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Slow processing speed

Wolfgang Köhler, Martin Fischer, Peter Bublak, Jürgen H Faiss, Frank Hoffmann, Annett Kunkel, Michael Sailer, Matthias Schwab, Erhard Stadler, Uwe K Zettl, Iris-Katharina Penner
BACKGROUND: Memory impairment (MI) is a common symptom of MS. Previous studies were conflicting in respect to the possible existence of early MI and the role of hippocampal atrophy. The objective of this study was to investigate MI and structural MRI correlates in homogenous groups of early and late MS, controlling for a potential information-processing speed (IPS) deficit, and utilizing multiple memory test paradigms. METHODS: 152 individually matched subjects were recruited: early MS (EMS, N = 25, disease duration 1...
November 2017: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
Wioleta Walentowska, Katharina Paul, Mario Carlo Severo, Agnes Moors, Gilles Pourtois
The stimulus-preceding negativity (SPN) component reflects the anticipatory phase of reward processing. Its amplitude is usually larger for informative compared to uninformative upcoming stimuli, as well as for uncertain relative to predictable ones. In this study, we sought to assess whether these two effects, when combined together, produced a synergistic effect or rather independent ones on the SPN during performance monitoring. Participants performed a speeded Go/NoGo task while 64-channel EEG was recorded concurrently...
November 9, 2017: International Journal of Psychophysiology
Dror Dotan, Florent Meyniel, Stanislas Dehaene
Humans can readily assess their degree of confidence in their decisions. Two models of confidence computation have been proposed: post hoc computation using post-decision variables and heuristics, versus online computation using continuous assessment of evidence throughout the decision-making process. Here, we arbitrate between these theories by continuously monitoring finger movements during a manual sequential decision-making task. Analysis of finger kinematics indicated that subjects kept separate online records of evidence and confidence: finger deviation continuously reflected the ongoing accumulation of evidence, whereas finger speed continuously reflected the momentary degree of confidence...
November 9, 2017: Cognition
Alice Charalabidis, François-Xavier Dechaume-Moncharmont, Sandrine Petit, David A Bohan
Animals foraging in the wild have to balance speed of decision making and accuracy of assessment of a food item's quality. If resource quality is important for maximizing fitness, then the duration of decision making may be in conflict with other crucial and time consuming tasks, such as anti-predator behaviours or competition monitoring. Individuals facing the risk of predation and/or competition should adjust the duration of decision making and, as a consequence, their level of choosiness for resources. When exposed to predation, the forager could either maintain its level of choosiness for food items but accept a reduction in the amount of food items consumed or it could reduce its level of choosiness and accept all prey items encountered...
2017: PloS One
Marina R Kaizer, Petra C Gierthmuehlen, Mateus Bf Dos Santos, Sergio S Cava, Yu Zhang
The fabrication of zirconia dental restorations is a time-consuming process due to traditional slow sintering schemes; zirconia (Y-TZP) produced by these conventional routes are predominantly opaque. Novel speed sintering protocols have been developed to meet the demand for time and cost effective chairside CAD/CAM-produced restorations, as well as to control ceramic microstructures for better translucency. Although the speed sintering protocols have already been used to densify dental Y-TZP, the wear properties of these restorations remain elusive...
October 1, 2017: Ceramics International
Sheila Judge Santacroce, Jennifer Leeman, Mi-Kyung Song
BACKGROUND: To reduce the burden of chronic illness, prevention and management interventions must be efficacious, adopted and implemented with fidelity, and reach those at greatest risk. Yet, many research-tested interventions are slow to translate into practice. PURPOSE: This paper describes how The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill School of Nursing's NINR-funded institutional pre- and postdoctoral research-training program is addressing the imperative to speed knowledge translation across the research cycle...
September 19, 2017: Nursing Outlook
Yongge Li, Yong Xu, Juergen Kurths, Xiaole Yue
We study the transport of a particle subjected to a Lévy noise in a rough ratchet potential which is constructed by superimposing a fast oscillating trigonometric function on a common ratchet background. Due to the superposition of roughness, the transport process exhibits significantly different properties under the excitation of Lévy noises compared to smooth cases. The influence of the roughness on the directional motion is explored by calculating the mean velocities with respect to the Lévy stable index α and the spatial asymmetry parameter q of the ratchet...
