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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28526585/impaired-response-selection-during-stepping-predicts-falls-in-older-people-a-cohort-study
#1
Daniel Schoene, Kim Delbaere, Stephen R Lord
BACKGROUND: Response inhibition, an important executive function, has been identified as a risk factor for falls in older people. This study investigated whether step tests that include different levels of response inhibition differ in their ability to predict falls and whether such associations are mediated by measures of attention, speed, and/or balance. METHODS: A cohort study with a 12-month follow-up was conducted in community-dwelling older people without major cognitive and mobility impairments...
May 16, 2017: Journal of the American Medical Directors Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28500755/enhanced-fib-sem-systems-for-large-volume-3d-imaging
#2
C Shan Xu, Kenneth J Hayworth, Zhiyuan Lu, Patricia Grob, Ahmed M Hassan, José G García-Cerdán, Krishna K Niyogi, Eva Nogales, Richard J Weinberg, Harald F Hess
Focused Ion Beam Scanning Electron Microscopy (FIB-SEM) can automatically generate 3D images with superior z-axis resolution, yielding data that needs minimal image registration and related post-processing. Obstacles blocking wider adoption of FIB-SEM include slow imaging speed and lack of long-term system stability, which caps the maximum possible acquisition volume. Here we present techniques that accelerate image acquisition while greatly improving FIB-SEM reliability, allowing the system to operate for months and generating continuously imaged volumes > 10(6) µm(3)...
May 13, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494952/fast-protein-translation-can-promote-co-and%C3%A2-posttranslational-folding-of-misfolding-prone-proteins
#3
Fabio Trovato, Edward P O'Brien
Chemical kinetic modeling has previously been used to predict that fast-translating codons can enhance cotranslational protein folding by helping to avoid misfolded intermediates. Consistent with this prediction, protein aggregation in yeast and worms was observed to increase when translation was globally slowed down, possibly due to increased cotranslational misfolding. Observation of similar behavior in molecular simulations would confirm predictions from the simpler chemical kinetic model and provide a molecular perspective on cotranslational folding, misfolding, and the impact of translation speed on these processes...
May 9, 2017: Biophysical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28489345/orthogonal-liquid-crystal-alignment-layer-templating-speed-dependent-orientation-of-chromonic-liquid-crystals
#4
Yun Jeong Cha, Min-Jun Gim, Hyungju Ahn, Tae Joo Shin, Joonwoo Jeong, Dong Ki Yoon
Lyotropic chromonic liquid crystals (LCLCs) have been extensively studied because of the interesting structural characteristics of the linear aggregation of their plank-shaped molecules in aqueous solvents. We report a simple method to control the orientation of LCLCs such as Sunset Yellow (SSY), disodium cromoglycate (DSCG) and DNA by varying pulling speed of the top substrate and temperatures during shear flow induced experiment. Crystallized columns of LCLCs are aligned parallel and perpendicular to the shear direction, at a fast and a slow pulling speed of the top substrate, respectively...
May 10, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28479319/a-normalization-mechanism-for-estimating-visual-motion-across-speeds-and-scales
#5
Nikos Gekas, Andrew I Meso, Guillaume S Masson, Pascal Mamassian
Interacting with the natural environment leads to complex stimulations of our senses. Here we focus on the estimation of visual speed, a critical source of information for the survival of many animal species as they monitor moving prey or approaching dangers. In mammals, and in particular in primates, speed information is conceived to be represented by a set of channels sensitive to different spatial and temporal characteristics of the optic flow [1-5]. However, it is still largely unknown how the brain accurately infers the speed of complex natural scenes from this set of spatiotemporal channels [6-14]...
April 27, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28465435/elucidating-interplay-of-speed-and-accuracy-in-biological-error-correction
#6
Kinshuk Banerjee, Anatoly B Kolomeisky, Oleg A Igoshin
One of the most fascinating features of biological systems is the ability to sustain high accuracy of all major cellular processes despite the stochastic nature of underlying chemical processes. It is widely believed that such low error values are the result of the error-correcting mechanism known as kinetic proofreading. However, it is usually argued that enhancing the accuracy should result in slowing down the process, leading to the so-called speed-accuracy trade-off. We developed a discrete-state stochastic framework that allowed us to investigate the mechanisms of the proofreading using the method of first-passage processes...
May 2, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28439628/visual-salience-of-the-stop-signal-affects-movement-suppression-process
#7
Roberto Montanari, Margherita Giamundo, Emiliano Brunamonti, Stefano Ferraina, Pierpaolo Pani
We investigated how the ability to suppress an impending movement is affected by the visual salience of the stop-signal in a reaching countermanding task. We found that when the stop-signal was easy to detect, stop performance was better than when the stop-signal was difficult to detect. In an exploratory analysis, we also found that the change in salience of the stop-signal can have an effect on the speed of response in trials following the stop-signal. This effect occurred together with strategic slowing down after an error in inhibiting was committed and together with a repetition priming effect due to the stop-signal presented in the previous trial...
