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Amine Mnif, Imen Bejaoui, Meral Mouelhi, Béchir Hamrouni
Nanofiltration and reverse osmosis are investigated as a possible alternative to the conventional methods of Cr(VI) removal from model water and industrial effluent. The influences of feed concentration, water recovery, pH, and the coexisting anions were studied. The results have shown that retention rates of hexavalent chromium can reach 99.7% using nanofiltration membrane (NF-HL) and vary from 85 to 99.9% using reverse osmosis membrane (RO-SG) depending upon the composition of the solution and operating conditions...
2017: International Journal of Analytical Chemistry
K Ohnaka, G Weigelt, K-H Hofmann
Red supergiant stars represent a late stage of the evolution of stars more massive than about nine solar masses, in which they develop complex, multi-component atmospheres. Bright spots have been detected in the atmosphere of red supergiants using interferometric imaging. Above the photosphere of a red supergiant, the molecular outer atmosphere extends up to about two stellar radii. Furthermore, the hot chromosphere (5,000 to 8,000 kelvin) and cool gas (less than 3,500 kelvin) of a red supergiant coexist at about three stellar radii...
August 16, 2017: Nature
Yuan Sun, Zhong Zhong, Tim Li, Lan Yi, Yijia Hu, Hongchao Wan, Haishan Chen, Qianfeng Liao, Chen Ma, Qihua Li
The response of tropical cyclone (TC) destructive potential to global warming is an open issue. A number of previous studies have ignored the effect of TC size change in the context of global warming, which resulted in a significant underestimation of the TC destructive potential. The lack of reliable and consistent historical data on TC size limits the confident estimation of the linkage between the observed trend in TC size and that in sea surface temperature (SST) under the background of global climate warming...
August 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
Feng Zhang, Han Chen, Yukan Huang
Recently, subconjunctival and episcleral implants have been proposed in the treatment of anterior eye diseases. In order to improve the delivery efficacy, it is important to understand the transport process of the implanted drugs. A 3D computational model, which includes heat transfer, aqueous humor (AH) flow, as well as diffusive and convective transport of the drug concentration, is developed to study the temporal and spatial evolution of the drug in the anterior segment of a human eye after subconjunctival and episcleral implantation, with a focus on drug delivery to three targets: iris, lens, and trabecular meshwork (TM)...
July 31, 2017: Computers in Biology and Medicine
Zeyang Yu, Arto Nurmikko, Ilker Ozden
BACKGROUND: Widespread opsin expression in the cortex of rats, where transgenic models have not been established, is not practical to achieve with the traditional diffusion-based virus transduction methods (DBD). NEW METHOD: We developed protocols for convection-enhanced delivery (CED) of virus for optogenetic transduction of the rat cortex. Targeting the motor forelimb area as an example, we performed dual-site CED (6 μL of virus per site, 3 mm pitch between sites) in the rat motor cortex...
August 11, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
Elena Bianchi, Monica Piergiovanni, Chiara Arrigoni, Junji Fukuda, Alfonso Gautieri, Matteo Moretti, Gabriele Dubini
Selected adsorption efficiency of a molecule in solution in a microchannel is strongly influenced by the convective/diffusive mass transport phenomena that supply the target molecule to the adsorption surface. In a standard microchannel with a rectangular cross section, laminar flow regime limits the fluid mixing, thus suggesting that mass transport conditions can be improved by the introduction of herringbone-like structures. Tuning of these geometrical patterns increases the concentration gradient of the target molecule at the adsorption surface...
August 9, 2017: Medical Engineering & Physics
Joanna Politowicz, Krzysztof Lech, Leontina Lipan, Adam Figiel, Ángel A Carbonell-Barrachina
BACKGROUND: One of the best preservation method for long-term storage is drying. In this work, the influence of different drying methods on aroma and sensory profile of shiitake mushroom was evaluated. The drying methods tested were: convective drying (CD), freeze-drying (FD), vacuum-microwave drying (VMD), and a combination of convective pre-drying and vacuum-microwave finish-drying (CPD-VMFD). RESULTS: The volatile composition of fresh and dried shiitake mushrooms was analyzed by SPME, GC-MS and GC-FID, and showed the presence of 71 volatile compounds, most of them present in all dried samples but with quantitative variation...
