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Holly Lear, Winifred Eboh, Lesley Diack
BACKGROUND: In a wider doctoral study related to unfavourable experiences of nursing students studying abroad, the researcher undertook a reflexive interview to reduce the potential for bias. AIM: To discuss a method for conducting reflexive interviews and recommend their use to nurse researchers. DISCUSSION: A reflexive interview was undertaken to reduce bias and pilot an original interview instrument. A senior researcher interviewed the researcher using original questions that would be used to interview participants in the wider doctoral study...
March 16, 2018: Nurse Researcher
Paweł Krukow, Kamil Jonak, Hanna Karakuła-Juchnowicz, Arkadiusz Podkowiński, Katarzyna Jonak, Magdalena Borys, Michał Harciarek
This study aimed at identifying abnormal cortico-cortical functional connectivity patterns that could predict cognitive slowing in patients with schizophrenia. A group of thirty-two patients with the first-episode schizophrenia and comparable healthy controls underwent resting-state qEEG and cognitive assessment. Phase Lag Index (PLI) was applied as a connectivity index and the synchronizations were analyzed in six frequencies. Pairs of electrodes were grouped to separately cover frontal, temporal, central, parietal and occipital regions...
March 4, 2018: Psychiatry Research
Anthony S Barnhart, Mandy J Ehlert, Stephen D Goldinger, Alison D Mackey
Recently, performance magic has become a source of insight into the processes underlying awareness. Magicians have highlighted a set of variables that can create moments of visual attentional suppression, which they call "off-beats." One of these variables is akin to the phenomenon psychologists know as attentional entrainment. The current experiments, inspired by performance magic, explore the extent to which entrainment can occur across sensory modalities. Across two experiments using a difficult dot probe detection task, we find that the mere presence of an auditory rhythm can bias when visual attention is deployed, speeding responses to stimuli appearing in phase with the rhythm...
March 8, 2018: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
Stan J Maassen, Mark Vincent de Ruiter, Saskia Lindhoud, Jeroen J L M Cornelissen
Understanding the assembly pathway of viruses can contribute to creating monodisperse virus-based materials. In this study the Cowpea Chlorotic Mottle Virus is used to determine the interactions between the capsid proteins of viruses and their cargo. The assembly of the capsid proteins in the presence of different lengths of short single-stranded DNA is studied at neutral pH, where the protein-protein interactions are weak. Chromatography, electrophoresis, microscopy, and light scattering shows that the assembly efficiency and speed of the particles increases with increasing length of oligonucleotides...
March 8, 2018: Chemistry: a European Journal
Luis A Camuñas-Mesa, Yaisel L Domínguez-Cordero, Alejandro Linares-Barranco, Teresa Serrano-Gotarredona, Bernabé Linares-Barranco
Convolutional Neural Networks (ConvNets) are a particular type of neural network often used for many applications like image recognition, video analysis or natural language processing. They are inspired by the human brain, following a specific organization of the connectivity pattern between layers of neurons known as receptive field. These networks have been traditionally implemented in software, but they are becoming more computationally expensive as they scale up, having limitations for real-time processing of high-speed stimuli...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
George K Georgiou, Raabia Ghazyani, Rauno Parrila
The purpose of this study was to examine different hypotheses in relation to RAN deficits in dyslexia. Thirty university students with dyslexia and 32 chronological-age controls were assessed on RAN Digits and Colors as well as on two versions of RAN Letters and Objects (one with five items repeated 16 times and one with 20 items repeated four times). In addition, participants were tested on discrete letter and object naming, phonological awareness, orthographic knowledge, and speed of processing, and the RAN Letters and Objects total times were partitioned into pause times and articulation times...
March 6, 2018: Annals of Dyslexia
Runmin Yang, Daming Zhu, Qiang Kou, Poomima Bhat-Nakshatri, Harikrishna Nakshatri, Si Wu, Xiaowen Liu
Database search is the main approach for identifying proteoforms using top-down tandem mass spectra. However, it is extremely slow to align a query spectrum against all protein sequences in a large database when the target proteoform that produced the spectrum contains post-translational modifications and/or mutations. As a result, efficient and sensitive protein sequence filtering algorithms are essential for speeding up database search. In this paper, we propose a novel filtering algorithm, which generates spectrum graphs from subspectra of the query spectrum and searches them against the protein database to find good candidates...
