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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166155/drivers-of-diversification-in-individual-life-courses
#1
Raisa Hernández-Pacheco, Ulrich K Steiner
Heterogeneity in life courses among individuals of a population influences the speed of adaptive evolutionary processes, but it is less clear how biotic and abiotic environmental fluctuations influence such heterogeneity. We investigate principal drivers of variability in sequence of stages during an individual's life in a stage-structured population. We quantify heterogeneity by measuring population entropy of a Markov chain, which computes the rate of diversification of individual life courses. Using individual data of a primate population, we show that density regulates the stage composition of the population but that its entropy and the generating moments of heterogeneity are independent of density...
December 2017: American Naturalist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165914/solution-processed-wide-bandgap-organic-semiconductor-nanostructures-arrays-for-nonvolatile-organic-field-effect-transistor-memory
#2
Wen Li, Fengning Guo, Haifeng Ling, Hui Liu, Mingdong Yi, Peng Zhang, Wenjun Wang, Linghai Xie, Wei Huang
In this paper, the development of organic field-effect transistor (OFET) memory device based on isolated and ordered nanostructures (NSs) arrays of wide-bandgap (WBG) small-molecule organic semiconductor material [2-(9-(4-(octyloxy)phenyl)-9H-fluoren-2-yl)thiophene]3 (WG3 ) is reported. The WG3 NSs are prepared from phase separation by spin-coating blend solutions of WG3 /trimethylolpropane (TMP), and then introduced as charge storage elements for nonvolatile OFET memory devices. Compared to the OFET memory device with smooth WG3 film, the device based on WG3 NSs arrays exhibits significant improvements in memory performance including larger memory window (≈45 V), faster switching speed (≈1 s), stable retention capability (>10(4) s), and reliable switching properties...
November 22, 2017: Small
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165708/separase-prevents-genomic-instability-by-controlling-replication-fork-speed
#3
Francesco Cucco, Elisa Palumbo, Serena Camerini, Barbara D'Alessio, Valentina Quarantotti, Maria Luisa Casella, Ilaria Maria Rizzo, Dubravka Cukrov, Domenico Delia, Antonella Russo, Marco Crescenzi, Antonio Musio
Proper chromosome segregation is crucial for preserving genomic integrity, and errors in this process cause chromosome mis-segregation, which may contribute to cancer development. Sister chromatid separation is triggered by Separase, an evolutionary conserved protease that cleaves the cohesin complex, allowing the dissolution of sister chromatid cohesion. Here we provide evidence that Separase participates in genomic stability maintenance by controlling replication fork speed. We found that Separase interacted with the replication licensing factors MCM2-7, and genome-wide data showed that Separase co-localized with MCM complex and cohesin...
November 20, 2017: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165577/quantitative-mri-brain-in-congenital-adrenal-hyperplasia-in-vivo-assessment-of-the-cognitive-and-structural-impact-of-steroid-hormones
#4
Emma A Webb, Lucy Elliott, Dominic Carlin, Martin Wilson, Kirsty Hall, Jennifer Netherton, Julie Reed, Tim G Barrett, Vijay Salwani, Jon D Clayden, Wiebke Arlt, Nils Krone, Andrew C Peet, Amanda G Wood
Context: Brain white matter hyper-intensities are seen on routine clinical imaging in 46% of adults with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH). The extent and functional relevance of these abnormalities have not been studied using quantitative MRI analysis. Objective: To examine white matter microstructure, neural volumes and CNS metabolites in CAH due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency (21OHD) and to determine whether identified abnormalities are associated with cognition, glucocorticoid and androgen exposure...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29165040/a-code-for-transcription-elongation-speed
#5
Eyal Cohen, Zohar Zafrir, Tamir Tuller
The two major steps of gene expression are transcription and translation. While hundreds of studies regarding the effect of sequence features on the translation elongation process have been published, very few connect sequence features to the transcription elongation rate. We suggest, for the first time, that short transcript sub-sequences have a typical effect on RNA polymerase (RNAP) speed: we show that nucleotide 5-mers tend to have typical RNAP speed (or transcription rate), which is consistent along different parts of genes and among different groups of genes with high correlation...