October 2017: Chaos
Beiwen Li, Song Zhang
Scientific research of a stabilized flapping flight process (e.g. hovering) has been of great interest to a variety of fields including biology, aerodynamics, and bio-inspired robotics. Different from the current passive photogrammetry based methods, the digital fringe projection (DFP) technique has the capability of performing dense superfast (e.g. kHz) 3D topological reconstructions with the projection of defocused binary patterns, yet it is still a challenge to measure a flapping flight process with the presence of rapid flapping wings...
October 30, 2017: Optics Express
Ranmalee Eramudugolla, Kim M Kiely, Sidhant Chopra, Kaarin J Anstey
Objective: Computerized training for cognitive enhancement is of great public interest, however, there is inconsistent evidence for the transfer of training gains to every day activity. Several large trials have focused on speed of processing (SOP) training with some promising findings for long-term effects on daily activity, but no immediate transfer to other cognitive tests. Here, we examine the transfer of SOP training gains to cognitive measures that are known predictors of driving safety in older adults...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Elles Douven, Sebastian Köhler, Syenna H J Schievink, Robert J van Oostenbrugge, Julie Staals, Frans R J Verhey, Pauline Aalten
OBJECTIVE: To examine the influence of vascular cognitive impairment (VCI) on the course of poststroke depression (PSD) and poststroke apathy (PSA). METHODS: Included were 250 stroke patients who underwent neuropsychological and neuropsychiatric assessment 3 months after stroke (baseline) and at a 6- and 12-month follow-up after baseline. Linear mixed models tested the influence of VCI in at least one cognitive domain (any VCI) or multidomain VCI (VCI in multiple cognitive domains) at baseline and domain-specific VCI at baseline on levels of depression and apathy over time, with random effects for intercept and slope...
September 28, 2017: American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
Francesco Manzoni, Jon Uranga, Samuel Genheden, Ulf Ryde
We have investigated whether alchemical free-energy perturbation calculations of relative binding energies can be sped up by simulating a truncated protein. Previous studies with spherical non-periodic systems showed that the number of simulated atoms could be reduced by a factor of 26 without affecting the calculated binding free energies by more than 0.5 kJ/mol on average (Genheden, S. & Ryde, U., J. Chem. Theory Comput., 2012, 8, 1449), leading to 63-fold decrease in the time consumption. However, such simulations are rather slow, owing to the need of a large cut-off radius for the non-bonded interactions...
October 27, 2017: Journal of Chemical Information and Modeling
Gila Neta, Ross C Brownson, David A Chambers
The field of epidemiology has been defined as the study of the spread and control of disease. However, epidemiology frequently focuses on studies of etiology and distribution of disease at the cost of understanding the best ways to control disease. Moreover, only a small fraction of scientific discoveries is translated into public health practice, and the process from discovery to translation is exceedingly slow. Given the importance of translational science, the future of epidemiologic training should include competency in implementation science, whose goal is to rapidly move evidence into practice...
September 27, 2017: American Journal of Epidemiology
Dominique Gosselin, Joseph De Koninck, Kenneth Campbell
Sleepiness has repeatedly been demonstrated to affect performance on a variety of cognitive tasks. While the effects of total sleep deprivation (TSD) have been extensively studied, acute partial sleep deprivation (PSD), a more frequent form of sleep loss, has been studied much less often. The present study examined the effects of sleep deprivation on novel tasks involving classic sensory, working, and permanent memory systems. While the tasks did implicate different memory systems, they shared a need for effortful, sustained attention to maintain successful performance...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
Yves Boirie, Christelle Guillet
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The speed of dietary protein digestion influences postprandial amino acid availability which is crucial for improving altered anabolic response of skeletal muscle one feature of sarcopenia during aging. RECENT FINDINGS: By analogy with carbohydrate and in reference to their absorption rate, dietary proteins can be classified as 'fast' or 'slow' proteins depending on matrix food structure and technological processes, which can influence amino acids availability and their subsequent metabolic actions...
