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Sunwon Lee, Donghyeon Kim, Kyubum Lee, Jaehoon Choi, Seongsoon Kim, Minji Jeon, Sangrak Lim, Donghee Choi, Sunkyu Kim, Aik-Choon Tan, Jaewoo Kang
As the volume of publications rapidly increases, searching for relevant information from the literature becomes more challenging. To complement standard search engines such as PubMed, it is desirable to have an advanced search tool that directly returns relevant biomedical entities such as targets, drugs, and mutations rather than a long list of articles. Some existing tools submit a query to PubMed and process retrieved abstracts to extract information at query time, resulting in a slow response time and limited coverage of only a fraction of the PubMed corpus...
2016: PloS One
Bettina K Steiger, Hennric Jokeit
Social bonds are at the center of our daily living and are an essential determinant of our quality of life. In people with epilepsy, numerous factors can impede cognitive and affective functions necessary for smooth social interactions. Psychological and psychiatric complications are common in epilepsy and may hinder the processing of social information. In addition, neuropsychological deficits such as slowed processing speed, memory loss or attentional difficulties may interfere with enjoyable reciprocity of social interactions...
October 11, 2016: Seizure: the Journal of the British Epilepsy Association
Zhijie Song, Rui Shi, Jie Jia, Jian Wang
Sentiment contagion is similar to an infectious disease that spreads in a crowd. In this study, we extend the proposed SOSa-SPSa model (susceptible-optimistic-susceptible and susceptible-pessimistic-susceptible) by considering the interaction between optimists and pessimists. Simulation results show that our model is reasonable and can better explain the entire contagion process by considering three groups of people. The recovery speed of pessimists has an obvious regulative effect on the number of pessimists and the possibility of optimists coming in contact with pessimists to be infected as pessimism plays a greater role than that of reverting to susceptibility...
2016: Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine
Tamar M van Veenendaal, Dominique M IJff, Albert P Aldenkamp, Richard H C Lazeron, Nicolaas A J Puts, Richard A E Edden, Paul A M Hofman, Anton J A de Louw, Walter H Backes, Jacobus F A Jansen
OBJECTIVE: Although antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) are effective in suppressing epileptic seizures, they also induce (cognitive) side effects, with mental slowing as a general effect. This study aimed to assess whether concentrations of MR detectable neurotransmitters, glutamate and GABA, are associated with mental slowing in patients with epilepsy taking AEDs. METHODS: Cross-sectional data were collected from patients with localization-related epilepsy using a variety of AEDs from three risk categories, i...
October 13, 2016: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
Nina Attridge, Christopher Eccleston, Donna Noonan, Elaine Wainwright, Edmund Keogh
: Pain is thought to capture our attention. A consequence is that our performance on other tasks may suffer. Research has supported this, showing that pain disrupts our ability to perform various attention tasks. However, the specific nature of the effect of pain on attention is inconsistent, possibly due to different studies investigating different types of pain. Few studies seek to replicate basic findings. Here, we conceptually replicated and extended the headache study by Moore, Keogh & Eccleston (2013), by including two additional attention tasks, a broader sample, and measures of affect and pain cognitions...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Pain: Official Journal of the American Pain Society
Julia Neitzel, Marion Ortner, Marleen Haupt, Petra Redel, Timo Grimmer, Igor Yakushev, Alexander Drzezga, Peter Bublak, Christoph Preul, Christian Sorg, Kathrin Finke
Posterior cortical atrophy is dominated by progressive degradation of parieto-occipital grey and white matter, and represents in most cases a variant of Alzheimer's disease. Patients with posterior cortical atrophy are characterized by increasing higher visual and visuo-spatial impairments. In particular, a key symptom of posterior cortical atrophy is simultanagnosia i.e. the inability to perceive multiple visual objects at the same time. Two neuro-cognitive mechanisms have been suggested to underlie simultanagnosia, either reduced visual short-term memory capacity or decreased visual processing speed possibly resulting from white matter impairments over and above damage to cortical brain areas...
