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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913176/rotary-ultrasonic-bone-drilling-improved-pullout-strength-and-reduced-damage
#1
Vishal Gupta, Pulak M Pandey, Vadim V Silberschmidt
Bone drilling is one of the most common operations used to repair fractured parts of bones. During a bone drilling process, microcracks are generated on the inner surface of the drilled holes that can detrimentally affect osteosynthesis and healing. This study focuses on the investigation of microcracks and pullout strength of cortical-bone screws in drilled holes. It compares conventional surgical bone drilling (CSBD) with rotary ultrasonic bone drilling (RUBD), a novel approach employing ultrasonic vibration with a diamond-coated hollow tool...
November 29, 2016: Medical Engineering & Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911412/reproducible-arterial-denudation-injury-by-infrarenal-abdominal-aortic-clamping-in-a-murine-model
#2
Aditya S Shirali, Austin I McDonald, Julia J Mack, M Luisa Iruela-Arispe
Percutaneous vascular interventions uniformly result in arterial denudation injuries that subsequently lead to thrombosis and restenosis. These complications can be attributed to impairments in re-endothelialization within the wound margins. Yet, the cellular and molecular mechanisms of re-endothelialization remain to be defined. While several animal models to study re-endothelialization after arterial denudation are available, few are performed in the mouse because of surgical limitations. This undermines the opportunity to exploit transgenic mouse lines and investigate the contribution of specific genes to the process of re-endothelialization...
November 24, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911409/measuring-progressive-neurological-disability-in-a-mouse-model-of-multiple-sclerosis
#3
Francesca Gilli, Darlene B Royce, Andrew R Pachner
After intracerebral infection with the Theiler's Murine Encephalomyelitis Virus (TMEV), susceptible SJL mice develop a chronic-progressive demyelinating disease, with clinical features similar to the progressive forms of multiple sclerosis (MS). The mice show progressive disability with loss of motor and sensory functions, which can be assessed with multiple apparatuses and protocols. Among them, the Rotarod performance test is a very common behavioral test, its advantage being that it provides objective measurements, but it is often used assuming that it is straightforward and simple...
November 14, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910862/methylphenidate-enhances-early-stage-sensory-processing-and-rodent-performance-of-a-visual-signal-detection-task
#4
Rachel L Navarra, Brian D Clark, Andrew T Gargiulo, Barry D Waterhouse
Methylphenidate (MPH) is used clinically to treat attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and off-label as a performance enhancing agent in healthy individuals. MPH enhances catecholamine transmission via blockade of norepinephrine (NE) and dopamine (DA) reuptake transporters. However, it is not clear how this action impacts neural circuits performing cognitive and sensorimotor functions driving performance enhancement. The dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (dLGN) is the primary thalamic relay for visual information from the retina to the cortex and is densely innervated by NE-containing fibers from the locus coeruleus (LC), a pathway known to modulate state-dependent sensory processing...
December 2, 2016: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910824/accelerated-high-resolution-photoacoustic-tomography-via-compressed-sensing
#5
Simon Arridge, Paul Beard, Marta Betcke, Ben Cox, Nam Huynh, Felix Lucka, Olumide Ogunlade, Edward Zhang
Current 3D photoacoustic tomography (PAT) systems offer either high image quality or high frame rates but are not able to deliver high spatial and temporal resolution simultaneously, which limits their ability to image dynamic processes in living tissue (4D PAT). A particular example is the planar Fabry-Pérot (FP) photoacoustic scanner, which yields high-resolution 3D images but takes several minutes to sequentially map the incident photoacoustic field on the 2D sensor plane, point-by-point. However, as the spatio-temporal complexity of many absorbing tissue structures is rather low, the data recorded in such a conventional, regularly sampled fashion is often highly redundant...
December 21, 2016: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910641/real-time-energy-measurement-of-high-repetition-rate-ultrashort-laser-pulses-using-pulse-integration-and-fpga-processing
#6
Qi-Jie Tang, Dong-Xu Yang, Jian Wang, Yi Feng, Hong-Fei Zhang, Teng-Yun Chen
Real-time energy measurement using pulse integration method for high repetition rate ultrashort laser pulses based on FPGA (Field-Programmable Gate Array) and high-speed pipeline ADC (Analog-to-Digital Convertor) is introduced in this paper. There are two parts contained in this method: pulse integration and real-time data processing. The pulse integration circuit will convert the pulse to the step type signals which are linear to the laser pulse energy. Through the real-time data processing part, the amplitude of the step signals will be obtained by ADC sampling and conducting calculation in real time in FPGA...
