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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896813/transcriptional-and-post-transcriptional-regulation-of-histone-variant-h2a-z-during-sea-urchin-development
#1
Mihai Hajdu, Jasmine Calle, Andrea Puno, Aminat Haruna, César Arenas-Mena
Histone variant H2A.Z promotes chromatin accessibility at transcriptional regulatory elements and is developmentally regulated in metazoans. We characterize the transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation of H2A.Z in the purple sea urchin Strongylocentrotus purpuratus. H2A.Z depletion by antisense translation-blocking morpholino oligonucleotides during early development causes developmental collapse, in agreement with its previously demonstrated general role in transcriptional multipotency. During H2A...
November 29, 2016: Development, Growth & Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893710/muc1-c-activates-bmi1-in-human-cancer-cells
#2
M Hiraki, T Maeda, A Bouillez, M Alam, A Tagde, K Hinohara, Y Suzuki, T Markert, M Miyo, K Komura, R Ahmad, H Rajabi, D Kufe
B-cell-specific Moloney murine leukemia virus integration site 1 (BMI1) is a component of the polycomb repressive complex 1 (PRC1) complex that is overexpressed in breast and other cancers, and promotes self-renewal of cancer stem-like cells. The oncogenic mucin 1 (MUC1) C-terminal (MUC1-C) subunit is similarly overexpressed in human carcinoma cells and has been linked to their self-renewal. There is no known relationship between MUC1-C and BMI1 in cancer. The present studies demonstrate that MUC1-C drives BMI1 transcription by a MYC-dependent mechanism in breast and other cancer cells...
November 28, 2016: Oncogene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892467/jarid2-binds-mono-ubiquitylated-h2a-lysine-119-to-mediate-crosstalk-between-polycomb-complexes-prc1-and-prc2
#3
Sarah Cooper, Anne Grijzenhout, Elizabeth Underwood, Katia Ancelin, Tianyi Zhang, Tatyana B Nesterova, Burcu Anil-Kirmizitas, Andrew Bassett, Susanne M Kooistra, Karl Agger, Kristian Helin, Edith Heard, Neil Brockdorff
The Polycomb repressive complexes PRC1 and PRC2 play a central role in developmental gene regulation in multicellular organisms. PRC1 and PRC2 modify chromatin by catalysing histone H2A lysine 119 ubiquitylation (H2AK119u1), and H3 lysine 27 methylation (H3K27me3), respectively. Reciprocal crosstalk between these modifications is critical for the formation of stable Polycomb domains at target gene loci. While the molecular mechanism for recognition of H3K27me3 by PRC1 is well defined, the interaction of PRC2 with H2AK119u1 is poorly understood...
November 28, 2016: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890612/in-vitro-reconstitution-and-biochemical-analyses-of-the-schizosaccharomyces-pombe-nucleosome
#4
Masako Koyama, Wataru Nagakura, Hiroki Tanaka, Tomoya Kujirai, Yuji Chikashige, Tokuko Haraguchi, Yasushi Hiraoka, Hitoshi Kurumizaka
Schizosaccharomyces pombe, which has a small genome but shares many physiological functions with higher eukaryotes, is a useful single-cell, model eukaryotic organism. In particular, many features concerning chromatin structure and dynamics, including heterochromatin, centromeres, telomeres, and DNA replication origins, are well conserved between S. pombe and higher eukaryotes. However, the S. pombe nucleosome, the fundamental structural unit of chromatin, has not been reconstituted in vitro. In the present study, we established the method to purify S...
November 24, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27886188/the-deubiquitinase-usp21-maintains-the-stemness-of-mouse-embryonic-stem-cells-via-stabilization-of-nanog
#5
Jiali Jin, Jian Liu, Cong Chen, Zhenping Liu, Cong Jiang, Hongshang Chu, Weijuan Pan, Xinbo Wang, Lingqiang Zhang, Bin Li, Cizhong Jiang, Xin Ge, Xin Xie, Ping Wang
Nanog is a master pluripotency factor of embryonic stem cells (ESCs). Stable expression of Nanog is essential to maintain the stemness of ESCs. However, Nanog is a short-lived protein and quickly degraded by the ubiquitin-dependent proteasome system. Here we report that the deubiquitinase USP21 interacts with, deubiquitinates and stabilizes Nanog, and therefore maintains the protein level of Nanog in mouse ESCs (mESCs). Loss of USP21 results in Nanog degradation, mESCs differentiation and reduces somatic cell reprogramming efficiency...