October 11, 2017: Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care
Melinda Chung, Celine T Goulet, Marcus Michelangeli, Brooke Melki-Wegner, Bob B M Wong, David G Chapple
Learning is a change in state resulting from new experiences enabling behavioural responses to be adjusted in alignment with external cues. Individuals differ in the speed and accuracy at which they learn. Personality has been postulated as being a major influence on learning ability in terms of attention and encounter rates of environmental cues. This link forms the basis of the cognitive style hypothesis (CSH), predicting that an individual's cognitive style will occur along a fast-slow behavioural gradient...
December 2017: Oecologia
Alex Forbrich, Andrew Heinmiller, Roger J Zemp
The lymphatic system is responsible for fluid homeostasis and immune cell trafficking and has been implicated in several diseases, including obesity, diabetes, and cancer metastasis. Despite its importance, the lack of suitable in vivo imaging techniques has hampered our understanding of the lymphatic system. This is, in part, due to the limited contrast of lymphatic fluids and structures. Photoacoustic imaging, in combination with optically absorbing dyes or nanoparticles, has great potential for noninvasively visualizing the lymphatic vessels deep in tissues...
October 2017: Journal of Biomedical Optics
Armin Salimi-Badr, Mohammad Mehdi Ebadzadeh, Christian Darlot
Contrary to forward biomechanical functions, which are deterministic, inverse biomechanical functions are generally not. Calculating an inverse biomechanical function is an ill-posed problem, which has no unique solution for a manipulator with several degrees of freedom. Studies of the command and control of biological movements suggest that the cerebellum takes part in the computation of approximate inverse functions, and this ability can control fast movements by predicting the consequence of current motor command...
October 9, 2017: Biological Cybernetics
Marcus Schiltenwolf, Michael Akbar, Eva Neubauer, Simone Gantz, Herta Flor, Andreas Hug, Haili Wang
OBJECTIVES: Little is known about the affected cognitive problems in chronic low back pain patients. For this patient cohort research mostly focused on memory of pain, rather than cognitive difficulties related to pain. Chronic pain may be associated with specific (yet undefined) cognitive deficits that affect everyday behaviour. We set out to compare the cognitive function of patients with chronic low back pain (cLBP) in the course of multidisciplinary pain treatments before and after therapy...
October 6, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Pain
Erwin A van Vliet, Noora Puhakka, James D Mills, Prashant K Srivastava, Michael R Johnson, Paolo Roncon, Shalini Das Gupta, Jenni Karttunen, Michele Simonato, Katarzyna Lukasiuk, Jan A Gorter, Eleonora Aronica, Asla Pitkänen
The World Health Organization estimates that globally 2.4 million people are diagnosed with epilepsy each year. In nearly 30% of these cases, epilepsy cannot be properly controlled by antiepileptic drugs. More importantly, treatments to prevent or modify epileptogenesis do not exist. Therefore, novel therapies are urgently needed. In this respect, it is important to identify which patients will develop epilepsy and which individually tailored treatment is needed. However, currently, we have no tools to identify the patients at risk, and diagnosis of epileptogenesis remains as a major unmet medical need, which relates to lack of diagnostic biomarkers for epileptogenesis...
September 27, 2017: Epilepsia
Olivier Deschaume, Eric Breynaert, Sambhu Radhakrishnan, Stef Kerkhofs, Mohamed Haouas, Ségolène Adam de Beaumais, Valeria Manzin, Jean-Baptiste Galey, Laure Ramos-Stanbury, Francis Taulelle, Johan A Martens, Carmen Bartic
The stability of the Keggin polycation ε-Al13 is monitored by (27)Al NMR and ferron colorimetric assay upon heating aluminum aqueous solutions containing different amino acids with overall positive, negative, or no charge at pH 4.2. A focus on the effect of the amino acids on the isomerization process from ε- to δ-Al13 is made, compared and discussed as a function of the type of organic additive. Amino acids such as glycine and β-alanine, with only one functional group interacting relatively strongly with aluminum polycations, accelerate isomerization in a concentration-dependent manner...
September 26, 2017: Inorganic Chemistry
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