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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346923/gut-brain-axis-and-behavior
#1
Clair R Martin, Emeran A Mayer
In the last 5 years, interest in the interactions among the gut microbiome, brain, and behavior has exploded. Preclinical evidence supports a role of the gut microbiome in behavioral responses associated with pain, emotion, social interactions, and food intake. Limited, but growing, clinical evidence comes primarily from associations of gut microbial composition and function to behavioral and clinical features and brain structure and function. Converging evidence suggests that the brain and the gut microbiota are in bidirectional communication...
2017: Nestlé Nutrition Institute Workshop Series
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346748/the-brain-of-the-giraffe-giraffa-camelopardalis-surface-configuration-encephalization-quotient-and-analysis-of-the-existing-literature
#2
Jean-Marie Graïc, Antonella Peruffo, Cristina Ballarin, Bruno Cozzi
The anatomy of the giraffe (Giraffa camelopardalis Linnaeus, 1758) has been poorly studied, except for the circulatory system. In particular, only a handful of studies have concerned the brain of this species since the first description in 1839. Accordingly, only a very few articles discussing encephalization mentioned the giraffe or used it in their calculations. In this article, we performed a thorough examination of the literature including old and grey, regarding the central nervous system of the giraffe...
March 27, 2017: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346588/association-between-childhood-onset-epilepsy-and-amyloid-burden-5-decades-later
#3
Juho Joutsa, Juha O Rinne, Bruce Hermann, Mira Karrasch, Anu Anttinen, Shlomo Shinnar, Matti Sillanpää
Importance: The effect of childhood epilepsy on later-life cognitive and brain health is an unclear and little-explored issue. Objective: To determine whether adults with a history of childhood-onset epilepsy exhibit increased brain amyloid accumulation, possibly predisposing to accelerated cognitive impairment or even frank cognitive disorders in later life. Design, Setting, and Participants: Forty-one adults from a population-based cohort of individuals with childhood-onset epilepsy in southwestern Finland, together with 46 matched population-based controls, underwent amyloid ligand carbon 11-labeled Pittsburgh Compound B (PiB) positron emission tomography after long-term prospective follow-up...
March 27, 2017: JAMA Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346578/association-of-plasma-neurofilament-light-with-neurodegeneration-in-patients-with-alzheimer-disease
#4
Niklas Mattsson, Ulf Andreasson, Henrik Zetterberg, Kaj Blennow
Importance: Existing cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) or imaging (tau positron emission tomography) biomarkers for Alzheimer disease (AD) are invasive or expensive. Biomarkers based on standard blood test results would be useful in research, drug development, and clinical practice. Plasma neurofilament light (NFL) has recently been proposed as a blood-based biomarker for neurodegeneration in dementias. Objective: To test whether plasma NFL concentrations are increased in AD and associated with cognitive decline, other AD biomarkers, and imaging evidence of neurodegeneration...
March 27, 2017: JAMA Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346535/caudwell-xtreme-everest-a-prospective-study-of-the-effects-of-environmental-hypoxia-on-cognitive-functioning
#5
Konstadina Griva, Jan Stygall, Mark H Wilson, Daniel Martin, Denny Levett, Kay Mitchell, Monty Mythen, Hugh E Montgomery, Mike P Grocott, Golnar Aref-Adib, Mark Edsell, Tracie Plant, Chris Imray, Debbie Cooke, Jane Harrington, Maryam Khosravi, Stanton P Newman
BACKGROUND: The neuropsychological consequences of exposure to environmental hypobaric hypoxia (EHH) remain unclear. We thus investigated them in a large group of healthy volunteers who trekked to Mount Everest base camp (5,300 m). METHODS: A neuropsychological (NP) test battery assessing memory, language, attention, and executive function was administered to 198 participants (age 44.5±13.7 years; 60% male). These were studied at baseline (sea level), 3,500 m (Namche Bazaar), 5,300 m (Everest Base Camp) and on return to 1,300 m (Kathmandu) (attrition rate 23...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346479/rare-variants-in-fox-1-homolog-a-rbfox1-are-associated-with-lower-blood-pressure
#6
Karen Y He, Heming Wang, Brian E Cade, Priyanka Nandakumar, Ayush Giri, Erin B Ware, Jeffrey Haessler, Jingjing Liang, Jennifer A Smith, Nora Franceschini, Thu H Le, Charles Kooperberg, Todd L Edwards, Sharon L R Kardia, Xihong Lin, Aravinda Chakravarti, Susan Redline, Xiaofeng Zhu
Many large genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified common blood pressure (BP) variants. However, most of the identified BP variants do not overlap with the linkage evidence observed from family studies. We thus hypothesize that multiple rare variants contribute to the observed linkage evidence. We performed linkage analysis using 517 individuals in 130 European families from the Cleveland Family Study (CFS) who have been genotyped on the Illumina OmniExpress Exome array. The largest linkage peak was observed on chromosome 16p13 (MLOD = 2...