November 22, 2017: RNA Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163865/associations-between-neurocognitive-functioning-and-social-and-occupational-resilience-among-south-african-women-exposed-to-childhood-trauma
#6
C A Denckla, N S Consedine, G Spies, M Cherner, D C Henderson, K C Koenen, S Seedat
Background: Prior research on adaptation after early trauma among black South African women typically assessed resilience in ways that lacked contextual specificity. In addition, the neurocognitive correlates of social and occupational resilience have not been investigated. Objective: The primary aim of this exploratory study was to identify domains of neurocognitive functioning associated with social and occupational resilience, defined as functioning at a level beyond what would be expected given exposure to childhood trauma...
2017: European Journal of Psychotraumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163246/screening-protocol-for-early-identification-of-brazilian-children-at-risk-for-dyslexia
#7
Giseli D Germano, Alexandra B P de C César, Simone A Capellini
Early identification of students at risk of dyslexia has been an educational challenge in the past years. This research had two main goals. First, we aimed to develop a screening protocol for early identification of Brazilian children at risk for dyslexia; second, we aimed to identify the predictive variables of this protocol using Principal Component Analysis. The major step involved in developing this protocol was the selection of variables, which were chosen based on the literature review and linguistic criteria...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163132/the-influence-of-negative-emotion-on-cognitive-and-emotional-control-remains-intact-in-aging
#8
Artyom Zinchenko, Christian Obermeier, Philipp Kanske, Erich Schröger, Arno Villringer, Sonja A Kotz
Healthy aging is characterized by a gradual decline in cognitive control and inhibition of interferences, while emotional control is either preserved or facilitated. Emotional control regulates the processing of emotional conflicts such as in irony in speech, and cognitive control resolves conflict between non-affective tendencies. While negative emotion can trigger control processes and speed up resolution of both cognitive and emotional conflicts, we know little about how aging affects the interaction of emotion and control...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29163111/association-between-slip-severity-and-muscle-synergies-of-slipping
#9
Mohammad Moein Nazifi, Kurt E Beschorner, Pilwon Hur
Falls impose significant negative impacts to the US population and economy. A significant number of falls may be prevented via appropriate slip-responses since a strong relation exists between slips and falls. More importantly, as severe slips are more prone to result in a fall, identifying severe slippers along with the responsible factors for their adverse motor control and severe slipping should be the highest priority in fall prevention process. Previous studies have suggested that muscle synergies may be building blocks of the central nervous system in controlling motor tasks...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29162870/hdl-particles-incorporate-into-lipid-bilayers-a-combined-afm-and-single-molecule-fluorescence-microscopy-study
#10
Birgit Plochberger, Clemens Röhrl, Johannes Preiner, Christian Rankl, Mario Brameshuber, Josef Madl, Robert Bittman, Robert Ros, Erdinc Sezgin, Christian Eggeling, Peter Hinterdorfer, Herbert Stangl, Gerhard J Schütz
The process, how lipids are removed from the circulation and transferred from high density lipoprotein (HDL) - a main carrier of cholesterol in the blood stream - to cells, is highly complex. HDL particles are captured from the blood stream by the scavenger receptor, class B, type I (SR-BI), the so-called HDL receptor. The details in subsequent lipid-transfer process, however, have not yet been completely understood. The transfer has been proposed to occur directly at the cell surface across an unstirred water layer, via a hydrophobic channel in the receptor, or after HDL endocytosis...