October 3, 2016: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
Allison R Kaup, Carrie Peltz, Kimbra Kenney, Joel H Kramer, Ramon Diaz-Arrastia, Kristine Yaffe
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to characterize the neuropsychological profile of lifetime traumatic brain injury (TBI) in older Veterans. METHODS: Participants were 169 older Veterans [mean age=79.1 years (range, 51-97 years), 89% male, 92% Caucasian], 88 with lifetime TBI and 81 without TBI, living in Veterans' retirement homes in independent residence. TBI history was ascertained with the Ohio State TBI Identification Method structured interview. Cognition was assessed with neuropsychological tests: Raw scores were converted to Z-scores compared to age-corrected normative data and combined into five domain composite Z-scores (attention/working memory, learning/memory, language, processing speed, executive functioning)...
October 4, 2016: Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society: JINS
L Lombardi, E A Carnevale, I Pecorini
Low methane content landfill gas may be enriched by removing carbon dioxide. An innovative process, based on carbon dioxide capture and storage by means of accelerated carbonation of bottom ash is proposed and studied for the above purpose. Within this research framework we devoted a preliminary research activity to investigate the possibility of improving the way the contact between bottom ash and landfill gas takes place: this is the scope of the work reported in this paper. Two different types of reactors - fixed bed and rotating drum - were designed and constructed for this purpose...
September 29, 2016: Waste Management
Ted J Warren, Matthew J Van Hook, Daniel Tranchina, Wallace B Thoreson
UNLABELLED: Inhibitory feedback from horizontal cells (HCs) to cones generates center-surround receptive fields and color opponency in the retina. Mechanisms of HC feedback remain unsettled, but one hypothesis proposes that an ephaptic mechanism may alter the extracellular electrical field surrounding photoreceptor synaptic terminals, thereby altering Ca(2+) channel activity and photoreceptor output. An ephaptic voltage change produced by current flowing through open channels in the HC membrane should occur with no delay...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Peijun Guo, Richard D Schaller, Leonidas E Ocola, Benjamin T Diroll, John B Ketterson, Robert P H Chang
Nonlinear optical responses of materials play a vital role for the development of active nanophotonic and plasmonic devices. Optical nonlinearity induced by intense optical excitation of mobile electrons in metallic nanostructures can provide large-amplitude, dynamic tuning of their electromagnetic response, which is potentially useful for all-optical processing of information and dynamic beam control. Here we report on the sub-picosecond optical nonlinearity of indium tin oxide nanorod arrays (ITO-NRAs) following intraband, on-plasmon-resonance optical pumping, which enables modulation of the full-visible spectrum with large absolute change of transmission, favourable spectral tunability and beam-steering capability...
2016: Nature Communications
A V Markov, E B Naimark, E U Yakovleva
The dynamics of aging is often described by survival curves that show the proportion of individuals surviving to a given age. The shape of the survival curve reflects the dependence of mortality on age, and it varies greatly for different organisms. In a recently published paper, Stroustrup and coauthors ((2016) Nature, 530, 103-107) showed that many factors affecting the lifespan of Caenorhabditis elegans do not change the shape of the survival curve, but only stretch or compress it in time. Apparently, this means that aging is a programmed process whose trajectory is difficult to change, although it is possible to speed it up or slow it down...
August 2016: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
Charlotte Pineau, Brice Lavrard, François Boyer, Laëtitia Percebois-Macadré
OBJECTIVE: MRI has highly changed the assessment of post-traumatic syringomyelia (PTS), roughly estimated at 30% nowadays. Times to onset (TTO) symptoms are random. This case report describes how hyperhidrosis appeared and revealed PTS diagnosis. OBSERVATIONS: Mr M., 43-year-old, is rehabilitation inpatient after T10 AIS A spinal cord injury (SCI). Three months after this event, Mr M complains of acute hyperhidrosis crisis always located below the injury, which can occur at any time of the day, particularly when he moves...
September 2016: Annals of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
Monroe P Turner, Nicholas A Hubbard, Lyndahl M Himes, Shawheen Faghihahmadabadi, Joanna L Hutchison, Ilana J Bennett, Michael A Motes, Robert W Haley, Bart Rypma
Cognitive slowing is a prevalent symptom observed in Gulf War Illness (GWI). The present study assessed the extent to which functional connectivity between dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and other task-relevant brain regions was predictive of GWI-related cognitive slowing. GWI patients (n = 54) and healthy veteran controls (n = 29) were assessed on performance of a processing speed task (the Digit Symbol Substitution Task; DSST) while undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). GWI patients were slower on the DSST relative to controls...
