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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28931000/trapping-of-micro-particles-in-nanoplasmonic-optical-lattice
#1
Dinesh Bhalothia, Ya-Tang Yang
The plasmonic optical tweezer has been developed to overcome the diffraction limits of the conventional far field optical tweezer. Plasmonic optical lattice consists of an array of nanostructures, which exhibit a variety of trapping and transport behaviors. We report the experimental procedures to trap micro-particles in a simple square nanoplasmonic optical lattice. We also describe the optical setup and the nanofabrication of a nanoplasmonic array. The optical potential is created by illuminating an array of gold nanodiscs with a Gaussian beam of 980 nm wavelength, and exciting plasmon resonance...
September 5, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28930905/effectiveness-of-early-warming-with-self-warming-blankets-on-postoperative-hypothermia-in-total-hip-and-knee-arthroplasty
#2
Baris B Koc, Martijn G M Schotanus, Jean-Paul A P A C Kollenburg, Maurice J A Janssen, Fabian Tijssen, Edwin J P Jansen
BACKGROUND: Hypothermia is an important complication in joint arthroplasty. Commonly, forced air warming (FAW) devices are used intraoperatively to maintain body temperature in patients undergoing surgery. However, it is believed that these convective warming systems could increase the risk of deep surgical site infections due to disruption of unidirectional downward laminar airflow. Conductive warming devices have no noticeable effect on ventilation airflow. Nevertheless, the effectiveness of the self-warming (SW) blanket, a novel conductive warming device, on postoperative hypothermia in elective joint arthroplasty is unknown...
September 2017: Orthopaedic Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929335/convection-enhanced-delivery-of-sulfasalazine-prolongs-survival-in-a-glioma-stem-cell-brain-tumor-model
#3
Shinya Haryu, Ryuta Saito, Wenting Jia, Takuhiro Shoji, Yui Mano, Aya Sato, Masayuki Kanamori, Yukihiko Sonoda, Oltea Sampetrean, Hideyuki Saya, Teiji Tominaga
Expression of CD44 in glioma cells was previously correlated with tumor grade and is considered a stem cell marker. CD44 stabilizes the cystine-glutamate transporter (xCT) and inhibits apoptosis in cancer stem cells (CSCs). Recently it was found that Sulfasalazine (SSZ), an anti-inflammatory drug, acts as an inhibitor of xCT and therefore has potential as a targeted therapy for CSCs. In this study, we tested an efficacy of SSZ against glioma stem cell model developed in rats. As poor penetration of blood-brain barrier resulted in insufficient efficacy of systemic SSZ treatment, SSZ was delivered locally with convection-enhanced delivery (CED)...
September 19, 2017: Journal of Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28929205/simulation-of-the-osmosis-based-drug-encapsulation-in-erythrocytes
#4
Duobiao Ge, Lili Zou, Chengpan Li, Sen Liu, Shibo Li, Sijie Sun, Weiping Ding
Drug-loaded erythrocytes have been proposed for the treatment of disease. A common way to load drugs into erythrocytes is to apply osmotic shock. Currently, osmosis-based drug encapsulation is studied mainly experimentally, whereas a related theoretical model is still incomplete. In this study, a set of equations is developed to simulate the osmosis-based drug-encapsulation process. First, the modeling is validated with hemolysis rates and the drug-loaded quantities to be found in the literature. Then, the variation of the erythrocyte volume, formation of the pore on the erythrocyte membrane, and quantities of drug loaded into and hemoglobin released from erythrocytes are studied...
September 20, 2017: European Biophysics Journal: EBJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928408/local-atmospheric-response-to-warm-mesoscale-ocean-eddies-in-the-kuroshio-oyashio-confluence-region
#5
Shusaku Sugimoto, Kenji Aono, Shin Fukui
In the extratropical regions, surface winds enhance upward heat release from the ocean to atmosphere, resulting in cold surface ocean: surface ocean temperature is negatively correlated with upward heat flux. However, in the western boundary currents and eddy-rich regions, the warmer surface waters compared to surrounding waters enhance upward heat release-a positive correlation between upward heat release and surface ocean temperature, implying that the ocean drives the atmosphere. The atmospheric response to warm mesoscale ocean eddies with a horizontal extent of a few hundred kilometers remains unclear because of a lack of observations...
