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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350937/light-stops-at-exceptional-points
#1
Tamar Goldzak, Alexei A Mailybaev, Nimrod Moiseyev
Almost twenty years ago, light was slowed down to less than 10^{-7} of its vacuum speed in a cloud of ultracold atoms of sodium. Upon a sudden turn-off of the coupling laser, a slow light pulse can be imprinted on cold atoms such that it can be read out and converted into a photon again. In this process, the light is stopped by absorbing it and storing its shape within the atomic ensemble. Alternatively, the light can be stopped at the band edge in photonic-crystal waveguides, where the group speed vanishes...
January 5, 2018: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318712/argon-plasma-treatment-to-tune-perovskite-surface-composition-for-high-efficiency-solar-cells-and-fast-photodetectors
#2
Xun Xiao, Chunxiong Bao, Yanjun Fang, Jun Dai, Benjamin R Ecker, Congcong Wang, Yuze Lin, Shi Tang, Ye Liu, Yehao Deng, Xiaopeng Zheng, Yongli Gao, Xiao Cheng Zeng, Jinsong Huang
The surface composition of perovskite films is very sensitive to film processing and can deviate from the optimal, which generates unfavorable defects and results in efficiency loss in solar cells and slow response speed in photodetectors. An argon plasma treatment is introduced to modify the surface composition by tuning the ratio of organic and inorganic components as well as defect type before deposition of the passivating layer. It can efficiently enhance the charge collection across the perovskite-electrode interface by suppressing charge recombination...
January 10, 2018: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315539/fasting-or-fear-disentangling-the-roles-of-predation-risk-and-food-deprivation-in-the-nitrogen-metabolism-of-consumers
#3
Christopher M Dalton, Karen E Tracy, Nelson G Hairston, Alexander S Flecker
Predators can alter nutrient cycles simply by inducing stress in prey. This stress accelerates prey's protein catabolism, nitrogen waste production, and nitrogen cycling. Yet predators also reduce the feeding rates of their prey, inducing food deprivation that is expected to slow protein catabolism and nitrogen cycling. The physiology of prey under predation risk thus balances the influences of predation risk and food deprivation, and this balance is central to understanding the role of predators in nutrient cycles...
January 7, 2018: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29313802/augmenting-cognitive-training-in-older-adults-the-act-study-design-and-methods-of-a-phase-iii-tdcs-and-cognitive-training-trial
#4
Adam J Woods, Ronald Cohen, Michael Marsiske, Gene E Alexander, Sara J Czaja, Samuel Wu
BACKGROUND: Adults over age 65 represent the fastest growing population in the US. Decline in cognitive abilities is a hallmark of advanced age and is associated with loss of independence and dementia risk. There is a pressing need to develop effective interventions for slowing or reversing the cognitive aging process. While certain forms of cognitive training have shown promise in this area, effects only sometimes transfer to neuropsychological tests within or outside the trained domain...
December 4, 2017: Contemporary Clinical Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310712/genome-wide-screening-of-dna-methylation-in-bovine-blastocysts-with-different-kinetics-of-development
#5
Jessica Ispada, Camila Bruna de Lima, Marc-André Sirard, Patrícia Kubo Fontes, Marcelo Fábio Gouveia Nogueira, Kelly Annes, Marcella Pecora Milazzotto
BACKGROUND: The timing of the first cell divisions may predict the developmental potential of an embryo, including its ability to establish pregnancy. Besides differences related to metabolism, stress, and survival, embryos with different speeds of development present distinct patterns of gene expression, mainly related to energy and lipid metabolism. As gene expression is regulated by epigenetic factors, and that includes DNA methylation patterns, in this study we compared the global DNA methylation profile of embryos with different kinetics of development in order to identify general pathways and regions that are most influenced by this phenotype...
