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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334645/co-morbid-depressive-disorder-is-associated-with-better-neurocognitive-performance-in-first-episode-schizophrenia-spectrum
#1
Sarah E Herniman, Sue M Cotton, Eóin Killackey, Robert Hester, Kelly A Allott
BACKGROUND: Both major depressive disorder (MDD) and first episode schizophrenia spectrum (FES) are associated with significant neurocognitive deficits. However, it remains unclear whether the neurocognitive deficits in individuals with FES are more severe if there is comorbid depressive disorder. The aim of this study was to compare the neurocognitive profiles between those with and without full-threshold depressive disorder in FES. METHOD: This study involved secondary analysis of baseline data from a randomized controlled trial of vocational intervention for young people with first-episode psychosis (N = 82; age range: 15-25 years)...
January 3, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334322/plasma-brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-pbdnf-and-executive-dysfunctions-in-patients-with-major-depressive-disorder
#2
Stefanie Wagner, Sarah Kayser, Jan Engelmann, Konrad F Schlicht, Nadine Dreimüller, Oliver Tüscher, Florian Müller-Dahlhaus, Dieter F Braus, André Tadić, Alexandra Neyazi, Helge Frieling, Klaus Lieb
OBJECTIVES: Executive dysfunctions are frequently seen in patients with Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) and normalize in many cases during effective antidepressant therapy. This study investigated whether a normalization of executive dysfunctions during antidepressant treatment correlates with or can be predicted by clinical parameters or levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). METHODS: In 110 MDD patients with executive dysfunctions (percentile < 16), executive functions and plasma BDNF levels were analysed at baseline, day 14 and 56 of an antidepressant treatment...
January 15, 2018: World Journal of Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334148/self-powered-si-cds-flexible-photodetector-with-broadband-response-from-325-to-1550-nm-based-on-pyro-phototronic-effect-an-approach-for-photosensing-below-bandgap-energy
#3
Yejing Dai, Xingfu Wang, Wenbo Peng, Cheng Xu, Changsheng Wu, Kai Dong, Ruiyuan Liu, Zhong Lin Wang
Cadmium sulfide (CdS) has received widespread attention as the building block of optoelectronic devices due to its extraordinary optoelectronic properties, low work function, and excellent thermal and chemical stability. Here, a self-powered flexible photodetector (PD) based on p-Si/n-CdS nanowires heterostructure is fabricated. By introducing the pyro-phototronic effect derived from wurtzite structured CdS, the self-powered PD shows a broadband response range, even beyond the bandgap limitation, from UV (325 nm) to near infrared (1550 nm) under zero bias with fast response speed...
January 15, 2018: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333754/a-guide-to-analysis-and-reconstruction-of-serial-block-face-scanning-electron-microscopy-data
#4
E Cocks, M Taggart, F C Rind, K White
Serial block face scanning electron microscopy (SBF-SEM) is a relatively new technique that allows the acquisition of serially sectioned, imaged and digitally aligned ultrastructural data. There is a wealth of information that can be obtained from the resulting image stacks but this presents a new challenge for researchers - how to computationally analyse and make best use of the large datasets produced. One approach is to reconstruct structures and features of interest in 3D. However, the software programmes can appear overwhelming, time-consuming and not intuitive for those new to image analysis...
January 15, 2018: Journal of Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333480/gpu-based-branchless-distance-driven-projection-and-backprojection
#5
Rui Liu, Lin Fu, Bruno De Man, Hengyong Yu
Projection and backprojection operations are essential in a variety of image reconstruction and physical correction algorithms in CT. The distance-driven (DD) projection and backprojection are widely used for their highly sequential memory access pattern and low arithmetic cost. However, a typical DD implementation has an inner loop that adjusts the calculation depending on the relative position between voxel and detector cell boundaries. The irregularity of the branch behavior makes it inefficient to be implemented on massively parallel computing devices such as graphics processing units (GPUs)...