March 27, 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346350/fast-and-selective-plasmonic-serotonin-detection-with-aptamer-gold-nanoparticle-conjugates
#7
Jorge L Chávez, Joshua A Hagen, Nancy Kelley-Loughnane
Neurotransmitters detection is critical to understanding communication between the brain and peripheral tissue. Serotonin is a key neurotransmitter linked to a number of conditions, but a full understanding of its role in disease is still lacking. The development of fast and selective serotonin detection platforms will provide researchers with tools to monitor serotonin in individuals before and after treatment for the condition of interest. Aptamer-gold nanoparticles conjugates that responded colorimetrically to serotonin with minimal response to its metabolite and other neurotransmitters were designed by simply adsorbing the DNA on the surface of AuNPs...
March 25, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346081/pneumocystis-jiroveci-pneumonia-pjp-in-non-hiv-immunocompromised-individuals
#8
Kathleen Schoovaerts, Luc Dirix, Annemie Rutten, Jef Van Schaeren, Bruno Van Herendael, Sofie Van Grieken, Luc Heytens
OBJECTIVES: PJP is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised individuals. Diagnosing PJP is often difficult because respiratory signs might be minimal or absent and the sensitivity of a chest X-ray (CXR) is low. We studied the clinical risk factors in order to increase awareness and facilitate the diagnosis. METHODS: We studied a prospective case series over a one year period (from 1 January 2015 to 1 January 2016) and did a retrospective analysis (from 2013 to 2016) of all PJP positive bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) analysis...
March 27, 2017: Acta Clinica Belgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346057/the-role-of-germline-variants-in-chemotherapy-outcome-in-brain-tumors-a-systematic-review-of-pharmacogenetic-studies
#9
Marije J Klumpers, Marieke Jh Coenen, Corrie Em Gidding, D Maroeska Wm Te Loo
AIM: This systematic review provides an overview of publications concerning pharmacogenetic research in pediatric patients with medulloblastoma and low-grade glioma. MATERIALS & METHODS: Three electronic databases searches including a manual search were performed to identify studies investigating potential interactions between germline variants and chemotherapy efficacy and toxicity. RESULTS: Out of 3570 citations, 21 studies were included...
March 27, 2017: Pharmacogenomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346005/plasma-coenzyme-q10-concentration-antioxidant-status-and-serum-n-terminal-pro-brain-natriuretic-peptide-concentration-in-dogs-with-various-cardiovascular-diseases-and-the-effect-of-cardiac-treatment-on-measured-variables
#10
Alenka Nemec Svete, Barbara Verk, Alenka Seliškar, Katerina Tomsič, Petra Jazbec Križman, Aleksandra Domanjko Petrič
OBJECTIVE To determine the plasma total antioxidant capacity, erythrocyte superoxide dismutase activity, whole blood glutathione peroxidase activity, and plasma coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) concentration in dogs with various stages of cardiovascular diseases and in healthy dogs; assess the influence of cardiac treatment on the levels of antioxidant variables, plasma CoQ10 concentration, and serum N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) concentration, and determine any correlation between the disease severity (NT-proBNP concentration) and antioxidant variables or CoQ10 concentration...