January 8, 2018: Epigenetics & Chromatin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29296825/disease-severity-and-slower-psychomotor-speed-in-adults-with-sickle-cell-disease
#6
Dana R Jorgensen, Andrea Metti, Meryl A Butters, Joseph M Mettenburg, Caterina Rosano, Enrico M Novelli
Psychomotor slowing is common in children with sickle cell disease (SCD), but little is known about its severity in adults. We conducted a cross-sectional study to quantify psychomotor speed, measured with the digit symbol substitution test (DSST), in relationship with disease severity in adults with SCD attending an outpatient clinic (n = 88, age 36.3 years). Genotype was used to group patients in "severe" (homozygous for hemoglobin S or compound heterozygous with β0 thalassemia) or "moderate" groups (compound heterozygous for HbS, with either HbC or β+ thalassemia)...
September 26, 2017: Blood Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29282315/dynamics-and-mechanisms-of-intracellular-calcium-waves-elicited-by-tandem-bubble-induced-jetting-flow
#7
Fenfang Li, Chen Yang, Fang Yuan, Defei Liao, Thomas Li, Farshid Guilak, Pei Zhong
One of the earliest events in cellular mechanotransduction is often an increase in intracellular calcium concentration associated with intracellular calcium waves (ICWs) in various physiologic or pathophysiologic processes. Although cavitation-induced calcium responses are believed to be important for modulating downstream bioeffects such as cell injury and mechanotransduction in ultrasound therapy, the fundamental mechanisms of these responses have not been elucidated. In this study, we investigated mechanistically the ICWs elicited in single HeLa cells by the tandem bubble-induced jetting flow in a microfluidic system...
December 27, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29250113/encapsulation-of-nicardipine-hydrochloride-and-release-from-biodegradable-poly-d-l-lactic-co-glycolic-acid-microparticles-by-double-emulsion-process-effect-of-emulsion-stability-and-different-parameters-on-drug-entrapment
#8
Nopparuj Soomherun, Narumol Kreua-Ongarjnukool, Sorayouth Chumnanvej, Saowapa Thumsing
Poly(D,L-lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) is an important material used in drug delivery when controlled release is required. The purpose of this research is to design and characterize PLGA microparticles (PLGA MPs) implants for the controlled release of nicardipine hydrochloride (NCH) in vitro. This study used the water-in-oil-in-water (w1/o/w2) double emulsion and solvent diffusion/evaporation approach to prepare PLGA MPs. Optimal processing conditions were found, such as polymer content, surfactant type, stabilizer concentration, inner and outer aqueous phase volumes, and stirring speed...
2017: International Journal of Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224184/experimental-validation-of-the-diffusion-model-based-on-a-slow-response-time-paradigm
#9
Veronika Lerche, Andreas Voss
The diffusion model (Ratcliff, Psychol Rev 85(2):59-108, 1978) is a stochastic model that is applied to response time (RT) data from binary decision tasks. The model is often used to disentangle different cognitive processes. The validity of the diffusion model parameters has, however, rarely been examined. Only few experimental paradigms have been analyzed with those being restricted to fast response time paradigms. This is attributable to a recommendation stated repeatedly in the diffusion model literature to restrict applications to fast RT paradigms (more specifically, to tasks with mean RTs below 1...
