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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426078/an-intravascular-bioartificial-pancreas-device-ibap-with-silicon-nanopore-membranes-snm-for-islet-encapsulation-under-convective-mass-transport
#1
Shang Song, Charles Blaha, Willieford Moses, Jaehyun Park, Nathan Wright, Joey Groszek, William Fissell, Shant Vartanian, Andrew M Posselt, Shuvo Roy
Diffusion-based bioartificial pancreas (BAP) devices are limited by poor islet viability and functionality due to inadequate mass transfer resulting in islet hypoxia and delayed glucose-insulin kinetics. While intravascular ultrafiltration-based BAP devices possess enhanced glucose-insulin kinetics, the polymer membranes used in these devices provide inadequate ultrafiltrate flow rates and result in excessive thrombosis. Here, we report the silicon nanopore membrane (SNM), which exhibits a greater hydraulic permeability and a superior pore size selectivity compared to polymer membranes for use in BAP applications...
April 20, 2017: Lab on a Chip
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422703/differential-hemoglobin-a-sequestration-between-hemodialysis-modalities
#2
Uzma Naseeb, Shamshad Zarina, Theres Jägerbrink, Jawed Shafqat, Hans Jörnvall, Jonas Axelsson
This report evaluates plasma protein patterns, dialysates and protein analysis of used dialysis membranes from the same patient under hemodialysis in three separate modalities, using high-flux membranes in concentration-driven transport (HD), convection-driven hemofiltration (HF) and combined hemodialfiltration (HDF). The plasma protein changes induced by each of the three dialysis modalities showed small differences in proteins identified towards our previous plasma analyses of chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients...
April 19, 2017: Biomolecular Concepts
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421387/pharmacokinetics-of-monoclonal-antibodies-and-fc-fusion-proteins
#3
REVIEW
Liming Liu
There are many factors that can influence the pharmacokinetics (PK) of a mAb or Fc-fusion molecule with the primary determinant being FcRn-mediated recycling. Through Fab or Fc engineering, IgG-FcRn interaction can be used to generate a variety of therapeutic antibodies with significantly enhanced half-life or ability to remove unwanted antigen from circulation. Glycosylation of a mAb or Fc-fusion protein can have a significant impact on the PK of these molecules. mAb charge can be important and variants with pI values of 1-2 unit difference are likely to impact PK with lower pI values being favorable for a longer half-life...
April 19, 2017: Protein & Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418846/drug-carrying-microbubbles-as-a-theranostic-tool-in-convection-enhanced-delivery-for-brain-tumor-therapy
#4
Pin-Yuan Chen, Chih-Kuang Yeh, Po-Hung Hsu, Chung-Yin Lin, Chiung-Yin Huang, Kuo-Chen Wei, Hao-Li Liu
Convection-enhanced delivery (CED) is a promising technique for infusing a therapeutic agent through a catheter with a pressure gradient to create bulk flow for improving drug spread into the brain. So far, gadopentetate dimeglumine (Gd-DTPA) is the most commonly applied surrogate agent for predicting drug distribution through magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). However, Gd-DTPA provides only a short observation duration, and concurrent infusion provides an indirect measure of the exact drug distribution. In this study, we propose using microbubbles as a contrast agent for MRI monitoring, and evaluate their use as a drug-carrying vehicle to directly monitor the infused drug...
March 15, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418430/wat-on-a-chip-a-physiologically-relevant-microfluidic-system-incorporating-white-adipose-tissue
#5
Peter Loskill, Thiagarajan Sezhian, Kevin M Tharp, Felipe T Lee-Montiel, Shaheen Jeeawoody, Willie Mae Reese, Peter-James H Zushin, Andreas Stahl, Kevin E Healy
Organ-on-a-chip systems possess a promising future as drug screening assays and as testbeds for disease modeling in the context of both single-organ systems and multi-organ-chips. Although it comprises approximately one fourth of the body weight of a healthy human, an organ frequently overlooked in this context is white adipose tissue (WAT). WAT-on-a-chip systems are required to create safety profiles of a large number of drugs due to their interactions with adipose tissue and other organs via paracrine signals, fatty acid release, and drug levels through sequestration...
