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Tasawar Hayat, Arsalan Aziz, Taseer Muhammad, Ahmed Alsaedi
Here magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) boundary layer flow of Jeffrey nanofluid by a nonlinear stretching surface is addressed. Heat generation/absorption and convective surface condition effects are considered. Novel features of Brownian motion and thermophoresis are present. A non-uniform applied magnetic field is employed. Boundary layer and small magnetic Reynolds number assumptions are employed in the formulation. A newly developed condition with zero nanoparticles mass flux is imposed. The resulting nonlinear systems are solved...
2017: PloS One
Timothy J Ross-Elliott, Kaare H Jensen, Katrine S Haaning, Brittney Michaelle Wager, Jan Knoblauch, Alexander H Howell, Daniel L Mullendore, Alexander G Monteith, Danae Paultre, Dawei Yan, Sofia Otero-Perez, Matthieu Bourdon, Ross Sager, Jung-Youn Lee, Ykä Helariutta, Michael Knoblauch, Karl John Oparka
In plants, a complex mixture of solutes and macromolecules is transported by the phloem. Here we examined how solutes and macromolecules are separated when they exit the phloem during the unloading process. We used a combination of approaches (non-invasive imaging, 3D-electron microscopy, and mathematical modelling) to show that phloem unloading of solutes in Arabidopsis roots occurs through plasmodesmata by a combination of mass flow and diffusion (convective phloem unloading). During unloading, solutes and proteins are diverted into the phloem-pole pericycle, a tissue connected to the protophloem by a unique class of 'funnel plasmodesmata'...
February 23, 2017: ELife
Kei Hirose, Guillaume Morard, Ryosuke Sinmyo, Koichio Umemoto, John Hernlund, George Helffrich, Stéphane Labrosse
The Earth's core is about ten per cent less dense than pure iron (Fe), suggesting that it contains light elements as well as iron. Modelling of core formation at high pressure (around 40-60 gigapascals) and high temperature (about 3,500 kelvin) in a deep magma ocean predicts that both silicon (Si) and oxygen (O) are among the impurities in the liquid outer core. However, only the binary systems Fe-Si and Fe-O have been studied in detail at high pressures, and little is known about the compositional evolution of the Fe-Si-O ternary alloy under core conditions...
February 22, 2017: Nature
Tasawar Hayat, Hina Zahir, Anum Tanveer, Ahmad Alsaedi
The purpose of present article is to examine the peristaltic flow of Jeffrey fluid in a curved channel. An electrically conducting fluid in the presence of radial applied magnetic field is considered. Analysis of heat and mass transfer is carried out. More generalized realistic constraints namely the convective conditions are utilized. Soret and Dufour effects are retained. Problems formulation is given for long wavelength and low Reynolds number assumptions. The expressions of velocity, temperature, heat transfer coefficient, concentration and stream function are computed...
2017: PloS One
Gabriel Yarmush, Lucas Santos, Joshua Yarmush, Srivathsan Koundinyan, Mubasher Saleem, Nir I Nativ, Martin L Yarmush, Francois Berthiaume, Timothy J Maguire, Chris Guaghan
Donor livers available to transplant for patients with end-stage liver disease are in severe shortage. One possible avenue to expand the donor pool is to recondition livers that would be otherwise discarded due to excessive fat content. Severely steatotic livers (also known as fatty livers) are highly susceptible to ischemia-reperfusion injury and as a result, primary liver non-function post-transplantation. Prior studies in isolated perfused rat livers suggest that "defatting" may be possible in a timeframe of a few hours; thus, it is conceivable that fatty liver grafts could be recovered by machine perfusion to clear stored fat from the organ prior to transplantation...
February 20, 2017: Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology
Marie Moiré, Yannick Peysson, Benjamin Herzhaft, Nicolas Pannacci, François Gallaire, Laura Angello, Christine Dalmazzone, Andrea Fani, Annie Colin
In this paper, we present a dynamic microfluidic tensiometer able to perform measurements over more than four decades and which is suitable for high throughput experimentations. Depending on the flow rate of each phase, either droplets or jetting will be obtained. The transition between these two regimes relays on the Rayleigh-Plateau instability. This transition can be theoretically computed thanks to a linear analysis based on the convective and absolute instabilities theory. From this model, the interfacial tension between the two phases can be calculated...