November 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161998/cognitive-rehabilitation-for-individuals-with-opioid-use-disorder-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#11
Tara Rezapour, Javad Hatami, Ali Farhoudian, Mehmet Sofuoglu, Alireza Noroozi, Reza Daneshmand, Ahmadreza Samiei, Hamed Ekhtiari
AIM: To examine the efficacy of cognitive rehabilitation treatment (CRT) for people with opioid use disorder who were recruited into a methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) programme. METHOD: 120 male subjects were randomly assigned to (1) MMT plus CRT in two months or (2) MMT plus a control intervention. Subjects were assessed at the beginning, mid-point and post-intervention as well as at 1-, 3- and 6-month follow-up time points. RESULTS: Analysis with repeated measure ANOVA showed that the CRT group performed significantly better in tests of learning, switching, processing speed, working memory and memory span...
November 21, 2017: Neuropsychological Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161997/controlling-the-extrudate-swell-in-melt-extrusion-additive-manufacturing-of-3d-scaffolds-a-designed-experiment
#12
Azizeh-Mitra Yousefi, Byran Smucker, Alex Naber, Cara Wyrick, Charles Shaw, Katelyn Bennett, Sarah Szekely, Carlie Focke, Katherine A Wood
Tissue engineering using three-dimensional porous scaffolds has shown promise for the restoration of normal function in injured and diseased tissues and organs. Rigorous control over scaffold architecture in melt extrusion additive manufacturing is highly restricted mainly due to pronounced variations in the deposited strand diameter upon any variations in process conditions and polymer viscoelasticity. We have designed an I-optimal, split-plot experiment to study the extrudate swell in melt extrusion additive manufacturing and to control the scaffold architecture...
November 22, 2017: Journal of Biomaterials Science. Polymer Edition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161634/shielding-effect-in-protein-folding
#13
Adam K Sieradzan, Agnieszka G Lipska, Emilia A Lubecka
One of the most important interactions responsible for protein folding and stability are hydrogen bonds between peptide groups. There is a constant competition between the water molecules and peptide groups in a hydrogen bond formation. Also side-chains take part in this process by reducing hydration of peptide group (shielding effect) that promotes the protein folding. In this paper, a new approach to take into account a shielding effect is presented. A modification of the energy function is derived and incorporated into the UNited RESidue (UNRES) force field...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Molecular Graphics & Modelling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29161113/disseminability-of-computerized-cognitive-training-performance-across-coaches
#14
Ashley S Fournier-Goodnight, Jason M Ashford, Kellie N Clark, Karen Martin-Elbahesh, Kristina K Hardy, Thomas E Merchant, Sima Jeha, Robert J Ogg, Hui Zhang, Lei Wang, Heather M Conklin
Cogmed is a computerized cognitive intervention utilizing coaches who receive standardized instruction in analyzing training indices and tailoring feedback to remotely monitor participant's performance. The goal of this study was to examine adherence, satisfaction, and efficacy of Cogmed across coaches. Survivors of pediatric brain tumors and acute lymphoblastic leukemia (N = 68) were randomized to intervention (Cogmed) or waitlist control. The intervention group was matched with one of two coaches. Cognitive assessments were completed before and after intervention, and participants and caregivers in the intervention group completed satisfaction surveys...
November 21, 2017: Applied Neuropsychology. Child
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160723/automation-of-a-dosing-disc-capsule-filler-from-the-perspective-of-reliability-and-safety
#15
Bernhard Wagner, Thomas Brinz, Stephanie Otterbach, Johannes Khinast
The aim of this paper is to explore the possibility to develop an automatically adjustable, reliable and safe capsule filling operation. Process parameters that are critical for the tamping pin process were reviewed based on the literature and via experiment. Dosing disc height, powder bed height, machine speed, pressure on the tamping pin and immersion depth were reviewed. Two investigations were performed on a GKF 702. In the first one, the powder feed rate onto the dosing disc was examined and modified. A distance sensor with a PID controller enabled a constant powder bed level with an online changeable set point...
