Read by QxMD icon Read


Bing Zheng, Jia-Hui Mao, Xiao-Qing Li, Lin Qian, Hua Zhu, Dong-Hua Gu, Xiao-Dong Pan
Here, we demonstrated that DNA-PKcs is over-expressed in multiple human renal cell carcinoma (RCC) tissues and in primary/established human RCCs. Pharmacological or genetic inhibition of DNA-PKcs suppressed proliferation of RCC cells. DNA-PKcs was in the complex of mTOR and SIN1, mediating mTORC2 activation and HIF-2α expression in RCC cells. Inhibiting or silencing DNA-PKcs suppressed AKT Ser-473 phosphorylation and HIF-2α expression. In vivo, DNA-PKcs knockdown or oral administration of the DNA-PKcs inhibitor NU-7441 inhibited AKT Ser-473 phosphorylation, HIF-2α expression and 786-0 RCC xenograft growth in nude mice...
2016: Scientific Reports
Jinfang Zhang, Kai Xu, Pengda Liu, Yan Geng, Bin Wang, Wenjian Gan, Jianping Guo, Fei Wu, Y Rebecca Chin, Christian Berrios, Evan C Lien, Alex Toker, James A DeCaprio, Piotr Sicinski, Wenyi Wei
The retinoblastoma (Rb) protein exerts its tumor suppressor function primarily by inhibiting the E2F family of transcription factors that govern cell-cycle progression. However, it remains largely elusive whether the hyper-phosphorylated, non-E2F1-interacting form of Rb has any physiological role. Here we report that hyper-phosphorylated Rb directly binds to and suppresses the function of mTORC2 but not mTORC1. Mechanistically, Rb, but not p107 or p130, interacts with Sin1 and blocks the access of Akt to mTORC2, leading to attenuated Akt activation and increased sensitivity to chemotherapeutic drugs...
June 16, 2016: Molecular Cell
Ankita Khanna, Pouya Lotfi, Anita J Chavan, Nieves M Montaño, Parvin Bolourani, Gerald Weeks, Zhouxin Shen, Steven P Briggs, Henderikus Pots, Peter J M Van Haastert, Arjan Kortholt, Pascale G Charest
Target of Rapamycin Complex 2 (TORC2) has conserved roles in regulating cytoskeleton dynamics and cell migration and has been linked to cancer metastasis. However, little is known about the mechanisms regulating TORC2 activity and function in any system. In Dictyostelium, TORC2 functions at the front of migrating cells downstream of the Ras protein RasC, controlling F-actin dynamics and cAMP production. Here, we report the identification of the small GTPase Rap1 as a conserved binding partner of the TORC2 component RIP3/SIN1, and that Rap1 positively regulates the RasC-mediated activation of TORC2 in Dictyostelium...
2016: Scientific Reports
Florence A Giger, Julien G Dumortier, Nicolas B David
Cell migration is key to many physiological and pathological conditions, including cancer metastasis. The cellular and molecular bases of cell migration have been thoroughly analyzed in vitro. However, in vivo cell migration somehow differs from in vitro migration, and has proven more difficult to analyze, being less accessible to direct observation and manipulation. This protocol uses the migration of the prospective prechordal plate in the early zebrafish embryo as a model system to study the function of candidate genes in cell migration...
2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
C S Lyu, Y L Zhang, J H Lang
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the efficiency of biological function of AT rich interaction domain 1A (ARID1A) gene silenced by small interfering RNA (siRNA) on ovarian clear cell carcinoma ES2 cell line. METHODS: (1) The three pairs ARID1A gene siRNA interference fragments siN1 (ARID1A-705), siN2 (ARID1A-1513), siN3 (ARID1A-2282) and one pair negative control were respectively designed, and transfected into ES2 cells by RNA interference max reagent transiently. Reverse transcription (RT)-PCR and western blot methods were used to detect the expression of ARID1A mRNA and protein in ES2 cells transfected with interference fragments respectively...
March 2016: Zhonghua Fu Chan Ke za Zhi
Han C Dan, Ricardo J Antonia, Albert S Baldwin