February 20, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Wei-Tao Wu, Megan A Jamiolkowski, William R Wagner, Nadine Aubry, Mehrdad Massoudi, James F Antaki
In this paper, we present a spatio-temporal mathematical model for simulating the formation and growth of a thrombus. Blood is treated as a multi-constituent mixture comprised of a linear fluid phase and a thrombus (solid) phase. The transport and reactions of 10 chemical and biological species are incorporated using a system of coupled convection-reaction-diffusion (CRD) equations to represent three processes in thrombus formation: initiation, propagation and stabilization. Computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulations using the libraries of OpenFOAM were performed for two illustrative benchmark problems: in vivo thrombus growth in an injured blood vessel and in vitro thrombus deposition in micro-channels (1...
February 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
Sho Fujii, Ryuta Fukano, Yoshihito Hayami, Hiroaki Ozawa, Eiro Muneyuki, Noboru Kitamura, Masa-Aki Haga
We demonstrate the simultaneous formation and spatial patterning of ZnO nanocrystals on an indium-tin oxide (ITO) surface upon local heating using a laser (1064 nm) and subsequent formation of microbubbles. Laser irradiation of an ITO surface in aqueous [Zn(NH3)4](2+) solution (1.0 × 10(-2) M at pH = 12.0) under an optical microscope produced ZnO nanocrystals, the presence of which was confirmed by X-ray diffraction analysis and Raman microspectroscopy. Scanning the focused laser beam over the ITO surface generated a spatial ZnO pattern (height: ~60 nm, width: ~1 m) in the absence of a template or mask...
February 20, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Shiqiang Liu, Rong Zhu
Micromachined fluid inertial sensors are an important class of inertial sensors, which mainly includes thermal accelerometers and fluid gyroscopes, which have now been developed since the end of the last century for about 20 years. Compared with conventional silicon or quartz inertial sensors, the fluid inertial sensors use a fluid instead of a solid proof mass as the moving and sensitive element, and thus offer advantages of simple structures, low cost, high shock resistance, and large measurement ranges while the sensitivity and bandwidth are not competitive...
February 14, 2017: Sensors
Jonas Bühler, Gregor Huber, Eric von Lieres
Compartmental models can be used for inverse modeling of long distance tracer transport experiments in plants. Such transport models describe axial convection and diffusion as well as exchange between compartments, and are defined by partial differential equations (PDEs). Since for inverse modelling, the forward simulation needs to be evaluated frequently, a fast PDE solver is required. Here, we compare several different finite volumes schemes up to fifth order for spatial discretization with respect to accuracy, computation time and numerical oscillations...
February 16, 2017: Mathematical Biosciences
B L Smorodin, I N Cherepanov, S N Ishutov, B I Myznikova
The results of a theoretical study are presented dealing with convective heat and mass transfer in a colloidal suspension through a Hele-Shaw cell heated from below. The numerical analysis, based on a multi-component model, reveals that for a certain range of parameter values the dynamical regimes of travelling waves as well as oscillatory fingering formation are stable. The bifurcation phenomena and nonlinear evolution of spatiotemporal patterns that develop in the colloid suspension are modeled and discussed, paying special attention to the combined effects of gravity sedimentation, thermal diffusion with positive separation ratio and convection...
February 2017: European Physical Journal. E, Soft Matter
J Scott Baird
The relationship between the sieving coefficient (SC) or extraction ratio (ER) and the molecular weight (MW) of peptide and protein solutes during hemofiltration has not been investigated; it is possible that the SC and ER correlate with MW, permitting an estimate of peptide and protein clearance by hemofiltration in the absence of empiric data. A search for studies of the SC and/or ER for peptide and protein solutes during hemofiltration identified data for β2-microglobulin, brain natriuretic peptide, carperitide, IL-1β, IL-1RA, IL-6, IL-8, lysozyme, myoglobin, neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin, procalcitonin, retinol-binding protein, TNF-α, soluble TNFR-1, soluble TNFR-II, and vasopressin using polyacrylonitrile, polysulfone, polyamide, and cellulose hemofilters...
February 17, 2017: Clinical Nephrology
Will Levandowski, Mark Zellman, Rich Briggs
Earthquakes far from tectonic plate boundaries generally exploit ancient faults, but not all intraplate faults are equally active. The North American Great Plains exemplify such intraplate earthquake localization, with both natural and induced seismicity generally clustered in discrete zones. Here we use seismic velocity, gravity and topography to generate a 3D lithospheric density model of the region; subsequent finite-element modelling shows that seismicity focuses in regions of high-gravity-derived deviatoric stress...
