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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079075/hydroclimate-changes-across-the-amazon-lowlands-over-the-past-45-000-years
#1
Xianfeng Wang, R Lawrence Edwards, Augusto S Auler, Hai Cheng, Xinggong Kong, Yongjin Wang, Francisco W Cruz, Jeffrey A Dorale, Hong-Wei Chiang
Reconstructing the history of tropical hydroclimates has been difficult, particularly for the Amazon basin-one of Earth's major centres of deep atmospheric convection. For example, whether the Amazon basin was substantially drier or remained wet during glacial times has been controversial, largely because most study sites have been located on the periphery of the basin, and because interpretations can be complicated by sediment preservation, uncertainties in chronology, and topographical setting. Here we show that rainfall in the basin responds closely to changes in glacial boundary conditions in terms of temperature and atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide...
January 11, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072430/measurement-of-thermal-conductivity-of-porcine-liver-in-the-temperature-range-of-cryotherapy-and-hyperthermia-250-315k-by-a-thermal-sensor-made-of-a-micron-scale-enameled-copper-wire
#2
Z D Jiang, G Zhao, G R Lu
:   BACKGROUND: Cryotherapy and hyperthermia are effective treatments for several diseases, especially for liver cancers. Thermal conductivity is a significant thermal property for the prediction and guidance of surgical procedure. However, the thermal conductivities of organs and tissues, especially over the temperature range of both cryotherapy and hyperthermia are scarce. OBJECTIVE: To provide comprehensive thermal conductivity of liver for both cryotherapy and hyperthermia...
November 2016: Cryo Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28071006/sensory-qualities-of-pastry-products-enriched-with-dietary-fiber-and-polyphenolic-substances
#3
Patrycja Komolka, Danuta Górecka, Krystyna Szymandera-Buszka, Anna Jędrusek-Golińska, Krzysztof Dziedzic, Katarzyna Waszkowiak
BACKGROUND: Growing consumer demand for products with pro-health properties is forcing food manufacturers to introduce new food items onto the market, which will not only possess such health-enhancing properties but will also compete on the grounds of sensory attributes - taste, flavour, texture etc. METHODS: The aim was to evaluate these sensory attributes of pastry products enhanced with biologically active compounds, such as inulin, buckwheat hull and buckwheat flour...
April 2016: Acta Scientiarum Polonorum. Technologia Alimentaria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069367/co-variability-and-its-association-with-household-cooking-fuels-consumption-over-the-indo-gangetic-plains
#4
Alok Kumar Pandey, Amit Kumar Mishra, Ritesh Kumar, Shivesh Berwal, Rakhesh Devadas, Alfredo Huete, Krishan Kumar
This study examines the spatio-temporal trends obtained from decade long (Jan 2003-Dec 2014) satellite observational data of Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) and Measurements of Pollution in the Troposphere (MOPITT) on carbon monoxide (CO) concentration over the Indo-Gangetic Plains (IGP) region. The time sequence plots of columnar CO levels over the western, central and eastern IGP regions reveal marked seasonal behaviour, with lowest CO levels occurring during the monsoon months and the highest CO levels occurring during the pre-monsoon period...
January 6, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069213/effect-of-ultrasound-assisted-osmotic-dehydration-pretreatment-on-the-convective-drying-of-strawberry
#5
Ezzeddine Amami, Wissal Khezami, Salma Mezrigui, Laxmikant S Badwaik, Asma Kammoun Bejar, Carmen Tellez Perez, Nabil Kechaou
The work was planned to produce dietetic dehydrated strawberries with application of ultrasound osmotic dehydration (UOD) as pretreatment. A Box-Behnken design (BBD) were employed to characterize the UOD strawberry process, optimize and investigate the effect of independent variables like ultrasound time (10, 20 and 30min), concentration of osmotic solution (distilled water, 32.5 and 65 °Brix) and temperature (20, 30 and 40°C) on the water loss (WL), solid gain (SG) and weight reduction (WR). The same BBD were used to estimate the main effects of OD without ultrasound treatment...