April 18, 2017: Lab on a Chip
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417829/comparison-of-3-methods-for-preventing-perianesthetic-hypothermia-in-callimicos-callimico-goeldii
#6
Sathya K Chinnadurai James G Johnson Iii And Jennifer N Langan
Perianesthetic hypothermia is one of the most common complications in veterinary anesthesia, especially in small patients with a large body surface area to mass ratio. During anesthesia, body heat can be lost through 4 mechanisms-radiation, convection,conduction, and evaporation-but anesthetists frequently address only one mechanism at a time. Here we sought to evaluate 3 methods of preventing perianesthetic hypothermia in callimicos (Callimico goeldii). In our experience, these smallNHP routinely become hypothermic under even brief inhalant anesthesia...
April 17, 2017: Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science: JAALAS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417297/regulation-of-the-glucose-supply-from-capillary-to-tissue-examined-by-developing-a-capillary-model
#7
Akitoshi Maeda, Yukiko Himeno, Masayuki Ikebuchi, Akinori Noma, Akira Amano
A new glucose transport model relying upon diffusion and convection across the capillary membrane was developed, and supplemented with tissue space and lymph flow. The rate of glucose utilization (J util) in the tissue space was described as a saturation function of glucose concentration in the interstitial fluid (C glu,isf), and was varied by applying a scaling factor f to J max. With f = 0, the glucose diffusion ceased within ~20 min. While, with increasing f, the diffusion was accelerated through a decrease in C glu,isf, but the convective flux remained close to resting level...
April 17, 2017: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415368/role-of-thermal-disequilibrium-on-natural-convection-in-porous-media-insights-from-pore-scale-study
#8
Hamid Karani, Christian Huber
The present study investigates the role of thermal nonequilibrium on natural convection in a fluid-saturated porous medium heated from below. We conduct high-resolution direct numerical simulation at the pore scale in a two-dimensional regular porous structure by means of the thermal lattice-Boltzmann method (LBM). We perform a combination of linear stability analysis of continuum-scale heat transfer models, and pore-scale and continuum-scale simulations to study the role of thermal conductivity contrasts among phases on natural convection...
March 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415317/reorientations-of-the-large-scale-flow-in-turbulent-convection-in-a-cube
#9
N Foroozani, J J Niemela, V Armenio, K R Sreenivasan
Large-eddy simulations of turbulent Rayleigh-Bénard convection were conducted for a fluid of Prandtl number Pr=0.7 confined in a cube, for Rayleigh numbers of 10^{6} and 10^{8}. The model solves the unsteady Navier-Stokes equations under the Boussinesq approximation, using a dynamic Smagorinsky model with a Lagrangian averaging technique for the subgrid terms. Under fully developed conditions the flow topology is characterized by a large-scale circulation (LSC) developing in a plane containing one of the diagonals of the cell, while two counter-rotating vortices consequently develop in the other diagonal plane, resulting in a strong inflow at the horizontal midplane...
March 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415256/turbulent-compressible-fluid-renormalization-group-analysis-scaling-regimes-and-anomalous-scaling-of-advected-scalar-fields
#10
N V Antonov, N M Gulitskiy, M M Kostenko, T Lučivjanský
We study a model of fully developed turbulence of a compressible fluid, based on the stochastic Navier-Stokes equation, by means of the field-theoretic renormalization group. In this approach, scaling properties are related to the fixed points of the renormalization group equations. Previous analysis of this model near the real-world space dimension 3 identified a scaling regime [N. V. Antonov et al., Theor. Math. Phys. 110, 305 (1997)TMPHAH0040-577910.1007/BF02630456]. The aim of the present paper is to explore the existence of additional regimes, which could not be found using the direct perturbative approach of the previous work, and to analyze the crossover between different regimes...
