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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088647/the-developmental-relationship-between-specific-cognitive-domains-and-grey-matter-in-the-cerebellum
#1
Dorothea M Moore, Anila M D'Mello, Lauren M McGrath, Catherine J Stoodley
There is growing evidence that the cerebellum is involved in cognition and cognitive development, yet little is known about the developmental relationship between cerebellar structure and cognitive subdomains in children. We used voxel-based morphometry to assess the relationship between cerebellar grey matter (GM) and language, reading, working memory, executive function, and processing speed in 110 individuals aged 8-17 years from the Pediatric Imaging, Neurocognition, and Genetics (PING) Study. Further, we examined the effect of age on the relationships between cerebellar GM and cognition...
December 21, 2016: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088064/improved-cognition-while-cycling-in-parkinson-s-disease-patients-and-healthy-adults
#2
Audrey A Hazamy, Lori J P Altmann, Elizabeth Stegemöller, Dawn Bowers, Hyo Keun Lee, Jonathan Wilson, Michael S Okun, Chris J Hass
Persons with Parkinson's disease (PD) are typically more susceptible than healthy adults to impaired performance when two tasks (dual task interference) are performed simultaneously. This limitation has by many experts been attributed to limitations in cognitive resources. Nearly all studies of dual task performance in PD employ walking or balance-based motor tasks, which are commonly impaired in PD. These tasks can be performed using a combination of one or two executive function tasks. The current study examined whether persons with PD would demonstrate greater dual task effects (DTEs) on cognition compared to healthy older adults (HOAs) during a concurrent cycling task...
January 11, 2017: Brain and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087827/neuropsychological-outcome-following-frontal-lobectomy-for-pharmacoresistant-epilepsy-in-adults
#3
Robyn M Busch, Darlene P Floden, Lisa Ferguson, Shamseldeen Mahmoud, Audrina Mullane, Stephen Jones, Lara Jehi, William Bingaman, Imad M Najm
OBJECTIVE: This retrospective cohort study characterized cognitive and motor outcomes in a large sample of adults who underwent frontal lobe resections for treatment of pharmacoresistant epilepsy. METHODS: Ninety patients who underwent unilateral frontal lobe resection for epilepsy (42 language-dominant hemisphere/48 nondominant hemisphere) between 1989 and 2014 completed comprehensive preoperative and postoperative neuropsychological evaluations that included measures of verbal and nonverbal intellectual functioning, attention/working memory, processing speed, language, executive functioning, verbal and visual memory, and motor functioning...
January 13, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087497/developing-nutrition-label-reading-skills-a-web-based-practice-approach
#4
Lisa M Soederberg Miller, Laurel A Beckett, Jacqueline J Bergman, Machelle D Wilson, Elizabeth A Applegate, Tanja N Gibson
BACKGROUND: Nutrition labels offer the information needed to follow Dietary Guidelines for Americans, yet many individuals use labels infrequently or ineffectively due to limited comprehension and the effort required to use them. OBJECTIVE: The objective of our study was to develop and test a Web-based label-reading training tool to improve individuals' ability to use labels to select more healthful foods. We were particularly interested in determining whether practice can lead to increased accuracy using labels as well as decreased effort, together reflecting greater efficiency...
January 13, 2017: Journal of Medical Internet Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087321/enteric-nervous-system-development-a-crest-cell-s-journey-from-neural-tube-to-colon
#5
REVIEW
Nandor Nagy, Allan M Goldstein
The enteric nervous system (ENS) is comprised of a network of neurons and glial cells that are responsible for coordinating many aspects of gastrointestinal (GI) function. These cells arise from the neural crest, migrate to the gut, and then continue their journey to colonize the entire length of the GI tract. Our understanding of the molecular and cellular events that regulate these processes has advanced significantly over the past several decades, in large part facilitated by the use of rodents, avians, and zebrafish as model systems to dissect the signals and pathways involved...