December 9, 2017: Psychological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223106/mechanochemical-conversion-of-chrysotile-k2hpo4-mixtures-into-potential-sustainable-and-environmentally-friendly-slow-release-fertilizers
#10
Roger Borges, Loana Mara Baika, Marco Tadeu Grassi, Fernando Wypych
Chrysotile fibers pose a threat to public health due to their association relation to respiratory malignant lung disease such as cancer. For this reason, they must be stored and discarded appropriately, including after treatment, which raises costs. In the present study, insoluble chrysotile fibers were milled in solid state with highly soluble K2HPO4, destroying both structures, making the chrysotile nontoxic and generating a new material with potential use as sustainable slow-release fertilizer (SSRF) containing mainly K and P...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29213278/translating-measures-of-biological-aging-to-test-effectiveness-of-geroprotective-interventions-what-can-we-learn-from-research-on-telomeres
#11
Waylon J Hastings, Idan Shalev, Daniel W Belsky
Intervention studies in animals suggest molecular changes underlying age-related disease and disability can be slowed or reversed. To speed translation of these so-called "geroprotective" therapies to prevent age-related disease and disability in humans, biomarkers are needed that can track changes in the rate of human aging over the course of intervention trials. Algorithm methods that measure biological processes of aging from combinations of DNA methylation marks or clinical biomarkers show promise. To identify next steps for establishing utility of these algorithm-based measures of biological aging for geroprotector trials, we considered the history a candidate biomarker of aging that has received substantial research attention, telomere length...
2017: Frontiers in Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29208077/response-time-consistency-is-an-indicator-of-executive-control-rather-than-global-cognitive-ability
#12
Brandon P Vasquez, Malcolm A Binns, Nicole D Anderson
OBJECTIVES: Intraindividual variability increases with age, but the relative strength of association with cognitive domains is still unclear. The objective of this study was to examine the relation between cognitive domains and the shape and spread of response time (RT) distributions as indexed by intraindividual standard deviation (ISD), and ex-Gaussian parameters (μ, σ, τ). METHODS: Healthy adults (40 young [aged 18-30 years], 40 young-old [aged 65-74 years], and 41 old-old [aged 75-85 years]) completed neuropsychological testing and a touch-screen attention task from which ISD and ex-Gaussian parameters were derived...
December 6, 2017: Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society: JINS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29190530/rare-missense-coding-variants-in-oxytocin-receptor-oxtr-in-schizophrenia-cases-are-associated-with-early-trauma-exposure-cognition-and-emotional-processing
#13
Andre B Veras, Mara Getz, Robert C Froemke, Antonio Egidio Nardi, Gilberto Sousa Alves, Julie Walsh-Messinger, Moses V Chao, Thorsten M Kranz, Dolores Malaspina
BACKGROUND: Oxytocin is a peptide hormone that influences the integration of social cognition with behavior and affect regulation. Oxytocin also prominently directs the transition of neuronal GABA neurotransmission from excitatory to inhibitory after birth. The oxytocin receptor (OXTR) is linked to schizophrenia, a heterogeneous syndrome. Relationships of OXTR polymorphisms with specific clinical features could aid in evaluating any role of oxytocin in the pathogenesis of schizophrenia...
February 2018: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29181816/nicotine-induced-activation-of-caudate-and-anterior-cingulate-cortex-in-response-to-errors-in-schizophrenia
#14
Lauren V Moran, Luke E Stoeckel, Kristina Wang, Carolyn E Caine, Rosemond Villafuerte, Vanessa Calderon, Justin T Baker, Dost Ongur, Amy C Janes, A Eden Evins, Diego A Pizzagalli
BACKGROUND: Nicotine improves attention and processing speed in individuals with schizophrenia. Few studies have investigated the effects of nicotine on cognitive control. Prior functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) research demonstrates blunted activation of dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC) and rostral anterior cingulate cortex (rACC) in response to error and decreased post-error slowing in schizophrenia. METHODS: Participants with schizophrenia (n = 13) and healthy controls (n = 12) participated in a randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover study of the effects of transdermal nicotine on cognitive control...
November 27, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29181782/when-attention-is-intact-in-adults-with-adhd
#15
Mariel Roberts, Brandon K Ashinoff, F Xavier Castellanos, Marisa Carrasco
Is covert visuospatial attention-selective processing of information in the absence of eye movements-preserved in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)? Previous findings are inconclusive due to inconsistent terminology and suboptimal methodology. To settle this question, we used well-established spatial cueing protocols to investigate the perceptual effects of voluntary and involuntary attention on an orientation discrimination task for a group of adults with ADHD and their neurotypical age-matched and gender-matched controls...