November 2016: Review of Scientific Instruments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910516/plasma-rotation-in-the-peking-university-plasma-test-device
#7
Chijie Xiao, Yihang Chen, Xiaoyi Yang, Tianchao Xu, Long Wang, Min Xu, Dong Guo, Yi Yu, Chen Lin
Some preliminary results of plasma rotations in a linear plasma experiment device, Peking University Plasma Test (PPT) device, are reported in this paper. PPT has a cylindrical vacuum chamber with 500 mm diameter and 1000 mm length, and a pair of Helmholtz coils which can generate cylindrical or cusp magnetic geometry with magnitude from 0 to 2000 G. Plasma was generated by a helicon source and the typical density is about 10(13) cm(-3) for the argon plasma. Some Langmuir probes, magnetic probes, and one high-speed camera are set up to diagnose the rotational plasmas...
November 2016: Review of Scientific Instruments
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27909800/cognitive-dysfunction-in-adult-patients-with-neuromyelitis-optica-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#8
REVIEW
Hao Meng, Jun Xu, Chenling Pan, Jiaxing Cheng, Yue Hu, Yin Hong, Yuehai Shen, Hua Dai
The objective of this study was to investigate cognitive dysfunction in 24-60-year-old neuromyelitis optica (NMO) patients, demographically matched healthy subjects, and MS patients. We conducted a comprehensive literature review of the PubMed, Medline, EMBASE, CNKI, Wan Fang Date, Web of Science, and Cochrane Library databases from inception to May 2016 for case-control studies that reported cognitive test scores in NMO patients, healthy subjects, and MS patients. Outcome measures were cognitive function evaluations, including performance on attention, language, memory, information processing speed, and executive function tests...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908883/association-between-cognitive-complaints-and-vulnerability-to-environmental-distraction-in-multiple-sclerosis
#9
John J Randolph, Jennifer S Randolph, Heather A Wishart
OBJECTIVE: Individuals with multiple sclerosis (MS) often report cognitive dysfunction, although neuropsychological evaluation findings may not correlate with subjective concerns. One factor that may explain this lack of correspondence is the controlled testing environment, which differs from busier settings where cognitive lapses are noted to occur. This study used a novel environmental manipulation to determine whether individuals with MS who report cognitive dysfunction are more vulnerable to the effects of auditory distraction during neuropsychological testing...
December 1, 2016: Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology: the Official Journal of the National Academy of Neuropsychologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908748/the-chemotherapeutic-agent-paclitaxel-selectively-impairs-learning-while-sparing-source-memory-and-spatial-memory
#10
Alexandra E Smith, Richard A Slivicki, Andrea G Hohmann, Jonathon D Crystal
: Chemotherapeutic agents are widely used to treat patients with systemic cancer. The efficacy of these therapies is undermined by their adverse side-effect profiles such as cognitive deficits that have a negative impact on the quality of life of cancer survivors. Cognitive side effects occur across a variety of domains, including memory, executive function, and processing speed. Such impairments are exacerbated under cognitive challenges and a subgroup of patients experience long-term impairments...
November 28, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27907996/probabilistic-information-transmission-in-a-network-of-coupled-oscillators-reveals-speed-accuracy-trade-off-in-responding-to-threats
#11
Amanda Chicoli, Derek A Paley
Individuals in a group may obtain information from other group members about the environment, including the location of a food source or the presence of a predator. Here, we model how information spreads in a group using a susceptible-infected-removed epidemic model. We apply this model to a simulated shoal of fish using the motion dynamics of a coupled oscillator model, in order to test the biological hypothesis that polarized or aligned shoaling leads to faster and more accurate escape responses. The contributions of this study are the (i) application of a probabilistic model of epidemics to the study of collective animal behavior; (ii) testing the biological hypothesis that group cohesion improves predator escape; (iii) quantification of the effect of social cues on startle propagation; and (iv) investigation of the variation in response based on network connectivity...
November 2016: Chaos
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906965/do-elite-and-amateur-soccer-players-outperform-non-athletes-on-neurocognitive-functioning-a-study-among-8-12-year-old-children
#12
Lot Verburgh, Erik J A Scherder, Paul A M Van Lange, Jaap Oosterlaan
AIM: Research suggested a positive association between physical fitness and neurocognitive functioning in children. Aim of the present study is to investigate possible dose-response relationships between diverse daily physical activities and a broad range of neurocognitive functions in preadolescent children. Furthermore, the relationship between several sedentary behaviours, including TV-watching, gaming and computer time, and neurocognitive functioning will be investigated in this group of children...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906377/lock-in-detection-of-photoacoustic-feedback-signal-for-focusing-through-scattering-media-using-wave-front-shaping
#13
Omer Tzang, Rafael Piestun
Wave-front shaping techniques enable focusing and imaging through scattering media. Unfortunately, most approaches require invasive feedback inside or behind the sample, or use of spatial correlations (memory effect) limiting the application to specific types of samples. Recent approaches overcome these limitations by taking advantage of acoustic waves via the photoacoustic (PA) effect or via photon tagging. We present a fully analog signal processing lock-in scheme for PA detection to improve focusing through scattering media and to efficiently extract nonlinear photoacoustic signals towards wave-front optimization...