May 2017: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069204/enhancement-of-thermal-and-mechanical-properties-of-poly-mma-co-ba-cloisite-30b-nanocomposites-by-ultrasound-assisted-in-situ-emulsion-polymerization
#6
Sachin Sharma, Maneesh Kumar Poddar, Vijayanand S Moholkar
This study reports synthesis and characterization of poly(MMA-co-BA)/Cloisite 30B (organo-modified montmorillonite clay) nanocomposites by ultrasound-assisted in-situ emulsion polymerization. Copolymers have been synthesized with MMA:BA monomer ratio of 4:1, and varying clay loading (1-5wt% monomer). The poly(MMA-co-BA)/Cloisite 30B nanocomposites have been characterized for their thermal and mechanical properties. Ultrasonically synthesized nanocomposites have been revealed to possess higher thermal degradation resistance and mechanical strength than the nanocomposites synthesized using conventional techniques...
May 2017: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28066093/on-the-energy-balance-closure-and-net-radiation-in-complex-terrain
#7
Georg Wohlfahrt, Albin Hammerle, Georg Niedrist, Katharina Scholz, Enrico Tomelleri, Peng Zhao
In complex, sloping terrain, horizontal measurements of net radiation are not reflective of the radiative energy available for the conductive and convective heat exchange of the underlying surface. Using data from a grassland site on a mountain slope characterised by spatial heterogeneity in inclination and aspect, we tested the hypothesis that a correction of the horizontal net radiation measurements which accounts for the individual footprint contributions of the various surfaces to the measured sensible and latent heat eddy covariance fluxes will yield more realistic slope-parallel net radiation estimates compared to a correction based on the average inclination and aspect of the footprint...
October 15, 2016: Agricultural and Forest Meteorology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061373/numerical-investigation-of-natural-convection-heat-transfer-in-a-cylindrical-enclosure-due-to-ultrasonic-vibrations
#8
Maryam Talebi, Milad Setareh, Majid Saffar-Avval, Reza Hosseini Abardeh
Application of ultrasonic waves for heat transfer augmentation has been proposed in the last few decades. Due to limited researches on acoustic streaming induced by ultrasonic oscillation, the effect of ultrasonic waves on natural convection heat transfer is the main purpose of this paper. At first, natural convection on up-ward-facing heating surface in a cylindrical enclosure filled with air is investigated numerically by the finite difference method, then the effect of upper surface oscillation on convection heat transfer is considered...
December 18, 2016: Ultrasonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28054926/a-literature-review-of-burns-in-reconstructed-breasts-after-mastectomy
#9
Marie Jaeger, Yonathan Wagman, Alon Liran, Moti Harats, Eyal Winkler, Josef Haik, Ariel Tessone
OBJECTIVE: The goal of this literature review is to review and combine case studies of accidental burns to the breast, following mastectomy and immediate breast reconstruction with autologous tissue, implants, or tissue expanders. METHODS: The authors searched PubMed and Cochrane Library and reviewed cases of burns of reconstructed breasts after mastectomy from July 1985 to May 2015. Only studies in the English language were included in their search. They also report 5 new cases of burns in patients with burns to the breast, which were either reconstructed with implants or tissue expanders at Sheba Medical Center (Ramat Gan, Israel)...
December 2016: Wounds: a Compendium of Clinical Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28047644/th-cd-bra-09-towards-absolute-dose-measurement-in-mri-linac-and-gamma-knife-design-and-construction-of-an-mr-compatible-water-calorimeter
#10
N Entezari, J Renaud, G Peterson, A Sarfehnia
PURPOSE: The purpose of this work is to design and optimize a portable Water Calorimeter (WC) for use in a commercial MRI-linac and Gamma-knife in addition to conventional radiotherapy linacs. Water calorimeters determine absorbed dose to water at a point by measuring radiation-induced temperature rise of the volume (the two are related by the medium specific heat capacity). In this formalism, one important correction factor is heat transfer correction k_ht. It compensates for heat gain/loss due to conductive and convective effects, and is numerically calculated as ratio of temperature rise in the absence of heat loss to that in the presence of heat loss...