April 2017: American Journal of Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345828/effects-of-a-self-encouragement-program-on-stress-of-mothers-of-children-with-cancer-referred-to-imam-ali-hospital-zahedan-in-2015
#11
Mahdieh Saljughi, Narges Sadeghi
Introduction: In addition to the physical problems for the patients themselves, cancer can cause several social and psychological problems to the family, especially the mother in pediatric cases. This study aimed to investigate the effects of a self-encouragement program on stress of mothers of children with cancer referred to Imam Ali Hospital of Zahedan in 2015. Materials and Methods: This case-control study was performed on 44 mothers with children suffering from cancer, referred to the hospital during October and November of 2015...
February 1, 2017: Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention: APJCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345579/inhibition-of-delta-secretase-improves-cognitive-functions-in-mouse-models-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#12
Zhentao Zhang, Obiamaka Obianyo, Elfriede Dall, Yuhong Du, Haian Fu, Xia Liu, Seong Su Kang, Mingke Song, Shan-Ping Yu, Chiara Cabrele, Mario Schubert, Xiaoguang Li, Jian-Zhi Wang, Hans Brandstetter, Keqiang Ye
δ-secretase, also known as asparagine endopeptidase (AEP) or legumain, is a lysosomal cysteine protease that cleaves both amyloid precursor protein (APP) and tau, mediating the amyloid-β and tau pathology in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Here we report the therapeutic effect of an orally bioactive and brain permeable δ-secretase inhibitor in mouse models of AD. We performed a high-throughput screen and identified a non-toxic and selective δ-secretase inhibitor, termed compound 11, that specifically blocks δ-secretase but not other related cysteine proteases...
March 27, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345573/clinical-correlation-of-imaging-findings-in-congenital-cranial-dysinnervation-disorders-involving-abducens-nerve
#13
Chanchal Gupta, Pradeep Sharma, Rohit Saxena, Ajay Garg, Sanjay Sharma
PURPOSE: High-resolution magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of intracranial parts of sixth nerve and seventh nerve and the extraocular muscles (EOMs) in orbit to correlate the clinical characteristics in patients with two special forms of strabismus in congenital cranial dysinnervation disorders which are Duane's retraction syndrome (DRS) and Mobius syndrome. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Morphological analysis by 3T MRI of orbit (using surface coils) and brain (using 32 channel head coil) was performed on 6 patients with clinical DRS (1 bilateral), 2 cases with Mobius syndrome, and 1 case with congenital sixth nerve palsy...
February 2017: Indian Journal of Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345540/epidemiological-features-of-nontraumatic-spontaneous-subarachnoid-hemorrhage-in-china-a-nationwide-hospital-based-multicenter-study
#14
Jian-Ping Song, Wei Ni, Yu-Xiang Gu, Wei Zhu, Liang Chen, Bin Xu, Bin Leng, Yan-Long Tian, Ying Mao
BACKGROUND: Nontraumatic spontaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is associated with a high mortality. This study was conducted to investigate the epidemiological features of nontraumatic spontaneous SAH in China. METHODS: From January 2006 to December 2008, the clinical data of patients with nontraumatic SAH from 32 major neurosurgical centers of China were evaluated. Emergent digital subtraction angiography (DSA) was performed for the diagnosis of SAH sources in the acute stage of SAH (≤3 days)...
April 5, 2017: Chinese Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345282/neuroplasticity-of-language-in-left-hemisphere-stroke-evidence-linking-subsecond-electrophysiology-and-structural-connections
#15
Vitória Piai, Lars Meyer, Nina F Dronkers, Robert T Knight
The understanding of neuroplasticity following stroke is predominantly based on neuroimaging measures that cannot address the subsecond neurodynamics of impaired language processing. We combined behavioral and electrophysiological measures and structural-connectivity estimates to characterize neuroplasticity underlying successful compensation of language abilities after left-hemispheric stroke. We recorded the electroencephalogram from patients with stroke lesions to the left temporal lobe and from matched controls during context-driven word retrieval...