August 12, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Xianbo Qiu, Shiyin Zhang, Lanju Mei, Di Wu, Qi Guo, Ke Li, Shengxiang Ge, Xiangzhong Ye, Ningshao Xia, Michael G Mauk
Almost all the reported capillary convective polymerase chain reaction (CCPCR) systems to date are still limited to research use stemming from unresolved issues related to repeatability, reliability, convenience, and sensitivity. To move CCPCR technology forward toward commercialization, a couple of critical strategies and innovations are discussed here. First, single- and dual-end heating strategies are analyzed and compared between each other. Especially, different solutions for dual-end heating are proposed and discussed, and the heat transfer and fluid flow inside the capillary tube with an optimized dual-end heating strategy are analyzed and modeled...
March 2017: Biomicrofluidics
Catherine E Farrow, Cheryl M Salome, Benjamin E Harris, Dale L Bailey, Norbert Berend, Gregory G King
In asthma, bronchoconstriction causes topographically heterogeneous airway narrowing, as measured by 3-dimensional ventilation imaging. Computation modelling suggests that peripheral airway dysfunction is a potential determinant of acute airway narrowing measured by imaging. We hypothesised that the development of low ventilation regions measured topographically by 3-dimensional imaging after bronchoconstriction is predicted by peripheral airway function. Fourteen (14) asthmatic subjects underwent ventilation Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography/CT (VSPECT/CT) before and after methacholine challenge...
August 10, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
Manfred Westphal, Cecile L Maire, Katrin Lamszus
The receptor for epidermal growth factor (EGFR) is a prime target for cancer therapy across a broad variety of tumor types. As it is a tyrosine kinase, small molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) targeting signal transduction, as well as monoclonal antibodies against the EGFR, have been investigated as anti-tumor agents. However, despite the long-known enigmatic EGFR gene amplification and protein overexpression in glioblastoma, the most aggressive intrinsic human brain tumor, the potential of EGFR as a target for this tumor type has been unfulfilled...
August 8, 2017: CNS Drugs
Stefano Guarino, Giovanni Di Ilio, Simone Venettacci
In this paper, the heat transfer performances of aluminum metal foams, placed on horizontal plane surface, was evaluated in forced convection conditions. Three different types of contacts between the sample and the heated base plate have been investigated: simple contact, brazed contact and grease paste contact. First, in order to perform the study, an ad hoc experimental set-up was built. Second, the value of thermal contact resistance was estimated. The results show that both the use of a conductive paste and the brazing contact, realized by means of a copper electro-deposition, allows a great reduction of the global thermal resistance, increasing de facto the global heat transfer coefficient of almost 80%, compared to the simple contact case...
August 5, 2017: Materials
Sevann Helo, Bradley Holland, Kevin T McVary
PURPOSE: Lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) secondary to benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) are amongst the most commonly treated conditions by urologists. Minimally invasive therapies for the treatment of BPH/LUTS have garnered increased interest as new technology has emerged, improving durability, efficacy, and safety. This paper reviews the most recent literature regarding water vapor therapy, a convective thermal therapy that ablates prostatic tissue. RECENT FINDINGS: The current literature includes a pilot study of 65 men and a randomized controlled trial (RCT) of 197 men investigating the efficacy and safety profile of water vapor therapy up to 2 years...
October 2017: Current Urology Reports
Chenhui Wei, Wancheng Zhu, Shikuo Chen, Pathegama Gamage Ranjith
This paper proposes a coupled thermal-hydrological-mechanical damage (THMD) model for the failure process of rock, in which coupling effects such as thermally induced rock deformation, water flow-induced thermal convection, and rock deformation-induced water flow are considered. The damage is considered to be the key factor that controls the THM coupling process and the heterogeneity of rock is characterized by the Weibull distribution. Next, numerical simulations on excavation-induced damage zones in Äspö pillar stability experiments (APSE) are carried out and the impact of in situ stress conditions on damage zone distribution is analysed...