September 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28927549/improved-threshold-selection-for-the-determination-of-volume-of-distribution-of-nanoparticles-administered-by-convection-enhanced-delivery
#6
David Lei Chi, Eric Song, Alice Gaudin, W Mark Saltzman
Nanotechnology, in conjunction with convection-enhanced delivery (CED), has gained traction as a promising method to treat many debilitating neurological diseases, including gliomas. One of the key parameters to evaluate the effectiveness of delivery is the volume of distribution (Vd) of nanoparticles within the brain parenchyma. Measurements of Vd are commonly made using fluorescent reporter systems. However, reported analyses lack accurate and robust methods for determining Vd. Current methods face the problems of varying background intensities between images, high intensity aggregates that can shift intensity distributions, and faint residual backgrounds that can occur as artifacts of fluorescent imaging...
August 24, 2017: Computerized Medical Imaging and Graphics: the Official Journal of the Computerized Medical Imaging Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926797/experimental-study-of-radiation-dose-rate-at-different-strategic-points-of-the-baec-triga-research-reactor
#7
M Ajijul Hoq, M A Malek Soner, M A Salam, M M Haque, Salma Khanom, S M Fahad
The 3MW TRIGA Mark-II Research Reactor of Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission (BAEC) has been under operation for about thirty years since its commissioning at 1986. In accordance with the demand of fundamental nuclear research works, the reactor has to operate at different power levels by utilizing a number of experimental facilities. Regarding the enquiry for safety of reactor operating personnel and radiation workers, it is necessary to know the radiation level at different strategic points of the reactor where they are often worked...
September 9, 2017: Applied Radiation and Isotopes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926738/effect-of-convection-and-b1-inhomogeneity-on-singlet-relaxation-experiments
#8
B Kharkov, X Duan, J W Canary, A Jerschow
Nuclear spin singlet lifetimes can often exceed the T1 length scales by a large factor. This property makes them suitable for polarization storage. The measurement of such long lifetimes itself can become challenging due to the influence of even very weak relaxation mechanisms. Here we show that a judicious choice of the singlet-to-triplet conversion method is highly important in order to achieve reliable singlet relaxation measurements. In particular, we identify thermal convection, in connection with B1 field gradients, asa significant apparent decay mechanism, which limits the ability to measure the true singlet state lifetimes...
September 12, 2017: Journal of Magnetic Resonance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926270/an-ultra-thin-nanoporous-membrane-evaporator
#9
Zhengmao Lu, Kyle L Wilke, Daniel John Preston, Ikuya Kinefuchi, Elizabeth F Chang-Davidson, Evelyn N Wang
Evaporation is a ubiquitous phenomenon found in nature and widely used in industry. Yet fundamental understanding of interfacial transport during evaporation remains limited to date owing to the difficulty of characterizing the heat and mass transfer at the interface, especially at high heat fluxes ( > 100 W/cm(2)). In this work, we elucidated evaporation into an air ambient with an ultra-thin (≈ 200 nm thick) nanoporous (≈ 130 nm pore diameter) membrane. With our evaporator design, we accurately monitored the temperature of the liquid-vapor interface, reduced the thermal-fluidic transport resistance and mitigated the clogging risk associated with contamination...