November 21, 2017: Drug Development and Industrial Pharmacy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159915/performance-of-a-hybrid-monte-carlo-pencil-beam-dose-algorithm-for-proton-therapy-inverse-planning
#16
Ana María Barragán Montero, Kevin Souris, Daniel Sánchez Parcerisa, Edmond Sterpin, John Aldo Lee
PURPOSE: Analytical algorithms have a limited accuracy when modelling very heterogeneous tumor sites. This work addresses the performance of a hybrid dose optimizer that combines both Monte Carlo (MC) and pencil beam (PB) dose engines to get the best trade-off between speed and accuracy for proton therapy plans. METHODS: The hybrid algorithm calculates the optimal spot weights (w) by means of an iterative optimization process where the dose at each iteration is computed by using a precomputed dose influence matrix based on the conventional PB plus a correction term c obtained from a MC simulation...
November 21, 2017: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159598/etox-allies-an-automated-pipeline-for-linear-interaction-energy-based-simulations
#17
Luigi Capoferri, Marc van Dijk, Ariën S Rustenburg, Tsjerk A Wassenaar, Derk P Kooi, Eko A Rifai, Nico P E Vermeulen, Daan P Geerke
BACKGROUND: Computational methods to predict binding affinities of small ligands toward relevant biological (off-)targets are helpful in prioritizing the screening and synthesis of new drug candidates, thereby speeding up the drug discovery process. However, use of ligand-based approaches can lead to erroneous predictions when structural and dynamic features of the target substantially affect ligand binding. Free energy methods for affinity computation can include steric and electrostatic protein-ligand interactions, solvent effects, and thermal fluctuations, but often they are computationally demanding and require a high level of supervision...
November 21, 2017: Journal of Cheminformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159589/the-effect-of-mindfulness-based-stress-reduction-on-wound-healing-a-preliminary-study
#18
Astrid Meesters, Yvo M C In den Bosch-Meevissen, Chantal A H Weijzen, Wim A Buurman, Mario Losen, Jan Schepers, Monique R T M Thissen, Hugo J E M Alberts, Casper G Schalkwijk, Madelon L Peters
Psychological factors have been shown to influence the process of wound healing. This study examined the effect of Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) on the speed of wound healing. The local production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and growth factors was studied as potential underlying mechanism. Forty-nine adults were randomly allocated to a waiting-list control group (n = 26) or an 8-week MBSR group (n = 23). Pre- and post-intervention/waiting period assessment for both groups consisted of questionnaires...
November 20, 2017: Journal of Behavioral Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159136/determination-of-the-critical-values-of-flow-parameters-characteristic-of-the-alignment-of-cylindrical-nano-objects-in-suspensions
#19
Alexander A Loshkarev, Maria F Vlasova, Natalya I Sapronova, Yuri M Tokunov, Ivan A Volkov, Victor V Ivanov, Thomas Maeder
A method for determining the critical values of the flow speed and the flow constriction degree characteristic of the alignment of cylindrical nano-objects in a flowing suspension is proposed. Previously, the alignment process of cylindrical nano-objects in suspensions was investigated by using birefringence of the polarized light and the small-angle X-ray scattering. While both methods are suitable for measuring the alignment degree of cylindrical nano-objects in suspensions diluted down to low concentrations, they are restricted for the application to undiluted concentrated suspensions because of non-transparency and multiple scattering of X-rays...
2017: MethodsX
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29159048/resting-state-connectivity-and-executive-functions-after-pediatric-arterial-ischemic-stroke
#20
Salome Kornfeld, Rui Yuan, Bharat B Biswal, Sebastian Grunt, Sandeep Kamal, Juan Antonio Delgado Rodríguez, Mária Regényi, Roland Wiest, Christian Weisstanner, Claus Kiefer, Maja Steinlin, Regula Everts
Background: The aim of this study was to compare the relationship between core executive functions and frontoparietal network connections at rest between children who had suffered an arterial ischemic stroke and typically developing peers. Methods: Children diagnosed with arterial ischemic stroke more than two years previously and typically developing controls were included. Executive function (EF) measures comprised inhibition (Go-NoGo task), fluency (category fluency task), processing speed (processing speed tasks), divided attention, working memory (letter-number sequencing), conceptual reasoning (matrices) and EF in everyday life (questionnaire)...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
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