June 2016: Medical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045924/effects-of-spatial-localization-on-microbial-consortia-growth
#11
Michael Venters, Ross P Carlson, Tomas Gedeon, Jeffrey J Heys
Microbial consortia are commonly observed in natural and synthetic systems, and these consortia frequently result in higher biomass production relative to monocultures. The focus here is on the impact of initial spatial localization and substrate diffusivity on the growth of a model microbial consortium consisting of a producer strain that consumes glucose and produces acetate and a scavenger strain that consumes the acetate. The mathematical model is based on an individual cell model where growth is described by Monod kinetics, and substrate transport is described by a continuum-based, non-equilibrium reaction-diffusion model where convective transport is negligible (e...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28041855/study-of-a-remediated-coal-ash-depository-from-a-radiological-perspective
#12
Jácint Jónás, János Somlai, Edit Tóth-Bodrogi, Miklós Hegedűs, Tibor Kovács
Coal-fired power plants play a significant role in the production of electricity. The Ra-226 concentration of coals mined in the Ajka region can reach up to 3000 Bq/kg. This study focuses on the effects of a Hungarian (Ajka) remediated coal ash depository on the environment and the effectiveness of the cover layer. During the remediation, a method patented in Hungary was used, in which the upper layer of the depository, which had settled like concrete, was ploughed and mixed with woodchips before being planted with vegetation...
December 29, 2016: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28039980/effects-of-a-small-magnetic-field-on-homoclinic-bifurcations-in-a-low-prandtl-number-fluid
#13
Arnab Basak, Krishna Kumar
Effects of a uniform magnetic field on homoclinic bifurcations in Rayleigh-Bénard convection in a fluid of Prandtl number Pr = 0.01 are investigated using direct numerical simulations (DNS). A uniform magnetic field is applied either in the vertical direction or in the horizontal direction. For a weak vertical magnetic field, the possibilities of both forward and backward homoclinic bifurcations are observed leading to a spontaneous gluing of two limit cycles into one as well as a spontaneous breaking of a limit cycle into two for lower values of the Chandrasekhar's number ( Q≤5)...
December 2016: Chaos
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035168/computational-models-for-nanoscale-fluid-dynamics-and-transport-inspired-by-nonequilibrium-thermodynamics
#14
Ravi Radhakrishnan, Hsiu-Yu Yu, David M Eckmann, Portonovo S Ayyaswamy
Traditionally, the numerical computation of particle motion in a fluid is resolved through computational fluid dynamics (CFD). However, resolving the motion of nanoparticles poses additional challenges due to the coupling between the Brownian and hydrodynamic forces. Here, we focus on the Brownian motion of a nanoparticle coupled to adhesive interactions and confining-wall-mediated hydrodynamic interactions. We discuss several techniques that are founded on the basis of combining CFD methods with the theory of nonequilibrium statistical mechanics in order to simultaneously conserve thermal equipartition and to show correct hydrodynamic correlations...
March 2017: Journal of Heat Transfer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28034736/cutaneous-iontophoresis-of-%C3%AE-conotoxin-cniiic-a-potent-nav1-4-antagonist-with-analgesic-anaesthetic-and-myorelaxant-properties
#15
Sergio Del Río-Sancho, Cecile Cros, Bethsabée Coutaz, Muriel Cuendet, Yogeshvar N Kalia
Cutaneous iontophoretic delivery of μ-conotoxin CnIIIC (XEP), a potent peptide antagonist of the NaV1.4 sodium channel, was investigated using porcine ear skin and validated using human abdominal skin. Initial results demonstrated that cutaneous deposition of XEP following iontophoresis was superior to passive delivery and increased with current density. XEP deposition after iontophoresis at 0.1, 0.3 and 0.5mA/cm(2) for 2h and 4h was 22.4±0.4, 34.5±1.4, 57.4±7.6μg/cm(2) and 30.6±5.4, 53.9±17.2, 90.9±30...