November 2017: Proceedings
Tassa Saldi, Nova Fong, David L Bentley
Transcription elongation rate influences cotranscriptional pre-mRNA maturation, but how such kinetic coupling works is poorly understood. The formation of nonadenylated histone mRNA 3' ends requires recognition of an RNA structure by stem-loop-binding protein (SLBP). We report that slow transcription by mutant RNA polymerase II (Pol II) caused accumulation of polyadenylated histone mRNAs that extend past the stem-loop processing site. UV irradiation, which decelerates Pol II elongation, also induced long poly(A)+ histone transcripts...
February 26, 2018: Genes & Development
Carla D Anania, Federico Pessina, Marco Alloisio, Maurizio Fornari, Emanuela Morenghi, Francesco Costa
BACKGROUND: In surgery, the learning process represents one of the critical topics in the development of a young surgeon, where there is often no standardized learning program. The learning curve is defined by plotting proficiency as a function of time, or the number of repetitions. In this study, we have analyzed the learning process for a rare and surgically demanding pathology such as thoracic disc herniations (TDHs) treated with an antero-lateral trans-thoracic approach. METHODS: We analyzed a consecutive series of patients admitted with a diagnosis of TDHs...
February 23, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgical Sciences
Sarah C McEwen, Prabha Siddarth, Berna Abedelsater, Yena Kim, Wenli Mui, Pauline Wu, Natacha D Emerson, Jacob Lee, Shayna Greenberg, Tiffany Shelton, Scott Kaiser, Gary W Small, David A Merrill
BACKGROUND: Several modifiable lifestyle factors have been shown to have potential beneficial effects in slowing cognitive decline. Two such factors that may affect cognitive performance and slow the progression of memory loss into dementia in older adults are cognitive training and physical activity. There are currently no effective treatments for dementia; therefore, preventative strategies to delay or prevent the onset of dementia are of critical importance. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to determine the relative effectiveness of simultaneous performance of memory training and aerobic exercise to a sequential performance intervention on memory functioning in older adults...
2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
A Odorico, E Rünneburger, A Le Rouzic
Understanding the importance of non-genetic heredity in the evolutionary process is a major topic in modern evolutionary biology. We modified a classical gene network model by allowing parental transmission of gene expression, and studied its evolutionary properties through individual-based simulations. We identified ontogenetic time (i.e. the time gene networks have to stabilize before being submitted to natural selection) as a crucial factor in determining the evolutionary impact of this phenotypic inheritance...
February 23, 2018: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
Yusuke Yamani, Jason S McCarley
Objective An experiment used workload capacity analysis to quantify automation usage strategy across different task difficulty and display format types in a speeded task. Background Workload capacity measures the efficiency of concurrent information processing and can serve as a gauge of automation usage strategy in speeded decision tasks. The present study used workload capacity analysis to investigate automation usage strategy while information display format and task difficulty were manipulated. Method Subjects performed a speeded judgment task assisted by an automated aid that issued decision cues at varying onset times...
February 1, 2018: Human Factors
Joshua D Wallach, Alexander C Egilman, Anand D Gopal, Nishwant Swami, Harlan M Krumholz, Joseph S Ross
Background: Although the peer review process is believed to ensure scientific rigor, enhance research quality, and improve manuscript clarity, many investigators are concerned that the process is too slow, too expensive, too unreliable, and too static. In this feasibility study, we sought to survey corresponding authors of recently published clinical research studies on the speed and efficiency of the publication process. Methods: Web-based survey of corresponding authors of a 20% random sample of clinical research studies in MEDLINE-indexed journals with Ovid MEDLINE entry dates between December 1 and 15, 2016...