March 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415002/experimental-and-numerical-study-of-liquefied-natural-gas-lng-pool-spreading-and-vaporization-on-water
#11
Nirupama Gopalaswami, Konstantinos Kakosimos, Bin Zhang, Yi Liu, R Mentzer, M Sam Mannan
The investigation of pool spreading and vaporization phenomenon is an essential part of consequence analysis to determine the severity of LNG spills on water. In this study, release of LNG on water during marine operations is studied through experimental and numerical methods The study involves emulation of an LNG leak from transfer arms during side by side loading operations. The experimental part involves flow of LNG in a narrow trench filled with water and subsequent measurement of pool spreading and vaporization parameters...
April 8, 2017: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28413338/the-cross-over-to-magnetostrophic-convection-in-planetary-dynamo-systems
#12
REVIEW
J M Aurnou, E M King
Global scale magnetostrophic balance, in which Lorentz and Coriolis forces comprise the leading-order force balance, has long been thought to describe the natural state of planetary dynamo systems. This argument arises from consideration of the linear theory of rotating magnetoconvection. Here we test this long-held tenet by directly comparing linear predictions against dynamo modelling results. This comparison shows that dynamo modelling results are not typically in the global magnetostrophic state predicted by linear theory...
March 2017: Proceedings. Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407918/nickel-speciation-in-cocoa-infusions-using-monolithic-chromatography-post-column-id-icp-ms-and-q-tof-ms
#13
Kelly Peeters, Tea Zuliani, Dušan Žigon, Radmila Milačič, Janez Ščančar
Nickel (Ni) is considered to be a potentially harmful element for humans. Its levels in foodstuffs are normally low (below 0.2mgkg(-1)), but sensitive individuals may develop allergy to Ni as a result of dietary consumption. Cocoa contains relatively high Ni concentrations (around 3mgkg(-1)). Ni bioavailability, its role in the flavour of food and its potential impact on human health depends primarily on its chemical species. However, there is a lack of information about Ni speciation in cocoa. In this work Ni species were separated on a weak convective interaction media diethylamine (CIM DEAE) monolithic chromatographic column and quantified by the post-column isotope dilution inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ID-ICP-MS)...
September 1, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407914/effects-of-hybrid-microwave-convectional-and-convectional-drying-on-drying-kinetics-total-phenolics-antioxidant-capacity-vitamin-c-color-and-rehydration-capacity-of-sour-cherries
#14
Erhan Horuz, Hüseyin Bozkurt, Haluk Karataş, Medeni Maskan
Sour cherries were dried by convectional (CD) at 50, 60, and 70°C and by hybrid (HD; microwave-convectional) drying at 120, 150, and 180W coupled with hot air at 50, 60, and 70°C. In HD, microwave power and hot air were performed simultaneously during drying process. Total phenolic content (TPC), antioxidant capacity (AOC), vitamin C content, color and rehydration capacity were followed. The HD technique reduced drying time and increased drying rate compared to CD. Drying data were well correlated with Verma and modified Logistic models which gave the best fitting for CD and HD, respectively...
September 1, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28407898/convective-drying-kinetics-of-strawberry-fragaria-ananassa-effects-on-antioxidant-activity-anthocyanins-and-total-phenolic-content
#15
Lilia Méndez-Lagunas, Juan Rodríguez-Ramírez, Marlene Cruz-Gracida, Sadoth Sandoval-Torres, Gerardo Barriada-Bernal
The thermal drying effects on strawberries were investigated in terms of the kinetics of antioxidant activity (AA), anthocyanins (A) and total phenolic compound content (TPC), as well as the final colour. The evaluated drying temperatures were 50 and 60°C with an air rate of 1.5m/s. The 2,2-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl, pH differential and Folin-Ciocalteu methods were used to assess the antioxidant properties. The kinetics of TPC and AA showed an initial and final period of degradation attributed to inhibition of enzymes...