December 2017: IEEE Transactions on Computational Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331931/resting-state-fmri-signals-in-offspring-of-parents-with-bipolar-disorder-at-the-high-risk-and-ultra-high-risk-stages-and-their-relations-with-cognitive-function
#6
Kangguang Lin, Robin Shao, Rui Lu, Kun Chen, Weicong Lu, Ting Li, Jiehua Kong, Kwok-Fai So, Guiyun Xu
BACKGROUND: Bipolar disorder (BD) has been associated with dysfunctional resting-state brain functioning. However, it is still not known whether the aberrant functioning occurs and predict cognitive functioning before illness onset. AIMS: We examined the resting-state regional and network dysfunctioning, and their correlates with neurocognitive performance, in the high-risk (HR) and ultra-high-risk (UHR) stages of bipolar disorder. METHODS: Using amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (ALFF), region homogeneity (ReHo) and hypothesis-driven region-of-interest (ROI)-based connectivity, we examined resting-state fMRI data of 8- to 25-year-old healthy offspring (HR, n = 28) and offspring with subthreshold syndromes (UHR, n = 22) of a BD parent, and age-matched healthy controls without any personal or family psychopathology (HC, n = 46)...
January 8, 2018: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331852/no-time-to-waste-organic-waste-nanosizing-converts-remains-of-food-processing-into-refined-materials
#7
Sharoon Griffin, Muhammad Sarfraz, Verda Farida, Muhammad Jawad Nasim, Azubuike P Ebokaiwe, Cornelia M Keck, Claus Jacob
Modern food processing results in considerable amounts of side-products, such as grape seeds, walnut shells, spent coffee grounds, and harvested tomato plants. These materials are still rich in valuable and biologically active substances and therefore of interest from the perspective of waste management and "up-cycling". In contrast to traditional, often time consuming and low-value uses, such as vermicomposting and anaerobic digestion, the complete conversion into nanosuspensions unlocks considerable potentials of and new applications for such already spent organic materials without the need of extraction and without producing any additional waste...
January 11, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331153/is-cognitive-impairment-associated-with-antipsychotic-dose-and-anticholinergic-equivalent-loads-in-first-episode-psychosis
#8
Alejandro Ballesteros, Ana M Sánchez-Torres, Jose M López-Ilundain, Bibiana Cabrera, Antonio Lobo, Ana M González-Pinto, Covadonga Díaz-Caneja, Iluminada Corripio, Eduard Vieta, Elena de la Serna, Julio Bobes, Judith Usall, Fernando Contreras, Ruth Lorente-Omeñaca, Gisela Mezquida, Miguel Bernardo, Manuel J Cuesta
BACKGROUND: Cognitive deficits are a core feature of early stages in schizophrenia. However, the extent to which antipsychotic (AP) have a deleterious effect on cognitive performance remains under debate. We aim to investigate whether anticholinergic loadings and dose of AP drugs in first episode of psychosis (FEP) in advanced phase of remission are associated with cognitive impairment and the differences between premorbid intellectual quotient (IQ) subgroups. METHODS: Two hundred and sixty-six patients participated...
January 14, 2018: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330775/a-peg-based-method-for-the-isolation-of-urinary-exosomes-and-its-application-in-renal-fibrosis-diagnostics-using-cargo-mir-29c-and-mir-21-analysis
#9
Chun-Yan Lv, Wei-Jun Ding, Yi-Li Wang, Zi-Yi Zhao, Jin-Hui Li, Yan Chen, Jiao Lv
PURPOSE: To assess a new and highly specific, but low-cost, easily performed and suitable for large-scale applications method for renal fibrosis (RF) diagnostics. METHODS: Thirty-five RF and twenty non-RF patients were enrolled in the study. An appropriate polyethylene glycol (PEG) was used to isolate urinary exosomes. The efficiency of isolation process was evaluated by the morphology and size observation, as well as the detection of specific markers (CD63, CD9)...