February 17, 2017: Nature Communications
Sambeeta Das, Oleg E Shklyaev, Alicia Altemose, Henry Shum, Isamar Ortiz-Rivera, Lyanne Valdez, Thomas E Mallouk, Anna C Balazs, Ayusman Sen
The directed transport of microparticles in microfluidic devices is vital for efficient bioassays and fabrication of complex microstructures. There remains, however, a need for methods to propel and steer microscopic cargo that do not require modifying these particles. Using theory and experiments, we show that catalytic surface reactions can be used to deliver microparticle cargo to specified regions in microchambers. Here reagents diffuse from a gel reservoir and react with the catalyst-coated surface. Fluid density gradients due to the spatially varying reagent concentration induce a convective flow, which carries the suspended particles until the reagents are consumed...
February 17, 2017: Nature Communications
Umberto Tosi, Christopher S Marnell, Raymond Chang, William C Cho, Richard Ting, Uday B Maachani, Mark M Souweidane
Thanks to the recent advances in the development of chemotherapeutics, the morbidity and mortality of many cancers has decreased significantly. However, compared to oncology in general, the field of neuro-oncology has lagged behind. While new molecularly targeted chemotherapeutics have emerged, the impermeability of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) renders systemic delivery of these clinical agents suboptimal. To circumvent the BBB, novel routes of administration are being applied in the clinic, ranging from intra-arterial infusion and direct infusion into the target tissue (convection enhanced delivery (CED)) to the use of focused ultrasound to temporarily disrupt the BBB...
February 8, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Md Almostasim Mahmud, Brendan D MacDonald
In this paper we experimentally examine evaporation flux distributions and modes of interfacial energy transport for continuously fed evaporating spherical sessile water droplets in a regime that is relevant for applications, particularly for evaporative cooling systems. The contribution of the thermal conduction through the vapor phase was found to be insignificant compared to the thermal conduction through the liquid phase for the conditions we investigated. The local evaporation flux distributions associated with thermal conduction were found to vary along the surface of the droplet...
January 2017: Physical Review. E
Irina Ginzburg
The effect of the heterogeneity in the soil structure or the nonuniformity of the velocity field on the modeled resident time distribution (RTD) and breakthrough curves is quantified by their moments. While the first moment provides the effective velocity, the second moment is related to the longitudinal dispersion coefficient (k_{T}) in the developed Taylor regime; the third and fourth moments are characterized by their normalized values skewness (Sk) and kurtosis (Ku), respectively. The purpose of this investigation is to examine the role of the truncation corrections of the numerical scheme in k_{T}, Sk, and Ku because of their interference with the second moment, in the form of the numerical dispersion, and in the higher-order moments, by their definition...
January 2017: Physical Review. E
Barry W Fitzgerald, Johan T Padding, Rutger van Santen
We present results from a new variant of a diffusion hopping model, the convective diffusive lattice model, to describe the behavior of a particulate flux around bluff obstacles. Particle interactions are constrained to an underlying square lattice where particles are subject to excluded volume conditions. In an extension to previous models, we impose a real continuous velocity field upon the lattice such that particles have an associated velocity vector. We use this velocity field to mediate the position update of the particles through the use of a convective update after which particles also undergo diffusion...
January 2017: Physical Review. E
Christian Iffelsberger, Preety Vatsyayan, Frank-Michael Matysik
In the present report the well-known advantages of hydrodynamic mass transport in electrochemical systems are used in combination with scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM). The hydrodynamic SECM system integrates a high-precision stirring device into the experimental setup. The well-defined stirring of the SECM electrolyte results in steady state diffusion layer characteristics in the vicinity of large substrate electrodes operated in chronoamperometric measuring mode. For a range of rotation frequencies of a rotating cylinder the thickness and the stability of the diffusion layer was studied by hydrodynamic SECM in the substrate generation/tip collection (SG/TC) as well as in the competition mode using ferrocene methanol as redox mediator...
February 7, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
Xiangmeng Qu, Hongbo Zhang, Hong Chen, Ali Aldalbahi, Li Li, Yang Tian, David A Weitz, Hao Pei
One of the great challenges in cellular studies is to develop a rapid and biocompatible analytical tool for single-cell analysis. We report a rapid, DNA nanostructure-supported aptamer pull-down (DNaPull) assay under convective flux in a glass capillary for analyzing contents of droplets with nano or picoliter volumes. We have demonstrated that the scaffolded aptamer can greatly improve the efficiency of target molecules' pull-down. The convective flux enables complete reaction in less than 5 min, which is an 18-fold improvement compared to purely diffusive flux (traditional model of stationary case)...
February 16, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
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