find and define a milestone where to start the narration. The intention of this quick review is to take the reader through moments and selected publications; part and pieces of memories showing how the concept of cryopreservation, specifically for mouse sperm, was conceived and sustained as we know it today. Beginning with the development of the microscope (1677) and continuing through the 17th century with the first documented observation by L...
April 13, 2018: Cryobiology
Viral P Patel, Anthony Feinstein
OBJECTIVE: To determine the mechanism and clinical significance of depression-related differences in performance on the Symbol Digit Modalities Test (SDMT). METHODS: The influence of depression on two versions of a computerized SDMT (i.e. fixed versus variable code) was assessed. Both versions involve processing speed, but the fixed c-SDMT also encompasses incidental visual memory. RESULTS: Depression was associated with a 19.06% slowing on the variable ( p = 0...
April 1, 2018: Multiple Sclerosis: Clinical and Laboratory Research
Carmen M Galvez-Sánchez, Gustavo A Reyes Del Paso, Stefan Duschek
Fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) is a chronic condition characterized by widespread pain accompanied by symptoms like depression, anxiety, sleep disturbance and fatigue. In addition, affected patients frequently report cognitive disruption such as forgetfulness, concentration difficulties or mental slowness. Though cognitive deficits in FMS have been confirmed in various studies, not much is known about the mechanisms involved in their origin. This study aimed to investigate the contribution of affect-related variables to cognitive impairments in FMS...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
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