March 27, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345269/multi-task-diagnosis-for-autism-spectrum-disorders-using-multi-modality-features-a-multi-center-study
#16
Jun Wang, Qian Wang, Jialin Peng, Dong Nie, Feng Zhao, Minjeong Kim, Han Zhang, Chong-Yaw Wee, Shitong Wang, Dinggang Shen
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopment disease characterized by impairment of social interaction, language, behavior, and cognitive functions. Up to now, many imaging-based methods for ASD diagnosis have been developed. For example, one may extract abundant features from multi-modality images and then derive a discriminant function to map the selected features toward the disease label. A lot of recent works, however, are limited to single imaging centers. To this end, we propose a novel multi-modality multi-center classification (M3CC) method for ASD diagnosis...
March 27, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345171/spatio-angular-consistent-construction-of-neonatal-diffusion-mri-atlases
#17
Behrouz Saghafi, Jaeil Kim, Geng Chen, Feng Shi, Weili Lin, Pew-Thian Yap, Dinggang Shen
Atlases constructed using diffusion-weighted imaging are important tools for studying human brain development. Atlas construction is in general a two-step process involving spatial registration and fusion of individual images. The focus of most studies so far has been on improving the accuracy of registration while image fusion is commonly performed using simple averaging, often resulting in fuzzy atlases. In this article, we propose a patch-based method for diffusion-weighted (DW) atlas construction. Unlike other atlases that are based on the diffusion tensor model, our atlas is model-free and generated directly from the diffusion-weighted images...
March 27, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345164/comparing-functional-mri-protocols-for-small-iron-rich-basal-ganglia-nuclei-such-as-the-subthalamic-nucleus-at-7-t-and-3-t
#18
Gilles de Hollander, Max C Keuken, Wietske van der Zwaag, Birte U Forstmann, Robert Trampel
The basal ganglia (BG) form a network of subcortical nuclei. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in the BG could provide insight in its functioning and the underlying mechanisms of Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS). However, fMRI of the BG with high specificity is challenging, because the nuclei are small and variable in their anatomical location. High resolution fMRI at field strengths of 7 Tesla (T) could help resolve these challenges to some extent. A set of MR protocols was developed for functional imaging of the BG nuclei at 3 T and 7 T...
March 27, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345150/decoding-facial-expressions-based-on-face-selective-and-motion-sensitive-areas
#19
Yin Liang, Baolin Liu, Junhai Xu, Gaoyan Zhang, Xianglin Li, Peiyuan Wang, Bin Wang
Humans can easily recognize others' facial expressions. Among the brain substrates that enable this ability, considerable attention has been paid to face-selective areas; in contrast, whether motion-sensitive areas, which clearly exhibit sensitivity to facial movements, are involved in facial expression recognition remained unclear. The present functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study used multi-voxel pattern analysis (MVPA) to explore facial expression decoding in both face-selective and motion-sensitive areas...
March 27, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345124/evaluation-of-cortical-brain-parenchyma-by-diffusion-and-perfusion-mri-before-and-after-chronic-subdural-hematoma-surgery
#20
Bekir Akgun, Hakan Cakin, Sait Ozturk, Hanefi Yildirim, Izzet Okcesiz, Saim Kazan, Fatih Serhat Erol
AIM: To evaluate microcirculatory changes in neighboring parenchyma as a result of pressure due to chronic subdural hematoma (CSDH) in early and late periods after hematoma drainage. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The subjects comprised 25 patients who underwent CSDH drainage. Brain diffusion and perfusion MRIs were obtained preoperatively, 48 h (early period) and 2 months (late period) postoperatively. Measurements were performed on 1 cm2 regions of interest in the neighboring parenchymal tissue...
February 21, 2017: Turkish Neurosurgery
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