September 19, 2017: Nano Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28924606/active-pacific-meridional-overturning-circulation-pmoc-during-the-warm-pliocene
#10
Natalie J Burls, Alexey V Fedorov, Daniel M Sigman, Samuel L Jaccard, Ralf Tiedemann, Gerald H Haug
An essential element of modern ocean circulation and climate is the Atlantic meridional overturning circulation (AMOC), which includes deep-water formation in the subarctic North Atlantic. However, a comparable overturning circulation is absent in the Pacific, the world's largest ocean, where relatively fresh surface waters inhibit North Pacific deep convection. We present complementary measurement and modeling evidence that the warm, ~400-ppmv (parts per million by volume) CO2 world of the Pliocene supported subarctic North Pacific deep-water formation and a Pacific meridional overturning circulation (PMOC) cell...
September 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923993/spectropolarimetry-of-stripped-envelope-supernovae-observations-and-modelling
#11
Masaomi Tanaka
Spectropolarimetry is one of the most powerful methods to study the multi-dimensional geometry of supernovae (SNe). We present a brief summary of the spectropolarimetric observations of stripped-envelope core-collapse SNe. Observations indicate that stripped-envelope SNe generally have a non-axisymmetric ion distribution in the ejecta. Three-dimensional clumpy geometry nicely explains the observed properties. A typical size of the clumps deduced from observations is relatively large: [Formula: see text]25% of the photosphere...
October 28, 2017: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28922555/laser-micro-ablation-of-fibrocartilage-tissue-effects-of-tissue-processing-on-porosity-modification-and-mechanics
#12
A M Matuska, P S McFetridge
The temporomandibular joint disk (TMJd) is an extremely dense and avascular fibrocartilaginous extracellular matrix (ECM) resulting in a limited regenerative capacity. The use of decellularized TMJd as a biocompatible scaffold to guide tissue regeneration is restricted by innate subcellular porosity of the ECM that hinders cellular infiltration and regenerative events. Incorporation of an artificial microporosity through laser micro-ablation (LMA) can alleviate these cell and diffusion based limitations. In this study, LMA was performed either before or after decellularization to assess to effect of surfactant treatment on porosity modification as well as the resultant mechanical and physical scaffold properties...
September 18, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part B, Applied Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919477/influence-of-microwave-heating-on-biogas-production-from-sida-hermaphrodita-silage
#13
Marcin Zieliński, Marcin Dębowski, Paulina Rusanowska
This study compared the effects on biogas production of suspended sludge versus a combination of suspended sludge and immobilized biomass, and microwave versus convection heating. Biogas production was the highest in the hybrid bioreactor heated by microwaves (385L/kg VS) and also the most stable, as shown by the FOS/TAC ratio and pH. Regardless of the type of heating, biogas production was 8% higher with immobilized biomass than without. Although the lag phase of biogas production was shorter with microwave heating than without, the log phase was longer, and biogas production in the microwave heated bioreactors took about twice as long (ca...
September 1, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917289/imaging-of-convective-drug-delivery-in-the-nervous-system
#14
REVIEW
Russell R Lonser
Convection-enhanced delivery permits the direct homogeneous delivery of small- and large-molecular-weight putative therapeutics to the nervous system in a manner that bypasses the blood-nervous system barrier. The development of co-infused surrogate imaging tracers (for computed tomography and MRI) allows for the real-time, noninvasive monitoring of infusate distribution during convective delivery. Real-time image monitoring of convective distribution of therapeutic agents insures that targeted structures/nervous system regions are adequately perfused, enhances safety, informs efficacy (or lack thereof) of putative agents, and provides critical information regarding the properties of convection-enhanced delivery in normal and various pathologic tissue states...
October 2017: Neurosurgery Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916810/horizontal-extent-of-the-urban-heat-dome-flow
#15
Yifan Fan, Yuguo Li, Adrian Bejan, Yi Wang, Xinyan Yang
Urban heat dome flow, which is also referred to as urban heat island circulation, is important for urban ventilation and pollutant transport between adjacent cities when the background wind is weak or absent. A "dome-shaped" profile can form at the upper boundary of the urban heat island circulation. The horizontal extent of the heat dome is an important parameter for estimating the size of the area it influences. This study reviews the existing data on the horizontal extent of the urban heat dome flow, as determined by using either field measurements or numerical simulations...