January 10, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086901/gpu-accelerated-voxel-driven-forward-projection-for-iterative-reconstruction-of-cone-beam-ct
#6
Yi Du, Gongyi Yu, Xincheng Xiang, Xiangang Wang
BACKGROUND: For cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT), which has been playing an important role in clinical applications, iterative reconstruction algorithms are able to provide advantageous image qualities over the classical FDK. However, the computational speed of iterative reconstruction is a notable issue for CBCT, of which the forward projection calculation is one of the most time-consuming components. METHOD AND RESULTS: In this study, the cone-beam forward projection problem using the voxel-driven model is analysed, and a GPU-based acceleration method for CBCT forward projection is proposed with the method rationale and implementation workflow detailed as well...
January 5, 2017: Biomedical Engineering Online
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28081075/dual-focus-coherent-anti-stokes-raman-scattering-microscopy-using-a-compact-two-beam-fiber-laser-source
#7
Fisseha Bekele Legesse, Tobias Meyer, Sandro Heuke, Thomas Gottschall, Torbjörn Pascher, Jens Limpert, Andreas Tünnermann, Michael Schmitt, Jürgen Popp
We have developed a dual-focus coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) microscope based on a dual output, compact fiber laser source. The underlying concepts of time-multiplexed, two-beam scanning and demultiplexed detection that we already employed for second-harmonic generation are here naturally extended for CARS microscopy. The layout of a robust, all-fiber laser source was reconfigured to provide two outputs, each containing the two colors necessary for the CARS process. The utilization of the design for simultaneously imaging two laterally or axially separated fields of view and, thus, inherently speeding up the image acquisition process, is demonstrated on human artery tissue samples...
January 15, 2017: Optics Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080995/rapid-emergence-of-pathogens-in-agro-ecosystems-global-threats-to-agricultural-sustainability-and-food-security
#8
REVIEW
Bruce A McDonald, Eva H Stukenbrock
Agricultural ecosystems are composed of genetically depauperate populations of crop plants grown at a high density and over large spatial scales, with the regional composition of crop species changing little from year to year. These environments are highly conducive for the emergence and dissemination of pathogens. The uniform host populations facilitate the specialization of pathogens to particular crop cultivars and allow the build-up of large population sizes. Population genetic and genomic studies have shed light on the evolutionary mechanisms underlying speciation processes, adaptive evolution and long-distance dispersal of highly damaging pathogens in agro-ecosystems...
December 5, 2016: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080262/processing-speed-test-validation-of-a-self-administered-ipad-%C3%A2-based-tool-for-screening-cognitive-dysfunction-in-a-clinic-setting
#9
Stephen M Rao, Genna Losinski, Lyla Mourany, David Schindler, Bernadett Mamone, Christine Reece, Danielle Kemeny, Sridar Narayanan, Deborah M Miller, Francois Bethoux, Robert A Bermel, Richard Rudick, Jay Alberts
BACKGROUND: Cognitive dysfunction is common in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients and has important consequences for daily activities, yet, unlike motor function, is not routinely assessed in the clinic setting. We developed the Processing Speed Test (PST), a self-administered iPad(®)-based tool to measure MS-related deficits in processing speed. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether the PST is valid for screening cognitive dysfunction by comparing it to the paper-and-pencil Symbol Digit Modalities Test (SDMT)...
January 1, 2017: Multiple Sclerosis: Clinical and Laboratory Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080261/performance-of-hispanics-and-non-hispanic-whites-on-the-nih-toolbox-cognition-battery-the-roles-of-ethnicity-and-language-backgrounds
#10
Ilse Flores, Kaitlin B Casaletto, Maria J Marquine, Anya Umlauf, David J Moore, Dan Mungas, Richard C Gershon, Jennifer L Beaumont, Robert K Heaton
OBJECTIVE: This study examined the influence of Hispanic ethnicity and language/cultural background on performance on the NIH Toolbox Cognition Battery (NIHTB-CB). METHOD: Participants included healthy, primarily English-speaking Hispanic (n = 93; Hispanic-English), primarily Spanish-speaking Hispanic (n = 93; Hispanic-Spanish), and English speaking Non-Hispanic white (n = 93; NH white) adults matched on age, sex, and education levels. All participants were in the NIH Toolbox national norming project and completed the Fluid and Crystallized components of the NIHTB-CB...