November 27, 2017: Psychonomic Bulletin & Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29157414/synchronizing-the-tracking-eye-movements-with-the-motion-of-a-visual-target-basic-neural-processes
#16
Laurent Goffart, Clara Bourrelly, Julie Quinet
In primates, the appearance of an object moving in the peripheral visual field elicits an interceptive saccade that brings the target image onto the foveae. This foveation is then maintained more or less efficiently by slow pursuit eye movements and subsequent catch-up saccades. Sometimes, the tracking is such that the gaze direction looks spatiotemporally locked onto the moving object. Such a spatial synchronism is quite spectacular when one considers that the target-related signals are transmitted to the motor neurons through multiple parallel channels connecting separate neural populations with different conduction speeds and delays...
2017: Progress in Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141793/information-processing-deficits-as-a-driving-force-for-memory-impairment-in-ms-a-cross-sectional-study-of-memory-functions-and-mri-in-early-and-late-stage-ms
#17
Wolfgang Köhler, Martin Fischer, Peter Bublak, Jürgen H Faiss, Frank Hoffmann, Annett Kunkel, Michael Sailer, Matthias Schwab, Erhard Stadler, Uwe K Zettl, Iris-Katharina Penner
BACKGROUND: Memory impairment (MI) is a common symptom of MS. Previous studies were conflicting in respect to the possible existence of early MI and the role of hippocampal atrophy. The objective of this study was to investigate MI and structural MRI correlates in homogenous groups of early and late MS, controlling for a potential information-processing speed (IPS) deficit, and utilizing multiple memory test paradigms. METHODS: 152 individually matched subjects were recruited: early MS (EMS, N = 25, disease duration 1...
November 2017: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29129655/relevance-and-uncertainty-jointly-influence-reward-anticipation-at-the-level-of-the-spn-erp-component
#18
Wioleta Walentowska, Katharina Paul, Mario Carlo Severo, Agnes Moors, Gilles Pourtois
The stimulus-preceding negativity (SPN) component reflects the anticipatory phase of reward processing. Its amplitude is usually larger for informative compared to uninformative upcoming stimuli, as well as for uncertain relative to predictable ones. In this study, we sought to assess whether these two effects, when combined together, produced a synergistic effect or rather independent ones on the SPN during performance monitoring. Participants performed a speeded Go/NoGo task while 64-channel EEG was recorded concurrently...
November 9, 2017: International Journal of Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29128659/on-line-confidence-monitoring-during-decision-making
#19
Dror Dotan, Florent Meyniel, Stanislas Dehaene
Humans can readily assess their degree of confidence in their decisions. Two models of confidence computation have been proposed: post hoc computation using post-decision variables and heuristics, versus online computation using continuous assessment of evidence throughout the decision-making process. Here, we arbitrate between these theories by continuously monitoring finger movements during a manual sequential decision-making task. Analysis of finger kinematics indicated that subjects kept separate online records of evidence and confidence: finger deviation continuously reflected the ongoing accumulation of evidence, whereas finger speed continuously reflected the momentary degree of confidence...
November 9, 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121652/risk-of-predation-makes-foragers-less-choosy-about-their-food
#20
Alice Charalabidis, François-Xavier Dechaume-Moncharmont, Sandrine Petit, David A Bohan
Animals foraging in the wild have to balance speed of decision making and accuracy of assessment of a food item's quality. If resource quality is important for maximizing fitness, then the duration of decision making may be in conflict with other crucial and time consuming tasks, such as anti-predator behaviours or competition monitoring. Individuals facing the risk of predation and/or competition should adjust the duration of decision making and, as a consequence, their level of choosiness for resources. When exposed to predation, the forager could either maintain its level of choosiness for food items but accept a reduction in the amount of food items consumed or it could reduce its level of choosiness and accept all prey items encountered...
2017: PloS One
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