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Shaodong Hu, Annie Gagnoud, Yves Fautrelle, Rene Moreau, Xi Li
Aluminum alloy in situ functionally graded materials (FGMs) have been successfully fabricated using directional solidification under an axial static magnetic field. Al-Zn, Al-Ni and Al-Cu alloys with a hypereutectic composition were selected to produce FGMs. Experimental results show that the graded composition of the primary phases (i.e., Zn, Al3 Ni and Al2 Cu) is obvious along the longitudinal section of the sample. The graded composition of the primary phases could be controlled by the value of the magnetic field, growth rate and temperature gradient...
May 21, 2018: Scientific Reports
Matthias Luz, Philip C Allen, John Bringas, Chris Boiko, Diane E Stockinger, Kristen J Nikula, Owen Lewis, Max Woolley, H Christian Fibiger, Krystof Bankiewicz, Erich Mohr
Glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) has demonstrated neurorestorative and neuroprotective effects in rodent and nonhuman primate models of Parkinson's disease. However, continuous intraputamenal infusion of GDNF (100 µg/day) resulted in multifocal cerebellar Purkinje cell loss in a 6-month toxicity study in rhesus monkeys. It was hypothesized that continuous leakage of GDNF into the cerebrospinal fluid compartment during the infusions led to down-regulation of GDNF receptors on Purkinje cells, and that subsequent acute withdrawal of GDNF then mediated the observed cerebellar lesions...
May 22, 2018: Archives of Toxicology
Zhi Liu, Zhiguo Qu, Ruihua Tang, Xiaocong He, Hui Yang, Dan Bai, Feng Xu
Lateral flow assays (LFAs) have attracted considerable attention in biomedical diagnostics. However, it's still challenging to achieve a high detection sensitivity and extensive working range, mainly because the underlying mechanism of complex reaction processes in LFAs remains unclear. Many mathematical models have been developed to analyze the complex reaction processes, which are only qualitative with limited guidance for LFA design. Now, a semi-quantitative convection-diffusion-reaction model is developed by considering the kinetics of renaturation of nucleic acids and the model is validated by our experiments...
May 21, 2018: Analyst
S A Kiehas, A Runov, V Angelopolos, H Hietala, D Korovinksiy
As a direct result of magnetic reconnection, plasma sheet fast flows act as primary transporter of mass, flux, and energy in the Earth's magnetotail. During the last decades, these flows were mainly studied within X GSM >-60 R E , as observations near or beyond lunar orbit were limited. By using 5 years (2011-2015) of ARTEMIS (Acceleration, Reconnection, Turbulence, and Electrodynamics of the Moons Interaction with the Sun) data, we statistically investigate earthward and tailward flows at around 60  R E downtail...
March 2018: Journal of Geophysical Research. Space Physics
Zhihong Tan, Colleen M Kaul, Kyle G Pressel, Yair Cohen, Tapio Schneider, João Teixeira
Large-scale weather forecasting and climate models are beginning to reach horizontal resolutions of kilometers, at which common assumptions made in existing parameterization schemes of subgrid-scale turbulence and convection-such as that they adjust instantaneously to changes in resolved-scale dynamics-cease to be justifiable. Additionally, the common practice of representing boundary-layer turbulence, shallow convection, and deep convection by discontinuously different parameterizations schemes, each with its own set of parameters, has contributed to the proliferation of adjustable parameters in large-scale models...
March 2018: Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems
Nelly Sophie Raymond, Dorette Müller Stöver, Lars Stoumann Jensen, Sebastian Håkansson
The impact of formulation and desiccation on the shelf life of phosphate (P)-solubilising microorganisms is often under-studied, particularly relating to their ability to recover P-solubilisation activity. Here, Penicilllium bilaiae and Aspergillus niger were formulated on vermiculite (V) alone, or with the addition of protectants (skimmed milk (V + SM) and trehalose (V + T)), and on sewage sludge ash with (A + N) and without nutrients (A), and dried in a convective air dryer. After drying, the spore viability of P...