2016: NeuroImage: Clinical
Qu Tian, Susan M Resnick, Murat Bilgel, Dean F Wong, Luigi Ferrucci, Stephanie A Studenski
BACKGROUND: Motor slowing is associated with risk of Alzheimer's disease. Whether β-amyloid (Aβ) burden is associated with motor decline, independent of cognitive decline, is unknown. METHODS: About 59 cognitively unimpaired older participants had baseline PET-PiB scans and repeated measures of lower (usual gait speed, 400-m time, Health ABC Physical Performance Battery (HABCPPB) score, total standing balance time) and upper (mean tapping time) extremity performance during a mean follow-up of 4...
September 24, 2016: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
Jie Wang, Bowen Zhu, Zhenzhong Hao, Fang Bo, Xiaolei Wang, Feng Gao, Yigang Li, Guoquan Zhang, Jingjun Xu
We report the experimental observation and theoretical analysis of thermo-optic effects in high-Q on-chip lithium-niobate (LN) microdisks. We find that the resonance transmission dip of a LN microdisk was broadened or compressed when the wavelength of the input laser was tuned to the shorter or the longer wavelengths at a wavelength sweeping speed of 4.8 pm/s. When the laser wavelength was shifted with a fast rate (4.8 nm/s), the tendencies of the change in the shape of the transmission dip reverse completely...
September 19, 2016: Optics Express
Yuan Mei, Boyu Xu, Hao Chi, Tao Jin, Shilie Zheng, Xiaofeng Jin, Xianmin Zhang
Photonic time stretch (PTS) has been intensively investigated in recent decades due to its potential application to ultra-wideband analog-to-digital conversion. A high-speed analog signal can be captured by an electronic analog-to-digital converter (ADC) with the help of the PTS technique, which slows down the speed of signal in the photonic domain. Unfortunately, the process of the time stretch is not linear due to the nonlinear modulation of the electro-optic intensity modulator in the PTS system, which means the undesired harmonics distortion...
September 10, 2016: Applied Optics
Aditya Radhakrishnan, Ying-Hsin Chen, Sophie Martin, Najwa Alhusaini, Rachel Green, Jeff Coller
A major determinant of mRNA half-life is the codon-dependent rate of translational elongation. How the processes of translational elongation and mRNA decay communicate is unclear. Here, we establish that the DEAD-box protein Dhh1p is a sensor of codon optimality that targets an mRNA for decay. First, we find mRNAs whose translation elongation rate is slowed by inclusion of non-optimal codons are specifically degraded in a Dhh1p-dependent manner. Biochemical experiments show Dhh1p is preferentially associated with mRNAs with suboptimal codon choice...
September 22, 2016: Cell
Fazel Zare Bidoky, C Daniel Frisbie
Printed, low-voltage poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) electrolyte-gated transistors (EGTs) have favorable quasi-static characteristics, including sub 2 V operation, carrier mobility (μ) of 1 cm(2)/(V s), ON/OFF current ratio of 10(6), and static leakage current density of 10(-6) A/cm(2). Here we study the dynamic performance of P3HT EGTs in which the semiconductor, dielectric, and gate electrode were deposited using aerosol-jet printing; the source and drain electrodes were patterned by conventional microlithography...
October 12, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Jun Nan, Zhenbei Wang, Meng Yao, Yueming Yang, Xiaofei Zhang
The impact of mixing speed in three stages-before breakage, during breakage, and after breakage-on re-grown floc properties was investigated by using a non-intrusive optical sampling and digital image analysis technique, respectively. And then, on the basis of different influence extent of mixing speed during each stage on size and structure of re-grown flocs, coagulation performance with varying mixing speed was analyzed. The results indicated that the broken flocs could not re-grow to the size before breakage in all cases...
September 13, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
B Romeo, W Choucha, P Fossati, J-Y Rotge
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this review was to determine the clinical and biological predictors of the ketamine response. METHODS: A systematic research on PubMed and PsycINFO database was performed without limits on year of publication. RESULTS: The main predictive factors of ketamine response, which were found in different studies, were (i) a family history of alcohol dependence, (ii) unipolar depressive disorder, and (iii) neurocognitive impairments, especially a slower processing speed...
September 9, 2016: L'Encéphale
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