September 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914301/addressing-the-distribution-of-proteins-spotted-on-%C3%AE-pads
#16
Laura McCann, Tomás E Benavidez, Sarah Holtsclaw, Carlos D Garcia
Adsorption is the most common approach to immobilize biorecognition elements on the surface of paper-based devices. Adsorption is also the route selected to coat the substrate with albumin, therefore minimizing the interaction of other proteins. While similar in nature, the structure of the selected proteins as well as the conditions selected from the immobilization have a significant effect on the amount and distribution of the resulting composites. To illustrate these differences and provide general guidelines to efficiently prepare these devices, this article explores the interaction (adsorption and desorption) of BSA with 3MM chromatography paper...
September 15, 2017: Analyst
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28911239/controlled-release-of-liposome-encapsulated-temozolomide-for-brain-tumor-treatment-by-convection-enhanced-delivery
#17
Chung-Yin Lin, Rui-Jin Li, Chiung-Yin Huang, Kuo-Chen Wei, Pin-Yuan Chen
Convection-enhanced delivery (CED) is a promising technique for the delivery of drugs directly into the central nervous system (CNS) and, more specifically, the brain. CED can increase drug concentration within a brain tumor, thereby improving the therapeutic efficacy and limiting the systemic toxicity of tumoricidal agents. In this study, we evaluated a drug-liposome construct in vitro and in vivo using U87 tumor-bearing nude mice. Dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC)-based liposomes were designed to deliver a lipophilic temozolomide (TMZ) formulation (LipoTMZ)...
September 15, 2017: Journal of Drug Targeting
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910801/large-middle-molecule-and-albumin-removal-why-should-we-not-rest-on-our-laurels
#18
Nans Florens, L Juillard
Large middle molecules (LMM) are an important subclass of uremic toxins. Many of them have been linked with poor outcomes in hemodialysis (HD) patients. The onset of high-flux membranes and convective techniques allowed to dramatically improve their clearance but without a clear and undebatable reduction of mortality in HD patients. Despite the real effect on the removal of selected toxins, little is known about the influence of modern HD techniques on the global removal of uremic toxins. Mostly explained by a lack of knowledge and selective assays, LMM removal is not evaluated appropriately...
2017: Contributions to Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910800/the-place-of-large-pore-membranes-in-the-treatment-portfolio-of-patients-on-hemodialysis
#19
Wim Van Biesen, Raymond Vanholder, Eva Schepers, Griet Glorieux, Annemieke Dhondt, Sunny Eloot
Cardiovascular disease is a major concern in patients with end-stage kidney disease (ESKD). Inflammation induced by retention of uremic toxins, of which a substantial fraction has a molecular weight in the middle molecular range, has been associated with increased cardiovascular risk. In an attempt to reduce inflammation and thus cardiovascular toxicity in patients with ESKD, hemodiafiltration (HDF) has been promoted to enhance the clearance of middle molecular weight substances during dialysis. However, HDF increases the technical complexity and costs, and requires ultrapure dialysis fluid...
2017: Contributions to Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910796/modeling-of-internal-filtration-in-theranova-hemodialyzers
#20
Anna Lorenzin, Mauro Neri, William R Clark, Francesco Garzotto, Alessandra Brendolan, Federico Nalesso, Nicola Marchionna, Monica Zanella, Marco Sartori, Gianfranco B Fiore, Claudio Ronco
High retention onset (HRO) is the designation for a new class of hemodialysis membranes. A unique characteristic of this class is the highly selective and controlled porosity resulting in sieving properties that provide a clinically desirable balance between middle/large molecular weight solute removal and albumin loss. Another defining feature of this membrane class is the relatively small fiber diameter, which produces high convective volumes in the form of internal filtration. The aim of the present study was to estimate, by semi-empirical methods, convective volumes for 2 new HRO dialyzers: Theranova 400 and Theranova 500 (Baxter International Inc...
2017: Contributions to Nephrology
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