May 17, 2018: Journal of Microbiological Methods
M Xu, M R Paul
We explore the spatiotemporal dynamics of the spectrum of covariant Lyapunov vectors for chaotic Rayleigh-Bénard convection. We use the inverse participation ratio to quantify the amount of spatial localization of the covariant Lyapunov vectors. The covariant Lyapunov vectors are found to be spatially localized at times when the instantaneous covariant Lyapunov exponents are large. The spatial localization of the Lyapunov vectors often occurs near defect structures in the fluid flow field. There is an overall trend of decreasing spatial localization of the Lyapunov vectors with increasing index of the vector...
March 2018: Physical Review. E
Naoki Iikawa, M M Bandi, Hiroaki Katsuragi
We experimentally study the statistics of force-chain evolution in a vertically-tapped two-dimensional granular packing by using photoelastic disks. In this experiment, the tapped granular packing is gradually compacted. During the compaction, the isotropy of grain configurations is quantified by measuring the deviator anisotropy derived from fabric tensor, and then the evolution of force-chain structure is quantified by measuring the interparticle forces and force-chain orientational order parameter. As packing fraction increases, the interparticle force increases and finally saturates to an asymptotic value...
March 2018: Physical Review. E
N V Antonov, N M Gulitskiy, M M Kostenko, A V Malyshev
In this paper we consider the model of incompressible fluid described by the stochastic Navier-Stokes equation with finite correlation time of a random force. Inertial-range asymptotic behavior of fully developed turbulence is studied by means of the field theoretic renormalization group within the one-loop approximation. It is corroborated that regardless of the values of model parameters and initial data the inertial-range behavior of the model is described by the limiting case of vanishing correlation time...
March 2018: Physical Review. E
Tae Ryung Kim, Mahsa Hadidi, Seyed Pouria Motevalian, Takashi Sunohara, Andrew L Zydney
Blood-membrane interactions can have a large impact on the performance of hemodialysis membranes, particularly for high flux membranes in which the membrane itself provides very low resistance to solute transport. The objective of this study was to examine the effects of exposure to serum on the solute clearance and convective sieving characteristics of high flux polysulfone (Optiflux F250NR), polyethersulfone (ELISIO-25H), and asymmetric cellulose triacetate (SOLACEA-25H) hemodialyzers using both vitamin B12 and a range of polydisperse dextrans...
May 17, 2018: Artificial Organs
Ilyas Khan, Nehad Ali Shah, L C C Dennis
This corrects the article DOI: 10.1038/srep40147.
May 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
Nick Sweygers, Niels Alewaters, Raf Dewil, Lise Appels
In this study, the effect of microwaves on the production of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) in a biphasic system was evaluated via a kinetic analysis. The reaction system consisted of an acidified aqueous phase and methyl isobutyl ketone (MIBK) as an organic phase, in which HMF is extracted directly upon formation during the reaction. Two identically shaped reactors were used to assess the influence of microwaves on the production of HMF. A borosilicate glass reactor was used to heat the reaction mixture via microwaves directly, whereas the silicon carbide (SiC) wall of the second reactor absorbed all microwaves and hence the reactor content was heated via convective heat transfer...
May 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
Aaron Dolor, Francis C Szoka
Collagen and hyaluronan are the most abundant components of the extracellular matrix (ECM) and their overexpression in tumors is linked to increased tumor growth and metastasis. These ECM components contribute to a protective tumor microenvironment by supporting a high interstitial fluid pressure and creating a tortuous setting for the convection and diffusion of chemotherapeutic small molecules, antibodies, and nanoparticles in the tumor interstitial space. This review focuses on the research efforts to deplete extracellular collagen with collagenases to normalize the tumor microenvironment...