December 26, 2016: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28029341/theoretical-analysis-of-drug-dissolution-in-micellar-media
#16
Boris Shekunov
A new theoretical approach combining convective diffusion and surface dissolution kinetics has been applied to micellar systems and tested on experimental data available for both rotating disk apparatus and particles. The micelles are shown to be in the state of dynamic equilibrium with solution for most systems but nanoparticles. For ionizable molecules, the variation of partition coefficient across diffusion boundary layer may affect the diffusivity. The intrinsic dissolution rate is generally a nonlinear function of the equilibrium concentration, c0, in which the diffusion kinetic coefficient, βD, surface kinetic coefficient, β0, and total kinetic coefficient of dissolution, β, all typically decrease as functions of c0 (or increasing micellar concentration, Mc)...
October 28, 2016: Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025382/mortality-reduction-by-post-dilution-online-haemodiafiltration-a-cause-specific-analysis
#17
Menso J Nubé, Sanne A E Peters, Peter J Blankestijn, Bernard Canaud, Andrew Davenport, Muriel P C Grooteman, Gulay Asci, Francesco Locatelli, Francisco Maduell, Marion Morena, Ercan Ok, Ferran Torres, Michiel L Bots
BACKGROUND: From an individual participant data (IPD) meta-analysis from four randomized controlled trials comparing haemodialysis (HD) with post-dilution online-haemodiafiltration (ol-HDF), previously it appeared that HDF decreases all-cause mortality by 14% (95% confidence interval 25; 1) and fatal cardiovascular disease (CVD) by 23% (39; 3). Significant differences were not found for fatal infections and sudden death. So far, it is unclear, however, whether the reduced mortality risk of HDF is only due to a decrease in CVD events and if so, which CVD in particular is prevented, if compared with HD...
December 26, 2016: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025150/bioconvection-induced-by-bacterial-chemotaxis-in-a-capillary-assay
#18
Takahiro Abe, Shuichi Nakamura, Seishi Kudo
Bacterial chemotaxis allows cells to swim toward a more favorable environment. Capillary assays are a major method for exploring bacterial responses to attractive and repellent chemicals, but the accumulation process obtained using a capillary containing chemicals has not been investigated fully. In this study, we quantitatively analyzed the response of Salmonella cells to serine as an attractant diffusing from a capillary placed in a cell suspension. Video microscopy showed that cells gradually accumulated near the tip of the capillary and thereafter directed flows were generated...
December 23, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28024931/a-randomized-single-blind-crossover-trial-of-recovery-time-in-high-flux-hemodialysis-and-hemodiafiltration
#19
James R Smith, Norica Zimmer, Elizabeth Bell, Bernard G Francq, Alex McConnachie, Robert Mactier
BACKGROUND: The choice between hemodiafiltration (HDF) or high-flux hemodialysis (HD) to treat end-stage kidney disease remains a matter of debate. The duration of recovery time after treatment has been associated with mortality, affects quality of life, and may therefore be important in informing patient choice. We aimed to establish whether recovery time is influenced by treatment with HDF or HD. STUDY DESIGN: Randomized patient-blinded crossover trial. SETTINGS & PARTICIPANTS: 100 patients with end-stage kidney disease were enrolled from 2 satellite dialysis units in Glasgow, United Kingdom...
December 23, 2016: American Journal of Kidney Diseases: the Official Journal of the National Kidney Foundation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28018798/exact-solutions-for-unsteady-free-convection-flow-over-an-oscillating-plate-due-to-non-coaxial-rotation
#20
Ahmad Qushairi Mohamad, Ilyas Khan, Zulkhibri Ismail, Sharidan Shafie
BACKGROUND: Non-coaxial rotation has wide applications in engineering devices, e.g. in food processing such as mixer machines and stirrers with a two-axis kneader, in cooling turbine blades, jet engines, pumps and vacuum cleaners, in designing thermal syphon tubes, and in geophysical flows. Therefore, this study aims to investigate unsteady free convection flow of viscous fluid due to non-coaxial rotation and fluid at infinity over an oscillating vertical plate with constant wall temperature...
2016: SpringerPlus
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