January 12, 2018: International Urology and Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329910/the-effects-of-exercise-intensity-and-post-exercise-recovery-time-on-cortical-activation-as-revealed-by-eeg-alpha-peak-frequency
#10
B Gutmann, P Zimmer, T Hülsdünker, J Lefebvre, S Binnebößel, M Oberste, W Bloch, H K Strüder, A Mierau
Acute physical exercise (APE) induces an increase in the individual alpha peak frequency (iAPF), a cortical parameter associated with neural information processing speed. The aim of this study was to further scrutinize the influence of different APE intensities on post-exercise iAPF as well as its time course after exercise cessation. 95 healthy young (18-35 years) subjects participated in two randomized controlled experiments (EX1 and EX2). In EX1, all participants completed a graded exercise test (GXT) until exhaustion and were randomly allocated into different delay groups (immediately 0, 30, 60 and 90 minutes after GXT)...
January 9, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329424/brassinosteroids-regulate-pavement-cell-growth-by-mediating-bin2-induced-microtubule-stabilization
#11
Xiaolei Liu, Qin Yang, Yuan Wang, Linhai Wang, Ying Fu, Xuelu Wang
Brassinosteroids (BRs), a group of plant steroid hormones, play important roles in regulating plant development. The cytoskeleton also affects key developmental processes and a deficiency in BR biosynthesis or signaling leads to abnormal phenotypes similar to those of microtubule-defective mutants. However, how BRs regulate microtubule and cell morphology remains unknown. Here, using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, we identified tubulin proteins that interact with Arabidopsis BRASSINOSTEROID INSENSITIVE2 (BIN2), a negative regulator of BR responses in plants...
January 10, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328958/stdp-based-spiking-deep-convolutional-neural-networks-for-object-recognition
#12
Saeed Reza Kheradpisheh, Mohammad Ganjtabesh, Simon J Thorpe, Timothée Masquelier
Previous studies have shown that spike-timing-dependent plasticity (STDP) can be used in spiking neural networks (SNN) to extract visual features of low or intermediate complexity in an unsupervised manner. These studies, however, used relatively shallow architectures, and only one layer was trainable. Another line of research has demonstrated - using rate-based neural networks trained with back-propagation - that having many layers increases the recognition robustness, an approach known as deep learning. We thus designed a deep SNN, comprising several convolutional (trainable with STDP) and pooling layers...
December 23, 2017: Neural Networks: the Official Journal of the International Neural Network Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328790/hospital-stay-and-blood-transfusion-in-elderly-patients-with-hip-fractures
#13
Efthymios Iliopoulos, Sohail Yousaf, Hazel Watters, Arshad Khaleel
Neck of femur (NOF) fractures in elderly patients are the most frequent condition which an orthopaedic surgeon confronts nowadays. The incidence of these fractures is increasing as the population continues to age. These patients absorb the majority of the resources in the hospitals, as their healthcare demands are increased. This study included all patients who were admitted to our hospital between January and October 2015 following a neck of femur fracture. A total of 336 patients were included (72.3% female)...
December 2017: Journal of Perioperative Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328329/speeding-up-raman-spectral-imaging-by-the-three-dimensional-low-rank-estimation-method
#14
Qifeng Li, Xiangyun Ma, Huijie Wang, Yang Wang, Xinwei Zheng, Da Chen
Raman spectral imaging has been widely used as a very important analytical tool in various fields. For obtaining the high spectral signal-to-noise ratio Raman images, the long integration time is necessary, which is placing a limit on the application of Raman spectral imaging. We introduce a simple and feasible numerical method of the Three-dimensional Low Rank Estimation (3D-LRE), which can speed up the data acquisition process of the Raman spectral imaging. The spectral signal-to-noise ratio of the Raman images can be increased by over 75 times and the speed of the data acquisition can be improved by over 30 times...
January 8, 2018: Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328311/status-analysis-of-keyhole-bottom-in-laser-mag-hybrid-welding-process
#15
Lin Wang, Xiangdong Gao, Ziqin Chen
The keyhole status is a determining factor of weld quality in laser-metal active gas arc (MAG) hybrid welding process. For a better evaluation of the hybrid welding process, three different penetration welding experiments: partial penetration, normal penetration (or full penetration), and excessive penetration were conducted in this work. The instantaneous visual phenomena including metallic vapor, spatters and keyhole of bottom surface were used to evaluate the keyhole status by a double high-speed camera system...