January 12, 2017: Clinical Neuropsychologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080115/reaching-into-response-selection-stimulus-and-response-similarity-influence-central-operations
#11
Tim Wifall, Aaron T Buss, Thomas A Farmer, John P Spencer, Eliot Hazeltine
To behave adaptively in complex and dynamic environments, one must link perception and action to satisfy internal states, a process known as response selection (RS). A largely unexplored topic in the study of RS is how interstimulus and interresponse similarity affect performance. To examine this issue, we manipulated stimulus similarity by using colors that were either similar or dissimilar and manipulated response similarity by having participants move a mouse cursor to locations that were either close together or far apart...
January 12, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Human Perception and Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28080075/cognitive-outcomes-in-early-treated-adults-with-phenylketonuria-pku-a-comprehensive-picture-across-domains
#12
Liana Palermo, Tarekegn Geberhiwot, Anita MacDonald, Ellie Limback, S Kate Hall, Cristina Romani
OBJECTIVE: Phenylketonuria (PKU) is an inherited metabolic disease which affects cognitive functions due to an inability to metabolize phenylalanine which leads to the accumulation of toxic by-products (Phe) in the brain. PKU can be effectively treated with a low phenylalanine diet, but some cognitive deficits remain. Studies have reported impairments, especially for processing speed and executive functions, but there is a lack of comprehensive assessment across cognitive domains. Moreover, it is important to establish outcomes in early treated adults with PKU (AwPKU) who have better metabolic control than groups previously reported in the literature...
January 12, 2017: Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079723/toward-automating-hiv-identification-machine-learning-for-rapid-identification-of-hiv-related-social-media-data
#13
Sean D Young, Wenchao Yu, Wei Wang
INTRODUCTION: "Social big data" from technologies such as social media, wearable devices, and online searches continue to grow and can be used as tools for HIV research. Although researchers can uncover patterns and insights associated with HIV trends and transmission, the review process is time consuming and resource intensive. Machine learning methods derived from computer science might be used to assist HIV domain experts by learning how to rapidly and accurately identify patterns associated with HIV from a large set of social data...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079611/it-is-just-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder%C3%A2-or-is-it
#14
Dana C Won, Christian Guilleminault, Peter J Koltai, Stacey D Quo, Martin T Stein, Irene M Loe
Carly is a 5-year-old girl who presents for an interdisciplinary evaluation due to behaviors at school and home suggestive of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Parent report of preschool teacher concerns was consistent with ADHD. Psychological testing showed verbal, visual-spatial, and fluid reasoning IQ scores in the average range; processing speed and working memory were below average. Carly's behavior improved when her mother left the room, and she was attentive during testing with a psychologist...
January 10, 2017: Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics: JDBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079128/parallel-meta-3-comprehensive-taxonomical-and-functional-analysis-platform-for-efficient-comparison-of-microbial-communities
#15
Gongchao Jing, Zheng Sun, Honglei Wang, Yanhai Gong, Shi Huang, Kang Ning, Jian Xu, Xiaoquan Su
The number of metagenomes is increasing rapidly. However, current methods for metagenomic analysis are limited by their capability for in-depth data mining among a large number of microbiome each of which carries a complex community structure. Moreover, the complexity of configuring and operating computational pipeline also hinders efficient data processing for the end users. In this work we introduce Parallel-META 3, a comprehensive and fully automatic computational toolkit for rapid data mining among metagenomic datasets, with advanced features including 16S rRNA extraction for shotgun sequences, 16S rRNA copy number calibration, 16S rRNA based functional prediction, diversity statistics, bio-marker selection, interaction network construction, vector-graph-based visualization and parallel computing...