The ser-thr Akt plays a critical role in the regulation of cell survival, cell growth and proliferation, as well as energy metabolism and is dysregulated in many cancers. The regulation of Akt activity depends on the phosphorylation at two sites: (i) Thr308 in the activation loop by phosphoinositide-dependent kinase-1 (PDK1) and (ii) Ser473 hydrophobic motif at the carboxyl terminus by a second activity termed PDK2, which is the mTORC2 complex composed of mTOR, rictor, and Sin1. Previously we demonstrated that IKKα, a component of the IKK complex that controls NF-κB activation, participates in the Akt-dependent regulation of mTORC1...
April 19, 2016: Oncotarget
Yancun Yin, Hui Hua, Minjing Li, Shu Liu, Qingbin Kong, Ting Shao, Jiao Wang, Yuanming Luo, Qian Wang, Ting Luo, Yangfu Jiang
Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a core component of raptor-mTOR (mTORC1) and rictor-mTOR (mTORC2) complexes that control diverse cellular processes. Both mTORC1 and mTORC2 regulate several elements downstream of type I insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGF-IR) and insulin receptor (InsR). However, it is unknown whether and how mTOR regulates IGF-IR and InsR themselves. Here we show that mTOR possesses unexpected tyrosine kinase activity and activates IGF-IR/InsR. Rapamycin induces the tyrosine phosphorylation and activation of IGF-IR/InsR, which is largely dependent on rictor and mTOR...
January 2016: Cell Research
Hadara Rubinfeld, Ortal Cohen, Adi Kammer, Guang Yang, Zvi R Cohen, Moshe Hadani, Ilan Shimon
BACKGROUND: Despite the success in treating some cancers, the efficacy of the mTOR inhibitors rapalogs as anti-cancer therapeutics has been limited. AIMS: We undertook to examine the effects of Torin1, a second-generation selective ATP-competitive mTOR inhibitor, in non-functioning pituitary tumor cells. During characterization of the molecular mechanisms that mediate Torin1 actions, there seemed to be a rationale for combining it with rapalogs. METHODS: Proliferation assays, flow cytometry and Western blotting were applied to assess the effects of Torin1, RAD001 and their combination on an MtT/E pituitary cell line and human-derived non-functioning pituitary tumor cells...
2016: Neuroendocrinology
Hai-Xin Yuan, Kun-Liang Guan
The mTOR complex 2, mTORC2, is a critical downstream effector of PI3K that stimulates AGC kinase members, including AKT, PKC, and SGK. Liu and colleagues reported that the pleckstrin homology domain of SIN1, an essential component of mTORC2, directly binds the PI3K product PtdIns(3,4,5)P3 to promote mTORC2 kinase activation and membrane localization, thereby revealing a mechanistic link between PI3K and mTORC2. Cancer Discov; 5(11); 1127-9. ©2015 AACR.See related article by Liu and colleagues, p. 1194.
November 2015: Cancer Discovery
Pengda Liu, Wenjian Gan, Y Rebecca Chin, Kohei Ogura, Jianping Guo, Jinfang Zhang, Bin Wang, John Blenis, Lewis C Cantley, Alex Toker, Bing Su, Wenyi Wei
UNLABELLED: mTOR serves as a central regulator of cell growth and metabolism by forming two distinct complexes, mTORC1 and mTORC2. Although mechanisms of mTORC1 activation by growth factors and amino acids have been extensively studied, the upstream regulatory mechanisms leading to mTORC2 activation remain largely elusive. Here, we report that the pleckstrin homology (PH) domain of SIN1, an essential and unique component of mTORC2, interacts with the mTOR kinase domain to suppress mTOR activity...
November 2015: Cancer Discovery
Yuanyang Yuan, Bangfen Pan, Haipeng Sun, Guoqiang Chen, Bing Su, Ying Huang