2018: Research Integrity and Peer Review
Eleonora Cavallari, Carla Carrera, Silvio Aime, Francesca Reineri
The use of [1- 13 C]pyruvate, hyperpolarized by dissolution-Dynamic Nuclear Polarization (d-DNP), in in vivo metabolic studies has developed quickly, thanks to the imaging probe's diagnostic relevance. Nevertheless, the cost of a d-DNP polarizer is quite high and the speed of hyperpolarization process is relatively slow, meaning that its use is limited to few research laboratories. ParaHydrogen Induced Polarization Side Arm Hydrogenation (PHIP-SAH) (Reineri et al., 2015) is a cost effective and easy-to-handle method that produces 13 C-MR hyperpolarization in [1- 13 C]pyruvate and other metabolites...
January 31, 2018: Journal of Magnetic Resonance
Zhiqiang Shen, Huilin Ye, Ying Li
For nanoparticle (NP)-based drug delivery platforms, the elasticity of the NPs has a significant influence on their blood circulation time and cellular uptake efficiency. However, due to the complexity of the endocytosis process and the inconsistency in the definition of elasticity for NPs in experiments, the understanding about the receptor-mediated endocytosis process of elastic NPs is still limited. In this work, we developed a coarse-grained molecular dynamics (CGMD) model for elastic NPs. The energy change of the elastic NPs can be precisely controlled by the bond, area, volume and bending potentials of this CGMD model...
February 15, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Giuseppe Giugliano, Alessia Salemme, Sara De Longis, Marialuisa Perrotta, Valentina D'Angelosante, Alessandro Landolfi, Raffaele Izzo, Valentina Trimarco
Background: Chronic increased arterial blood pressure has been associated with executive dysfunction, slowing of attention and mental processing speed, and later with memory deficits. Due to the absence of a concrete therapeutic approach to this pathophysiological process, in the last decades there has been an increasing interest in the use of nutraceuticals, especially those with antioxidant properties, which own strong neuroprotective potential, that may help to improve cognitive function and to delay the onset of dementia...
2018: Immunity & Ageing: I & A
Ricardo Laranjeiro, T Katherine Tamai, William Letton, Noémie Hamilton, David Whitmore
Studies from a number of model systems have shown that the circadian clock controls expression of key cell cycle checkpoints, thus providing permissive or inhibitory windows in which specific cell cycle events can occur. However, a major question remains: Is the clock actually regulating the cell cycle through such a gating mechanism or, alternatively, is there a coupling process that controls the speed of cell cycle progression? Using our light-responsive zebrafish cell lines, we address this issue directly by synchronizing the cell cycle in culture simply by changing the entraining light-dark (LD) cycle in the incubator without the need for pharmacological intervention...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Biological Rhythms
Maria Korman, Sharon Shaklai, Keren Cisamariu, Carmit Gal, Rinatia Maaravi-Hesseg, Ishay Levy, Ofer Keren, Avi Karni, Yaron Sacher
Using the finger-to-thumb opposition sequence (FOS) learning task, we characterized motor skill learning in sub-acute patients hospitalized for rehabilitation following traumatic brain injury (TBI). Ten patients (Trained TBI) and 11 healthy participants (Trained Healthy) were trained using a multi-session protocol: a single session was afforded in the first week of the study, and four daily sessions were afforded during the second week. Intensity of practice was adapted to patients. Performance speed and accuracy were tested before and after each session...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Jeroen Van Dessel, Edmund Sonuga-Barke, Gabry Mies, Jurgen Lemiere, Saskia Van der Oord, Sarah Morsink, Marina Danckaerts
BACKGROUND: Experimental research supports delay aversion as a motivational feature of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). To investigate the neurobiology of delay aversion in ADHD, this study examined whether adolescents with ADHD display an unusually strong activation in affective brain regions in response to cues predicting forthcoming delay and whether these effects are (a) delay-dose dependent and (b) statistically mediate the association between ADHD and self-reported delay aversion...
February 10, 2018: Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines
Fuming Fang, Takahiro Shinozaki
Human-computer interface systems whose input is based on eye movements can serve as a means of communication for patients with locked-in syndrome. Eye-writing is one such system; users can input characters by moving their eyes to follow the lines of the strokes corresponding to characters. Although this input method makes it easy for patients to get started because of their familiarity with handwriting, existing eye-writing systems suffer from slow input rates because they require a pause between input characters to simplify the automatic recognition process...
2018: PloS One
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