April 24, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437133/the-impact-of-the-centrifuge-characteristics-and-centrifugation-protocols-on-the-cells-growth-factors-and-fibrin-architecture-of-a-leukocyte-and-platelet-rich-fibrin-l-prf-clot-and-membrane
#8
David M Dohan Ehrenfest, Nelson R Pinto, Andrea Pereda, Paula Jiménez, Marco Del Corso, Byung-Soo Kang, Mauricio Nally, Nicole Lanata, Hom-Lay Wang, Marc Quirynen
L-PRF (leukocyte- and platelet-rich fibrin) is one of the four families of platelet concentrates for surgical use and is widely used in oral and maxillofacial regenerative therapies. The first objective of this article was to evaluate the mechanical vibrations appearing during centrifugation in four models of commercially available table-top centrifuges used to produce L-PRF and the impact of the centrifuge characteristics on the cell and fibrin architecture of a L-PRF clot and membrane. The second objective of this article was to evaluate how changing some parameters of the L-PRF protocol may influence its biological signature, independently from the characteristics of the centrifuge...
April 24, 2017: Platelets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430708/the-somatosensory-evoked-potential-in-reaction-time-is-gated-and-elicited-earlier-when-the-motor-response-to-a-somatosensory-cue-is-faster
#9
Koichi Hiraoka, Chisato Kori, Kana Sato
The aim of this study was to investigate whether the somatosensory-evoked potential (SEP) is gated and elicited earlier when a motor response to a somatosensory stimulus is faster. In healthy humans, the left index finger and thumb were pinched in response to a somatosensory stimulus administered over the left median nerve. The SEP elicited by this stimulus when producing a fast motor response was compared with that when producing a slow motor response. The amplitudes of N18 and frontal P40 when producing a fast motor response were smaller than those when producing a slow motor response...
May 24, 2017: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420456/impaired-comprehension-of-speed-verbs-in-parkinson-s-disease
#10
Laura J Speed, Wessel O van Dam, Priyantha Hirath, Gabriella Vigliocco, Rutvik H Desai
OBJECTIVES: A wealth of studies provide evidence for action simulation during language comprehension. Recent research suggests such action simulations might be sensitive to fine-grained information, such as speed. Here, we present a crucial test for action simulation of speed in language by assessing speed comprehension in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD). Based on the patients' motor deficits, we hypothesized that the speed of motion described in language would modulate their performance in semantic tasks...
April 19, 2017: Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society: JINS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417834/adaptive-changes-in-the-perception-of-fast-and-slow-movement-at-different-head-positions
#11
Roberto Panichi, Chiara Occhigrossi, Aldo Ferraresi, Mario Faralli, Marco Lucertini, Vito E Pettorossi
BACKGROUND: This paper examines the subjective sense of orientation during asymmetric body rotations in normal subjects. METHODS: Self-motion perception was investigated in 10 healthy individuals during asymmetric whole-body rotation with different head orientations. Both on-vertical axis and off-vertical axis rotations were employed. Subjects tracked a remembered earth-fixed visual target while rotating in the dark for four cycles of asymmetric rotation (two half-sinusoidal cycles of the same amplitude, but of different duration)...
May 1, 2017: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410857/measuring-participant-effort-in-a-depression-prevention-trial-who-engages-in-problem-solving-therapy
#12
Sarah T Stahl, Steven M Albert, Mary Amanda Dew, Stewart Anderson, Jordan F Karp, Ariel G Gildengers, Meryl A Butters, Charles F Reynolds
OBJECTIVE: To determine the acceptability of clinical interventions for depression prevention, identification of clinical characteristics associated with intervention engagement is needed. The purpose of this study is to describe levels and correlates of participant engagement in Problem Solving Therapy (PST) in adults 60 and older with subthreshold depression. METHODS: As part of a clinical trial to prevent depression among older adults with subthreshold depression, participants who were randomized to receive PST completed 6-8 sessions in which they learned skills to solve self-selected problems that were contributing to stress and reduced quality of life...
March 14, 2017: American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408136/on-the-correct-side-of-performance-processing-of-internal-and-external-signals-in-response-speed-evaluation
#13
Christian Valt, Birgit Stürmer
Response appropriateness is not exclusively limited to accuracy. Nevertheless, the processing of parameters other than accuracy for response monitoring has been mostly neglected. The present experiment explored how the cognitive system processes response speed based on internal and external signals. Participants performed a response-choice task where correct responses were classified as fast, average, or slow. External signals informative about performance quality were presented after the response in most of the trials; in some trials, instead, participants had to judge their own performance...
April 11, 2017: International Journal of Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403143/a-novel-mechanism-of-cone-photoreceptor-adaptation
#14
Marcus H C Howlett, Robert G Smith, Maarten Kamermans
An animal's ability to survive depends on its sensory systems being able to adapt to a wide range of environmental conditions, by maximizing the information extracted and reducing the noise transmitted. The visual system does this by adapting to luminance and contrast. While luminance adaptation can begin at the retinal photoreceptors, contrast adaptation has been shown to start at later stages in the retina. Photoreceptors adapt to changes in luminance over multiple time scales ranging from tens of milliseconds to minutes, with the adaptive changes arising from processes within the phototransduction cascade...