Sin1 or MAPKAP1 is a key component of mTORC2 signaling complex which is necessary for AKT phosphorylation at the S473 and T450 sites, and also for AKT downstream signaling as well. A number of Sin1 splicing variants have been reported that can produce different Sin1 isoforms due to exon skipping or alternative transcription initiation. In this report, we characterized four Sin1 isoforms, including a novel Sin1 isoform due to alternative 3' termination of the exon 9a, termed Sin1γ. Sin1γ expression can be detected in multiple adult mouse tissues, and it encodes a C-terminal truncated protein comparing to the full length Sin1β isoform...
2015: PloS One
Guang Yang, Danielle S Murashige, Sean J Humphrey, David E James
The mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 2 (mTORC2) regulates cell survival and cytoskeletal organization by phosphorylating its AGC kinase substrates; however, little is known about the regulation of mTORC2 itself. It was previously reported that Akt phosphorylates the mTORC2 subunit SIN1 at T86, activating mTORC2 through a positive feedback loop, though another study reported that S6K phosphorylates SIN1 at the same site, inhibiting mTORC2 activity. We performed extensive analysis of SIN1 phosphorylation upon inhibition of Akt, S6K, and mTOR under diverse cellular contexts, and we found that, in all cell lines and conditions studied, Akt is the major kinase responsible for SIN1 phosphorylation...
August 11, 2015: Cell Reports
Junghui Koo, Ping Yue, Xingming Deng, Fadlo R Khuri, Shi-Yong Sun
mTOR complex 2 (mTORC2) regulates cell survival and growth through undefined mechanisms. Mcl-1, a Bcl-2 family protein, functions as an oncogenic protein. The connection between mTORC2 and Mcl-1 stability has not been established and was thus the focus of this study. Mcl-1 levels in cancer cells were decreased by mTOR kinase inhibitors (TORKinibs), which inhibit both mTORCs, by knocking down rictor and by knocking out rictor or Sin1 but not by silencing raptor. TORKinib treatment and rictor knockdown did not alter Mcl-1 mRNA levels but rather decreased its protein stability...
July 2015: Molecular and Cellular Biology
S Li, Y-T Oh, P Yue, F R Khuri, S-Y Sun
Cancer cells feature increased de novo lipogenesis. Sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1 (SREBP1), when presented in its mature form (mSREBP1), enhances lipogenesis by increasing transcription of several of its target genes. Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) complexes, mTORC1 and mTORC2, are master regulators of cellular survival, growth and metabolism. A role for mTORC1 in the regulation of SREBP1 activity has been suggested; however, the connection between mTORC2 and SREBP1 has not been clearly established and hence is the focus of this study...
February 4, 2016: Oncogene
Wen-Chi Wei, Chih-Pin Liu, Wen-Chin Yang, Lie-Fen Shyur, Jyh-Horng Sheu, Swey-Shen Chen, Ning-Sun Yang
IL-12 p40, a common subunit for both IL-12 p70 and IL-23, plays a critical role in the development of Th1 and Th17 cells and autoimmune diseases. Regulation of IL-12 p40 expression is thus considered to be a strategy for developing therapies for Th1- and Th17-mediated autoimmune diseases. The mTOR protein is a subunit mTORC1 and mTORC2. Although mTORC1 has been shown to mediate IL-12 p40 expression in DCs and relevant signaling, the role of mTORC2 in IL-12 p40 expression remains largely unclear. In the present study, we demonstrate that blocking mTORC2 activity using the phytochemical cytopiloyne can specifically inhibit LPS-induced expression of IL-12 p70, IL-23, and IL-12 p40 in human DCs...
June 2015: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
Julien G Dumortier, Nicolas B David
TORC2 is a serine-threonine kinase complex conserved through evolution that recently emerged as a new regulator of actin dynamics and cell migration. However, knockout in mice of its core components Sin1 and Rictor is embryonic lethal, which has limited in vivo analyses. Here, we analysed TORC2 function during early zebrafish development, using a morpholino-mediated loss of function of sin1. Sin1 appears required during gastrulation for migration of the prechordal plate, the anterior most mesoderm. In absence of Sin1, cells migrate both slower and less persistently, which can be correlated to a reduction in actin-rich protrusions and a randomisation of the remaining protrusions...