November 25, 2016: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27854016/histone-purification-from-saccharomyces-cerevisiae
#6
Frederic Jourquin, Vincent Géli
The nucleosome structure consists of a histone octamer made by a tetramer of H3-H4 histones and two dimers of H2A-H2B. Nucleosomes undergo extensive posttranslational modifications that regulate nucleosome interactions, position, and stability.We describe a protocol allowing the robust purification of histones from the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. This method appears to be suitable to quantitatively analyze specific posttranslational histone modifications.
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27854013/an-assay-for-measuring-histone-variant-exchange-within-nucleosomes-in-vitro
#7
Liette Laflamme, Benoit Guillemette, Luc Gaudreau
The incorporation of histone variants into specific chromatin regions is a mechanism by which cells can regulate many important biological processes. One such example is H2A.Z, a highly conserved variant of H2A that is incorporated in genomic regulatory regions and contributes to control gene expression. H2A.Z variant exchange involves the removal of H2A-H2B dimers from a preassembled nucleosome and their replacement with H2A.Z-H2B dimers. A specific family of chromatin remodeling complexes, homologous to the yeast Swr1 complex, have been shown to be capable of this histone exchange activity both in vivo and in vitro...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27846624/the-new-hamburg-hannover-agitation-scale-in-clinical-samples-manifestation-and-differences-of-agitation-in-depression-anxiety-and-borderline-personality-disorder
#8
Stefanie Jung, Miriam Proske, Kai G Kahl, Tillmann H C Krüger, M Axel Wollmer
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Agitation is a burdening phenomenon that occurs in a variety of psychiatric disorders. The aim of this study was to give a first direction for agitation occurrence in depression, anxiety disorder, and borderline personality disorder (BPD) as well as in healthy controls with and without psychiatric record. METHODS: Using the Hamburg-Hannover Agitation Scale (H2A), an instrument that allows for the measurement of agitation independently of the presence of a specific disorder, a patient sample (n = 158) and a healthy control group (n = 685) with (n = 94) and without (n = 591) psychiatric record were examined...
November 16, 2016: Psychopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832638/effect-of-type-i-diabetes-on-the-proteome-of-mouse-oocytes
#9
Guangjian Jiang, Guangli Zhang, Tian An, Zhongchen He, Lihua Kang, Xiuyan Yang, Yujie Gu, Dongwei Zhang, Yangang Wang, Sihua Gao
BACKGROUND: Type I diabetes is a global public health concern that affects young people of reproductive age and can damage oocytes, reducing their maturation rate and blocking embryonic development. Understanding the effects of type I diabetes on oocytes is important to facilitate the maintenance of reproductive capacity in female diabetic patients. METHODS: To analyze the effects of type I diabetes on mammalian oocytes, protein profile changes in mice with streptozotocin-induced type I diabetes were investigated using proteomic tools; non-diabetic mouse oocytes were used as controls...
2016: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832544/in-vitro-assay-to-study-histone-ubiquitination-during-transcriptional-regulation
#10
Jogender Tushir-Singh, Sanchita Bhatnagar
In mammals, gene expression is largely controlled at the transcriptional level. In response to environmental or intrinsic signaling, gene expression is often fine-tuned by epigenetic modifications, including DNA methylation and histone modifications. One such histone modification is ubiquitination that predominately occurs in mono-ubiquitinated forms on histone H2A and H2B. We recently identified and characterized a novel E3 ligase called TRIM37 that ubiquitinates H2A. This study highlights the consequence of aberrant histone ubiquitination at the promoters of tumor suppressor genes in breast cancer...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27827373/bmi1-regulates-prc1-architecture-and-activity-through-homo-and-hetero-oligomerization
#11
Felicia Gray, Hyo Je Cho, Shirish Shukla, Shihan He, Ashley Harris, Bohdan Boytsov, Łukasz Jaremko, Mariusz Jaremko, Borries Demeler, Elizabeth R Lawlor, Jolanta Grembecka, Tomasz Cierpicki
BMI1 is a core component of the polycomb repressive complex 1 (PRC1) and emerging data support a role of BMI1 in cancer. The central domain of BMI1 is involved in protein-protein interactions and is essential for its oncogenic activity. Here, we present the structure of BMI1 bound to the polyhomeotic protein PHC2 illustrating that the central domain of BMI1 adopts an ubiquitin-like (UBL) fold and binds PHC2 in a β-hairpin conformation. Unexpectedly, we find that the UBL domain is involved in homo-oligomerization of BMI1...