January 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078651/fed-batch-enzymatic-saccharification-of-high-solids-pretreated-lignocellulose-for-obtaining-high-titers-and-high-yields-of-glucose
#16
Young Hoon Jung, Hyun Min Park, Dong Hyun Kim, Jungwoo Yang, Kyoung Heon Kim
To reduce the distillation costs of cellulosic ethanol, it is necessary to produce high sugar titers in the enzymatic saccharification step. To obtain high sugar titers, high biomass loadings of lignocellulose are necessary. In this study, to overcome the low saccharification yields and the low operability of high biomass loadings, a fed-batch saccharification process was developed using an enzyme reactor that was designed and built in-house. After optimizing the cellulase and biomass feeding profiles and the agitation speed, 132...
January 11, 2017: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078569/the-computer-based-symbol-digit-modalities-test-establishing-age-expected-performance-in-healthy-controls-and-evaluation-of-pediatric-ms-patients
#17
Sandra Bigi, R A Marrie, C Till, E A Yeh, N Akbar, A Feinstein, B L Banwell
Decreased information processing speed (IPS) is frequently reported in pediatric multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. The computerized version of the Symbol Digit Modalities Test (c-SDMT) measures IPS over eight consecutive trials per session and additionally captures changes in performance within the session. Here, we establish normative c-SDMT performance and test-retest reliability in healthy children (HC) and explore differences in the overall c-SDMT-performance between HC and MS patients. This cross-sectional study included 478 HC (237 female, 49...
January 11, 2017: Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078395/high-production-of-2-3-butanediol-from-glycerol-without-1-3-propanediol-formation-by-raoultella-ornithinolytica-b6
#18
Taeyeon Kim, Sukhyeong Cho, Han Min Woo, Sun-Mi Lee, Jinwon Lee, Youngsoon Um, Jin-Ho Seo
Conversion of crude glycerol derived from biodiesel processes to value-added chemicals has attracted much attention. Herein, Raoultella ornithinolytica B6 was investigated for the high production of 2,3-butanediol (2,3-BD) from glycerol without 1,3-propanediol (1,3-PD) formation, a by-product hindering 2,3-BD purification. By evaluating the effects of temperature, agitation speed, and pH control strategy, the fermentation conditions favoring 2,3-BD production were found to be 25 °C, 400 rpm, and pH control with a lower limit of 5...
January 11, 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077884/chemical-vs-physical-acceleration-of-cement-hydration
#19
Dale P Bentz, Franco Zunino, Didier Lootens
Cold weather concreting often requires the use of chemical accelerators to speed up the hydration reactions of the cement, so that setting and early-age strength development will occur in a timely manner. While calcium chloride (dihydrate - CaCl2·2H2O) is the most commonly used chemical accelerator, recent research using fine limestone powders has indicated their high proficiency for physically accelerating early-age hydration and reducing setting times. This paper presents a comparative study of the efficiency of these two approaches in accelerating hydration (as assessed via isothermal calorimetry), reducing setting times (Vicat needle), and increasing early-age mortar cube strength (1 d and 7 d)...
November 2016: Concr Int
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077386/hypertension-severity-is-associated-with-impaired-cognitive-performance
#20
Henrique C S Muela, Valeria A Costa-Hong, Mônica S Yassuda, Natália C Moraes, Claudia M Memória, Michel F Machado, Thiago A Macedo, Edson B S Shu, Ayrton R Massaro, Ricardo Nitrini, Alfredo J Mansur, Luiz A Bortolotto
BACKGROUND: Most evidence of target-organ damage in hypertension (HTN) is related to the kidneys and heart. Cerebrovascular and cognitive impairment are less well studied. Therefore, this study analyzed changes in cognitive function in patients with different stages of hypertension compared to nonhypertensive controls. METHODS AND RESULTS: In a cross-sectional study, 221 (71 normotensive and 150 hypertensive) patients were compared. Patients with hypertension were divided into 2 stages according to blood pressure (BP) levels or medication use (HTN-1: BP, 140-159/90-99 or use of 1 or 2 antihypertensive drugs; HTN-2: BP, ≥160/100 or use of ≥3 drugs)...
January 11, 2017: Journal of the American Heart Association
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