2015: PloS One
Chen Li, Jian-Feng Cui, Min-Bin Chen, Chao-Ying Liu, Feng Liu, Qian-De Zhang, Jian Zou, Pei-Hua Lu
The colorectal cancer is the leading contributor of cancer-related mortality. Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), existing in 2 complexes (mTORC1/2), is frequently dysregulated and constitutively activated in colorectal cancers. It represents an important drug target. Here we found that INK-128, the novel ATP-competitive kinase inhibitor of mTOR, blocked both mTORC1 and mTORC2 activation in colorectal cancer cells (both primary and transformed cells). The immunoprecipitation results showed that the assembly of mTORC1 (mTOR-Raptor association) and mTORC2 (mTOR-Rictor-Sin1 association) was also disrupted by INK-128...
2015: Cancer Biology & Therapy
Weikang Cai, Douglas A Andres
Rit, a member of the Ras family of GTPases, has been shown to promote cell survival in response to oxidative stress, in part by directing an evolutionarily conserved p38 MAPK-Akt survival cascade. Aberrant Rit signaling has recently been implicated as a driver mutation in human cancer, adding importance to the characterization of critical Rit effector pathways. However, the mechanism by which Rit-p38 signaling regulated Akt activity was unknown. Here, we identify mTORC2 as a critical downstream mediator of Rit-dependent survival signaling in response to reactive oxygen species (ROS) stress...
2014: PloS One
Dimitrios Moraitis, Maria Karanikou, Chryssa Liakou, Konstantinos Dimas, George Tzimas, Sofia Tseleni-Balafouta, Efstratios Patsouris, George Z Rassidakis, Maria A Kouvaraki
BACKGROUND: Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) forms 2 active complexes in the cell: the rapamycin-sensitive mTOR-Raptor (mTORC1) and the rapamycin-insensitive mTOR-Rictor (mTORC2). The latter activates AKT kinase, which promotes tumor cell survival and proliferation by multiple downstream targets. Mammalian stress-activated protein kinase interacting protein 1 (SIN1), an essential subunit of the mTORC2 complex, maintains the integrity of the complex and substrate specificity and regulates Akt activation...
December 2014: Surgery
Kyoko Furuita, Saori Kataoka, Toshihiko Sugiki, Yoshikazu Hattori, Naohiro Kobayashi, Takahisa Ikegami, Kazuhiro Shiozaki, Toshimichi Fujiwara, Chojiro Kojima
NMR structure determination of soluble proteins depends in large part on distance restraints derived from NOE. In this study, we examined the impact of paramagnetic relaxation enhancement (PRE)-derived distance restraints on protein structure determination. A high-resolution structure of the loop-rich soluble protein Sin1 could not be determined by conventional NOE-based procedures due to an insufficient number of NOE restraints. By using the 867 PRE-derived distance restraints obtained from the NOE-based structure determination procedure, a high-resolution structure of Sin1 could be successfully determined...
January 2015: Journal of Biomolecular NMR
Fetch more papers »
Fetching more papers... Fetching...
Read by QxMD. Sign in or create an account to discover new knowledge that matter to you.
Remove bar
Read by QxMD icon Read

Search Tips

Use Boolean operators: AND/OR

diabetic AND foot
diabetes OR diabetic

Exclude a word using the 'minus' sign

Virchow -triad

Use Parentheses

water AND (cup OR glass)

Add an asterisk (*) at end of a word to include word stems

Neuro* will search for Neurology, Neuroscientist, Neurological, and so on

Use quotes to search for an exact phrase

"primary prevention of cancer"
(heart or cardiac or cardio*) AND arrest -"American Heart Association"