November 9, 2016: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27817143/enhanced-degradation-of-bde209-in-spiked-soil-by-ferrous-activated-persulfate-process-with-chelating-agents
#12
Hongjiang Peng, Liya Xu, Wei Zhang, Lin Liu, Fuwen Liu, Kuangfei Lin, Qiang Lu
In order to maintain the quantity of ferrous ions, two eco-friendly chelating agents (CAs), i.e., sodium citrate (Citrate) and sodium gluconate (Glu), have been introduced into a traditional iron activated sodium persulfate (PS) system (Fe(2+)/PS). The results indicated that the PS/CA/Fe(2+) oxidation could be an effective method for BDE209 removal. Effects of the chelating agents, reagents dosage, and pH were evaluated in batch experiments. Glu was observed to be more effective than citrate. In addition, the rate constants (k 1) of BDE209 removal indicated a quadratic curve relationship with initial persulfate concentrations (k 1 = -0...
November 5, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27813335/phosphorylation-of-h2a-x-tyr39-positively-regulates-dna-damage-response-and-is-linked-to-cancer-progression
#13
Yan Liu, Yue-Hong Long, Shu-Qing Wang, Yu-Feng Li, Jing-Hua Zhang
Double-stranded DNA breaks induce serine phosphorylation of histone H2A.X, producing γ-H2A.X foci that are then recognised by DNA damage response pathway proteins. Formation of γ-H2A.X is therefore critical for the repair of DNA double-stranded breaks and maintenance of genomic stability, and defects in the recognition or repair of double-stranded breaks can result in tumorigenesis. However, key details regarding the formation of γ-H2A.X and its possible role in tumorigenesis remain elusive. Here, we report a previously unknown phosphorylation site on H2A...
November 4, 2016: FEBS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27800025/histone-macroh2a1-2-promotes-metabolic-health-and-leanness-by-inhibiting-adipogenesis
#14
Valerio Pazienza, Concetta Panebianco, Francesca Rappa, Domenico Memoli, Michela Borghesan, Sara Cannito, Asami Oji, Giuseppe Mazza, Domenico Tamburrino, Giuseppe Fusai, Rosario Barone, Giulia Bolasco, Francesc Villarroya, Joan Villarroya, Kiyotaka Hatsuzawa, Francesco Cappello, Roberta Tarallo, Tomoko Nakanishi, Manlio Vinciguerra
BACKGROUND: Obesity has tremendous impact on the health systems. Its epigenetic bases are unclear. MacroH2A1 is a variant of histone H2A, present in two alternatively exon-spliced isoforms macroH2A1.1 and macroH2A1.2, regulating cell plasticity and proliferation, during pluripotency and tumorigenesis. Their role in adipose tissue plasticity is unknown. RESULTS: Here, we show evidence that macroH2A1.1 protein levels in the visceral adipose tissue of obese humans positively correlate with BMI, while macroH2A1...
2016: Epigenetics & Chromatin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798884/high-expression-of-mre11-rad50-nbs1-is-associated-with-poor-prognosis-and-chemoresistance-in-gastric-cancer
#15
Bolag Altan, Takehiko Yokobori, Munenori Ide, Tuya Bai, Toru Yanoma, Akiharu Kimura, Norimichi Kogure, Masaki Suzuki, Pinjie Bao, Erito Mochiki, Kyoichi Ogata, Tadashi Handa, Kyoichi Kaira, Masahiko Nishiyama, Takayuki Asao, Tetsunari Oyama, Hiroyuki Kuwano
BACKGROUND: The MRN complex of meiotic recombination 11 (MRE11), DNA repair protein Rad50 (RAD50) and Nijmegen breakage syndrome 1 (NBS1) proteins coordinate the detection and repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). DNA DSB repair-dependent chemoresistance likely has an effect on the treatment of human cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We investigated the expression of MRN complex in human gastric cancer (GC) tissues using immunohistochemistry and analyzed its clinical significance and prognostic relevance...
October 2016: Anticancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27793053/epigenetic-regulation-of-cancer-biology-and-anti-tumor-immunity-by-ezh2
#16
Anthos Christofides, Theodoros Karantanos, Kankana Bardhan, Vassiliki A Boussiotis
Polycomb group proteins regulate chromatin structure and have an important regulatory role on gene expression in various cell types. Two polycomb group complexes (Polycomb repressive complex 1 (PRC1) and 2 (PRC2)) have been identified in mammalian cells. Both PRC1 and PRC2 compact chromatin, and also catalyze histone modifications. PRC1 mediates monoubiquitination of histone H2A, whereas PRC2 catalyzes methylation of histone H3 on lysine 27. These alterations of histones can lead to altered gene expression patterns by regulating chromatin structure...