October 31, 2016: Materials
Wei-Yu Tsai, Guan-Rong Huang, Kuang-Kuo Wang, Chin-Fu Chen, J C Huang
Aluminum alloys, which serve as heat sink in light-emitting diode (LED) lighting, are often inherent with a high thermal conductivity, but poor thermal total emissivity. Thus, high emissive coatings on the Al substrate can enhance the thermal dissipation efficiency of radiation. In this study, the ultrasonic mechanical coating and armoring (UMCA) technique was used to insert various ceramic combinations, such as Al₂O₃, SiO₂, or graphite, to enhance thermal dissipation. Analytic models have been established to couple the thermal radiation and convection on the sample surface through heat flow equations...
April 26, 2017: Materials
Yanhui Liu, Jieqiong Ding, Weicheng Qu, Yu Su, Zhishui Yu
In this paper, a TiC reinforcement metal matrix composite coating is produced using nickel and graphite mixing powder on the surface ofTi-6Al-4V alloy by laser radiation. The microstructure of the coatings is investigated by XRD, SEM and EDS. Results show that most of the TiC phase is granular, with a size of several micrometers, and a few of the TiC phases are petals or flakes. At the cross-section of the coatings, a few special TiC patterns are found and these TiC patterns do not always occur at the observed cross-section...
March 11, 2017: Materials
Maeum Han, Jae Keon Kim, Jin-Hyoung Park, Woojin Kim, Shin-Won Kang, Seong Ho Kong, Daewoong Jung
This paper presents a thermal convection-based sensor fabricated using simple microelectromechanical systems (MEMS)-based processes. This sensor can be applied to both acceleration and inclination measurements without modifying the structure. Because the operating mechanism of the accelerometer is the thermal convection of a gas medium, a simple model is proposed and developed in which the performance of the thermal convection-based accelerometer is closely associated with the Grashof number, Gr and the Prandtl number, Pr...
August 2, 2017: Sensors
Ryan M Evans, David A Edwards
Optical biosensors are often used to measure kinetic rate constants associated with chemical reactions. Such instruments operate in the surface-volume configuration, in which ligand molecules are convected through a fluid-filled volume over a surface to which receptors are confined. Currently, scientists are using optical biosensors to measure the kinetic rate constants associated with DNA translesion synthesis-a process critical to DNA damage repair. Biosensor experiments to study this process involve multiple interacting components on the sensor surface...
August 1, 2017: Bulletin of Mathematical Biology
Sitaram P Velaga, Dariush Nikjoo, Parameswara R Vuddanda
The process of drying thin polymer films is an important operation that influences the film structure and solid state, and the stability of the product. The purpose of this work was to study and model the drying kinetics of multicomponent films based on two polymers: hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC, amorphous) and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA, semicrystalline). The isothermal drying kinetics of the films at different temperatures (40, 60, and 80°C) were studied using thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA) and convection oven methods...
July 31, 2017: AAPS PharmSciTech
James A Montague, George F Pinder, Jay V Gonyea, Scott Hipko, Richard Watts
Magnetic resonance imaging is used to observe solute transport in a 40cm long, 26cm diameter sand column that contained a central core of low permeability silica surrounded by higher permeability well-sorted sand. Low concentrations (2.9g/L) of Magnevist, a gadolinium based contrast agent, produce density driven convection within the column when it starts in an unstable state. The unstable state, for this experiment, exists when higher density contrast agent is present above the lower density water. We implement a numerical model in OpenFOAM to reproduce the observed fluid flow and transport from a density difference of 0...
July 25, 2017: Journal of Contaminant Hydrology
Agnieszka Nawirska-Olszańska, Bogdan Stępień, Anita Biesiada, Joanna Kolniak-Ostek, Maciej Oziembłowski
Studies on methods for fixing foods (with a slight loss of bioactive compounds) and obtaining attractive products are important with respect to current technology. The drying process allows for a product with highly bioactive properties. Drying of Physalis fruit was carried out in a conventional manner, and in a microwave under reduced pressure at 120 W and 480 W. After drying, the fruits were subjected to strength and rheological tests. Water activity, content of carotenoids and polyphenols and antioxidant activity as well as colour were also examined...
July 29, 2017: Foods (Basel, Switzerland)
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