May 16, 2018: Molecular Pharmaceutics
Christopher H Lusk, Michael J Clearwater, Daniel C Laughlin, Sandy P Harrison, Iain Colin Prentice, Marisa Nordenstahl, Benjamin Smith
Explanations of leaf size variation commonly focus on water availability, yet leaf size also varies with latitude and elevation in environments where water is not strongly limiting. We provide the first conclusive test of a prediction of leaf energy balance theory that may explain this pattern: large leaves are more vulnerable to night-time chilling, because their thick boundary layers impede convective exchange with the surrounding air. Seedlings of 15 New Zealand evergreens spanning 12-fold variation in leaf width were exposed to clear night skies, and leaf temperatures were measured with thermocouples...
May 16, 2018: New Phytologist
Abhishek Kumar, Mahendra K Verma
In this paper, we show that, in the presence of large-scale circulation (LSC), Taylor's hypothesis can be invoked to deduce the energy spectrum in thermal convection using real-space probes, a popular experimental tool. We perform numerical simulation of turbulent convection in a cube and observe that the velocity field follows Kolmogorov's spectrum ( k -5/3 ). We also record the velocity time series using real-space probes near the lateral walls. The corresponding frequency spectrum exhibits Kolmogorov's spectrum ( f -5/3 ), thus validating Taylor's hypothesis with the steady LSC playing the role of a mean velocity field...
April 2018: Royal Society Open Science
D Crevillén-García
Time-consuming numerical simulators for solving groundwater flow and dissolution models of physico-chemical processes in deep aquifers normally require some of the model inputs to be defined in high-dimensional spaces in order to return realistic results. Sometimes, the outputs of interest are spatial fields leading to high-dimensional output spaces. Although Gaussian process emulation has been satisfactorily used for computing faithful and inexpensive approximations of complex simulators, these have been mostly applied to problems defined in low-dimensional input spaces...
April 2018: Royal Society Open Science
Tapan Kumar Pradhan, Pradipta Kumar Panigrahi
We experimentally study the fluid convection inside a condensing droplet of aqueous NaCl solution and compare it with that of an evaporating droplet. The droplets are sandwiched between two horizontal hydrophobic surfaces and surrounded by a reservoir with solution of different concentration. Condensation and evaporation of the droplets occur due to the vapor pressure difference between the droplet and the reservoir solution. The micro-PIV technique has been used to study the velocity field inside the droplets...
May 15, 2018: Soft Matter
Cathy Hohenegger, Bjorn Stevens
Convection-permitting simulations on an idealized land planet are performed to understand whether soil moisture acts to support or impede the organization of convection. Initially, shallow circulations driven by differential radiative cooling induce a self-aggregation of the convection into a single band, as has become familiar from simulations over idealized sea surfaces. With time, however, the drying of the nonprecipitating region induces a reversal of the shallow circulation, drawing the flow at low levels from the precipitating to the nonprecipitating region...
May 14, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Seyed Mostafa Jafari Raad, Hassan Hassanzadeh
Linear stability analysis is conducted to study the onset of density-driven convection involved in solubility trapping of CO_{2} in fractured aquifers. The effect of physical properties of a fracture network on the stability of a diffusive boundary layer in a saturated fractured porous media is investigated using the dual porosity concept. Linear stability analysis results show that both fracture interporosity flow and fracture storativity play an important role in the stability behavior of the system. It is shown that a diffusive boundary layer under the gravity field in fractured porous media with lower fracture storativity and/or higher fracture interporosity flow coefficient is more stable...
April 2018: Physical Review. E
Loreto Oyarte Gálvez, Nicolás Rivas, Devaraj van der Meer
The behavior of a vertically vibrated granular bed is reminiscent of a liquid in that it exhibits many phenomena such as convection and Faraday-like surface waves. However, when the lateral dimensions of the bed are confined such that a quasi-one-dimensional geometry is formed, the only phenomena that remain are bouncing bed and the granular Leidenfrost effect. This permits the observation of the granular Leidenfrost state for a wide range of energy injection parameters and more specifically allows for a thorough characterization of the low-frequency oscillation (LFO) that is present in this state...
April 2018: Physical Review. E
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