October 26, 2016: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27791533/autophagy-substrate-sqstm1-p62-regulates-chromatin-ubiquitination-during-the-dna-damage-response
#17
Yanan Wang, Wei-Guo Zhu, Ying Zhao
The importance of autophagy in the DNA damage repair process is clear; however, the detailed molecular mechanism is still largely unknown. Here we found that DNA damage-induced histone H2A ubiquitination is suppressed in autophagy-deficient cells in a SQSTM1/p62 dependent manner. SQSTM1 binds and inhibits E3 ligase RNF168s activity, which is essential for H2A ubiquitination. As a result, several important factors for DNA repair cannot be recruited to the sites of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) in autophagy-deficient cells, leading to diminished DNA repair and increased sensitivity of cells to radiation...
October 28, 2016: Autophagy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27791010/mutational-landscape-of-uterine-and-ovarian-carcinosarcomas-implicates-histone-genes-in-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition
#18
Siming Zhao, Stefania Bellone, Salvatore Lopez, Durga Thakral, Carlton Schwab, Diana P English, Jonathan Black, Emiliano Cocco, Jungmin Choi, Luca Zammataro, Federica Predolini, Elena Bonazzoli, Mark Bi, Natalia Buza, Pei Hui, Serena Wong, Maysa Abu-Khalaf, Antonella Ravaggi, Eliana Bignotti, Elisabetta Bandiera, Chiara Romani, Paola Todeschini, Renata Tassi, Laura Zanotti, Franco Odicino, Sergio Pecorelli, Carla Donzelli, Laura Ardighieri, Fabio Facchetti, Marcella Falchetti, Dan-Arin Silasi, Elena Ratner, Masoud Azodi, Peter E Schwartz, Shrikant Mane, Roberto Angioli, Corrado Terranova, Charles Matthew Quick, Babak Edraki, Kaya Bilgüvar, Moses Lee, Murim Choi, Amy L Stiegler, Titus J Boggon, Joseph Schlessinger, Richard P Lifton, Alessandro D Santin
Carcinosarcomas (CSs) of the uterus and ovary are highly aggressive neoplasms containing both carcinomatous and sarcomatous elements. We analyzed the mutational landscape of 68 uterine and ovarian CSs by whole-exome sequencing. We also performed multiregion whole-exome sequencing comprising two carcinoma and sarcoma samples from six tumors to resolve their evolutionary histories. The results demonstrated that carcinomatous and sarcomatous elements derive from a common precursor having mutations typical of carcinomas...
October 25, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27788229/characterization-of-autoantigens-targeted-by-anti-citrullinated-protein-antibodies-in-vivo-prominent-role-for-epitopes-derived-from-histone-4-proteins
#19
Xiaobo Meng, Peyman Ezzati, Irene Smolik, Charles N Bernstein, Carol Ann Hitchon, Hani S El-Gabalawy
Anti-citrullinated protein antibodies (ACPA) have become an integral part of the clinical definition of rheumatoid arthritis, and are hypothesized to be important in the immunopathogenesis of this autoimmune disease. Several citrullinated proteins have been demonstrated to serve as candidate autoantigens for the ACPA, based on in vitro immune reactions between citrullinated peptides/proteins and RA sera. Yet it remains unclear whether the autoantigens identified in vitro are indeed directly and specifically targeted by the ACPA in vivo...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27773672/cyclin-f-mediated-degradation-of-slbp-limits-h2a-x-accumulation-and-apoptosis-upon-genotoxic-stress-in-g2
#20
John F Dankert, Gergely Rona, Linda Clijsters, Phillip Geter, Jeffrey R Skaar, Keria Bermudez-Hernandez, Elizabeth Sassani, David Fenyö, Beatrix Ueberheide, Robert Schneider, Michele Pagano
SLBP (stem-loop binding protein) is a highly conserved factor necessary for the processing, translation, and degradation of H2AFX and canonical histone mRNAs. We identified the F-box protein cyclin F, a substrate recognition subunit of an SCF (Skp1-Cul1-F-box protein) complex, as the G2 ubiquitin ligase for SLBP. SLBP interacts with cyclin F via an atypical CY motif, and mutation of this motif prevents SLBP degradation in G2. Expression of an SLBP stable mutant results in increased loading of H2AFX mRNA onto polyribosomes, resulting in increased expression of H2A...
November 3, 2016: Molecular Cell
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