November 28, 2016: Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906329/self-healing-highly-chirped-fiber-laser-at-1-0-%C3%AE-m
#14
Xiaoming Wei, Cihang Kong, Goutam K Samanta, Kevin K Tsia, Kenneth K Y Wong
We demonstrate a MHz wavelength-swept fiber laser with diffraction-free and self-healing properties at the bio-favorable wavelength window of 1.0 μm. This ultrafast wavelength sweeping at a high chirp rate is all-optically realized through a newly-designed dispersive fiber that can provide a dispersion amount up to -1.7 ns/nm. It is 8 times larger than the standard single-mode fiber at this window and by adopting a double-pass configuration, the dispersion amount can be further increased to about -3.5 ns/nm, which is 23 times larger than what has previously been demonstrated...
November 28, 2016: Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906316/ring-modulators-with-enhanced-efficiency-based-on-standing-wave-operation-on-a-field-matched-interdigitated-p-n-junction
#15
Fabio Pavanello, Xiaoge Zeng, Mark T Wade, Miloš A Popović
We propose ring modulators based on interdigitated p-n junctions that exploit standing rather than traveling-wave resonant modes to improve modulation efficiency, insertion loss and speed. Matching the longitudinal nodes and antinodes of a standing-wave mode with high (contacts) and low (depletion regions) carrier density regions, respectively, simultaneously lowers loss and increases sensitivity significantly. This approach permits further to relax optical constraints on contacts placement and can lead to lower device capacitance...
November 28, 2016: Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903935/impairment-of-decision-making-in-multiple-sclerosis-a-neuroeconomic-approach
#16
Maria Sepúlveda, Begoña Fernández-Diez, Elena H Martínez-Lapiscina, Sara Llufriu, Nuria Sola-Valls, Irati Zubizarreta, Yolanda Blanco, Albert Saiz, Dino Levy, Paul Glimcher, Pablo Villoslada
OBJECTIVE: To assess the decision-making impairment in patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) and how they relate to other cognitive domains. METHODS: We performed a cross-sectional analysis in 84 patients with MS, and 21 matched healthy controls using four tasks taken from behavioral economics: (1) risk preferences, (2) choice consistency, (3) delay of gratification, and (4) rate of learning. All tasks were conducted using real-world reward outcomes (food or money) in different real-life conditions...
November 30, 2016: Multiple Sclerosis: Clinical and Laboratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903884/real-time-determination-of-bacterial-in-vivo-ribosome-translation-elongation-speed-based-on-lacz%C3%AE-complementation-system
#17
Manlu Zhu, Xiongfeng Dai, Yi-Ping Wang
Bacterial growth significantly depends on protein synthesis catalyzed by ribosome. Ribosome translation elongation speed is a key factor determining the bacterial protein synthesis rate. However, existing methods for determining translation elongation speed have limited applications. Here we developed a simple and convenient method for measuring bacterial translation elongation speed based on LacZα complementation system. It enables the measurement of in vivo translation elongation speed of different individual genes...
November 16, 2016: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902848/topiramate-in-migraine-prevention-a-2016-perspective
#18
Stephen D Silberstein
BACKGROUND: In evidence-based guidelines published in 2000, topiramate was a third-tier migraine preventive with no scientific evidence of efficacy; recommendation for its use reflected consensus opinion and clinical experience. Its neurostabilizing activity, coupled with its favorable weight profile, made topiramate an attractive alternative to other migraine preventives that caused weight gain. When guidelines for migraine prevention in episodic migraine were published in 2012, topiramate was included as a first-line option based on double-blind, randomized controlled trials involving nearly 3000 patients...
November 30, 2016: Headache
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902677/perception-of-fechner-illusory-colors-in-alzheimer-disease-patients
#19
Gintaras Kaubrys, Vera Bukina, Ieva Bingelytė, Vladas Taluntis
BACKGROUND Alzheimer disease (AD) primarily affects cognition. A variety of visual disorders was established in AD. Fechner illusory colors are produced by a rotating disk with a black and white pattern. The purpose of our research was to explore the perception of illusory colors in AD. MATERIAL AND METHODS W recruited 40 AD patients (MMSE ≥14) and 40 normal controls (CG group) matched by age, education, gender in this prospective, cross-sectional, case-control study. An achromatic Benham's disk attached to a device to control the speed and direction of rotation was used to produce illusory colors...
November 30, 2016: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901214/predictors-of-response-in-the-treatment-of-moderate-depression
#20
Andre G Bastos, Luciano S Guimarães, Clarissa M Trentini
Objective: To identify neurocognitive and sociodemographic variables that could be associated with clinical response to three modalities of treatment for depression, as well as variables that predicted superior response to one treatment over the others. Method: The present study derives from a research project in which depressed patients (n=272) received one of three treatments - long-term psychodynamic psychotherapy (n=90), fluoxetine therapy (n=91), or a combination thereof (n=91) - over a 24-month period...
November 24, 2016: Revista Brasileira de Psiquiatria
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