January 8, 2018: Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328265/in-fiber-high-speed-recognition-of-incoherent-light-broadband-energy-spectrum-patterns
#16
Jeonghyun Huh, José Azaña
A fiber-optic system is proposed and experimentally demonstrated for real-time, on-the-fly identification of an incoherent-light energy spectrum pattern based on dispersion-induced time-spectrum convolution. In the proposed system, the incoming frequency-spectrum patterns to be identified are modulated by a time-mapped version of the target intensity profile. Following propagation through a suitable fiber-optic dispersive medium, the measured output temporal waveform provides a correlation of the incoming spectra with the programmed target pattern...
January 15, 2018: Optics Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328182/mechano-optical-modulator-based-on-a-rotating-optical-flat-applied-to-simultaneous-holographic-multiplexing-of-gratings
#17
Jan Matrisch, Stefan Altmeyer
Simultaneous holographic multiplexing methods are used to store multiple holograms concurrently into one holographic volume. Compared to serial exposure, one advantage is the higher processing speed. Additionally, for parallel exposure the different gratings develop in a linear relation to one another, although the developing process itself is nonlinear caused by the holographic photopolymer. A mechano-optical modulator using a rotating optical flat is introduced to enable economic single-shot exposure of centimeter to decimeter-sized holograms utilizing only one laser...
January 10, 2018: Applied Optics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328148/fast-occlusion-processing-for-a-polygon-based-computer-generated-hologram-using-the-slice-by-slice-silhouette-method
#18
Jung-Ping Liu, Heng-Kuang Liao
In a polygon-based computer-generated hologram (CGH), the three-dimensional (3D) model is represented as a polygon, which consists of numerous small facets. Lighting effect, material texture, and surface property can be included in the polygonal model, which enables polygon-based CGH to realize high-fidelity 3D display. On the other hand, the occlusion effect is an important depth cue for 3D display. In polygon-based CGH, however, occlusion processing is difficult and time-consuming work. In this paper, we proposed a simple and fast occlusion processing method, the slice-by-slice silhouette (S3) method, for generating the occlusion effect in polygon-based CGH...
January 1, 2018: Applied Optics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29327497/congenital-central-hypoventilation-syndrome-broader-cognitive-deficits-revealed-by-parent-controls
#19
Frank A Zelko, Tracey M Stewart, Cindy D Brogadir, Casey M Rand, Debra E Weese-Mayer
OBJECTIVE: To investigate neurocognitive deficits in children with Congenital Central Hypoventilation Syndrome (CCHS) by comparing them to their parents, since parents comprise a particularly suitable control group matched on disease-extrinsic factors that can influence neurocognitive functioning. We compared CCHS patients to their parents and to population norms, hypothesizing that they would obtain lower intelligence test scores than both groups. We also compared patient-parent differences against patient-normative differences, to determine whether the two analytic approaches would yield different results...
January 12, 2018: Pediatric Pulmonology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326508/effect-of-ultraviolet-irradiation-on-the-osseointegration-of-a-titanium-alloy-with-bone
#20
Ashish Yadav, Ranjana Yadav, Aratee Gupta, Akash Baranwal, Atul Bhatnagar, Vakil Singh
Introduction: Attempt has been made to analyze the potential of titanium (Ti) alloy for osteointegration by the effect of surface photo functionalization in different aspects as follows: in Ringer's solution, in vitro cell growth, and in vivo study on rabbit. The present study was aimed to investigate the influence of ultraviolet (UV) light on surface topography, corrosion behavior, and bioactivity of indigenously manufactured samples of Ti alloy mini-implant. Materials and Methods: The study includes surface modification of Ti samples by UV treatment, corrosion testing of the specimens using Potentiostat (GAMRY System), qualitative examination of modified surface topography using scanning electron microscope, and cellular viability test on Ti alloy surface (3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide ASSAY)...
October 2017: Contemporary Clinical Dentistry
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