April 2017: PLoS Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399142/oral-cavity-hydrodynamics-and-drag-production-in-balaenid-whale-suspension-feeding
#15
Jean Potvin, Alexander J Werth
Balaenid whales feed on large aggregates of small and slow-moving prey (predominantly copepods) through a filtration process enabled by baleen. These whales exhibit continuous filtration, namely, with the mouth kept partially opened and the baleen exposed to oncoming prey-laden waters while fluking. The process is an example of crossflow filtration (CFF) in which most of the particulates (prey) are separated from the substrate (water) without ever coming into contact with the filtering surface (baleen). This paper discusses the simulation of baleen filtration hydrodynamics based on a type of hydraulic circuit modeling commonly used in microfluidics, but adapted to the much higher Reynolds number flows typical of whale hydrodynamics...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28390178/slow-processing-speed-predicts-falls-in-older-adults-with-a-falls-history-1-year-prospective-cohort-study
#16
Jennifer C Davis, John R Best, Karim M Khan, Larry Dian, Stephen Lord, Kim Delbaere, Chun Liang Hsu, Winnie Cheung, Wency Chan, Teresa Liu-Ambrose
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: A previous fall is a strong predictor of future falls. Recent epidemiologic data suggest that deficits in processing speed predict future injurious falls. Our primary objective was to determine a parsimonious predictive model of future falls among older adults who experienced ≥1 fall in the past 12 months based on the following categories: counts of (1) total, (2) indoor, (3) outdoor or (4) non-injurious falls; (5) one mild or severe injury fall (yes vs no); (6) an injurious instead of a non-injurious fall; and (7) an outdoor instead of an indoor fall...
April 8, 2017: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28374074/abnormal-subcortical-nuclei-shapes-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#17
Ji Chen, Junxiang Zhang, Xuebing Liu, Xiaoyang Wang, Xiangjin Xu, Hui Li, Bo Cao, Yanqiu Yang, Jingjing Lu, Ziqian Chen
OBJECTIVES: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) increases the risk of brain atrophy and dementia. We aimed to elucidate deep grey matter (GM) structural abnormalities and their relationships with T2DM cognitive deficits by combining region of interest (ROI)-based volumetry, voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and shape analysis. METHODS: We recruited 23 T2DM patients and 24 age-matched healthy controls to undergo T1-weighted structural MRI scanning. Images were analysed using the three aforementioned methods to obtain deep GM structural shapes and volumes...
April 3, 2017: European Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28368181/the-feasibility-of-implementing-cognitive-remediation-for-work-in-community-based-psychiatric-rehabilitation-programs
#18
Susan R McGurk, Kim T Mueser, Melanie A Watkins, Carline M Dalton, Heather Deutsch
OBJECTIVE: Adding cognitive remediation to vocational rehabilitation services improves cognitive and work functioning in people with serious mental illness, but despite interest, the uptake of cognitive programs into community services has been slow. This study evaluated the feasibility of implementing an empirically supported cognitive remediation program in routine rehabilitation services at 2 sites. METHOD: The Thinking Skills for Work (TSW) program was adapted for implementation at 2 sites of a large psychiatric rehabilitation agency providing prevocational services, but not community-based vocational services, which were provided off-site...
March 2017: Psychiatric Rehabilitation Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28368141/perceptual-and-response-dependent-profiles-of-attention-in-children-with-adhd
#19
Ida Dyhr Caspersen, Anders Petersen, Signe Vangkilde, Kerstin Jessica Plessen, Thomas Habekost
OBJECTIVE: Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a complex developmental neuropsychiatric disorder, characterized by inattentiveness, impulsivity, and hyperactivity. Recent literature suggests a potential core deficit underlying these behaviors may involve inefficient processing when contextual stimulation is low. In order to specify this inefficiency, the aim of the present study was to disentangle perceptual and response-based deficits of attention by supplementing classic reaction time (RT) measures with an accuracy-only test...
April 3, 2017: Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28368041/controllable-optical-modulation-of-blue-green-up-conversion-fluorescence-from-tm-3-er-3-single-doped-glass-ceramics-upon-two-step-excitation-of-two-wavelengths
#20
Zhi Chen, Shiliang Kang, Hang Zhang, Ting Wang, Shichao Lv, Qiuqun Chen, Guoping Dong, Jianrong Qiu
Optical modulation is a crucial operation in photonics for network data processing with the aim to overcome information bottleneck in terms of speed, energy consumption, dispersion and cross-talking from conventional electronic interconnection approach. However, due to the weak interactions between photons, a facile physical approach is required to efficiently manipulate photon-photon interactions. Herein, we demonstrate that transparent glass ceramics containing LaF3: Tm(3+) (Er(3+)) nanocrystals can enable fast-slow optical modulation of blue/green up-conversion fluorescence upon two-step excitation of two-wavelengths at telecom windows (0...
April 3, 2017: Scientific Reports
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