September 1, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403635/one-domain-approach-for-studying-multiphase-transport-phenomena-in-biofilm-growing-systems
#16
Juan Manuel Oliveros-Muñoz, Martha Patricia Calderón-Alvarado, Gloria María Martínez-González, José Luis Navarrete-Bolaños, Hugo Jiménez-Islas
The one-domain approach (ODA) was used as an alternative to solve fluid-biofilm interfacial behavior in a 2-D model for diffusion-reaction-convection coupled with prediction of irregular growth of biofilms via a cellular automaton strategy. The simulations exhibited errors of <7% compared with the porosity of a previously reported capillary experimental system. Additionally, biofilm surface geometrical aspects were satisfactorily compared with reports of experimental and similar rigorously simulated benchmark systems...
April 13, 2017: Biofouling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401422/acetate-free-biofiltration-to-remove-fibroblast-growth-factor-23-in-hemodialysis-patients-a-pilot-study
#17
Valeria Cernaro, Silvia Lucisano, Valeria Canale, Annamaria Bruzzese, Daniela Caccamo, Giuseppe Costantino, Michele Buemi, Domenico Santoro
AIM: Serum levels of 32 kDa-phosphaturic hormone fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) rise early in renal failure in order to keep phosphatemia within the normal range; however, this compensatory mechanism itself contributes to chronic kidney disease-mineral bone disorder. High FGF23 is also associated to left ventricular hypertrophy, vascular calcifications and thus increased cardiovascular risk. The aim of this pilot pre-post study was to evaluate the effects of a single hemodiafiltration session with acetate-free biofiltration (AFB) on FGF23 serum levels...
April 11, 2017: Journal of Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401301/enhancing-dialyser-clearance-from-target-to-development
#18
Kamonwan Tangvoraphonkchai, Andrew Davenport
Products of metabolism accumulate in kidney failure and potentially have toxic effects. Traditionally these uraemic toxins are classified as small, middle-sized and protein-bound toxins, and clearance during dialysis is affected by diffusion, convection and adsorption. As current dialysis practice effectively clears small solutes, increasing evidence supports a toxic effect for middle-sized and protein-bound toxins. Therefore, newer approaches to standard dialysis practice are required to look beyond urea clearance...
April 12, 2017: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28397501/layer-by-layer-assembled-laccase-enzyme-on-stimuli-responsive-membranes-for-chloro-organics-degradation
#19
Rupam Sarma, Md Saiful Islam, Anne-Frances Miller, Dibakar Bhattacharyya
Functionalized membranes provide versatile platforms for the incorporation of biocatalysts and nanostructured materials for efficient and benign environmental remediation. The existing techniques for remediating chloro-organics in water consist of both physical and chemical means mostly using metal oxide-based catalysts, despite associated environmental concerns. To offer bioinspired remediation as an alternative, we herein demonstrate a layer-by-layer approach to immobilize laccase enzyme onto pH-responsive functionalized membranes for the degradation of chloro-organics in water...
April 21, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28396747/optimization-of-anti-infective-dosing-regimens-during-online-haemodiafiltration
#20
Nynke G L Jager, Anthe S Zandvliet, Daniel J Touw, Erik L Penne
Online haemodiafiltration (HDF) is increasingly used in clinical practice as a routine intermittent dialysis modality. It is well known that renal impairment and renal replacement therapy can substantially affect the pharmacokinetic behaviour of several drugs. However, surprisingly few data are available on the need for specific dose adjustments during HDF. Due to convection, drug clearance may be increased during HDF as compared with standard haemodialysis. This may be of particular interest in patients undergoing anti-infective therapy, since under-dosing may compromise patient outcomes and promote the emergence of bacterial resistance...
April 2017: Clinical Kidney Journal
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