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Giuseppe Magistro, Philipp Weinhold, Christian G Stief, Christian Gratzke
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The main objective of novel minimally invasive treatment options is to provide relief of bothersome lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) equally effective to current standard techniques, but with a more favorable safety profile. Here we present the first clinical experience with the prostatic urethral lift (Urolift) and the convective water vapor energy ablation (Rezūm). RECENT FINDINGS: Urolift offers rapid and durable relief of LUTS with complete preservation of sexual function...
March 13, 2018: Current Opinion in Urology
Alan H Nagahara, Bayard R Wilson, Iryna Ivasyk, Imre Kovacs, Saytam Rawalji, John R Bringas, Phillip J Pivirotto, Waldy San Sebastian, Lluis Samaranch, Krystof S Bankiewicz, Mark H Tuszynski
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene delivery to the entorhinal cortex is a candidate for treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD) to reduce neurodegeneration that is associated with memory loss. Accurate targeting of the entorhinal cortex in AD is complex due to the deep and atrophic state of this brain region. Using MRI-guided methods with convection-enhanced delivery, we were able to accurately and consistently target AAV2-BDNF delivery to the entorhinal cortex of non-human primates; 86 ± 3% of transduced cells in the targeted regions co-localized with the neuronal marker NeuN...
March 13, 2018: Gene Therapy
Marcel Fuchs, Cecilia Stanghellini
Current research seeking to relate between ambient water vapor deficit (D) and foliage conductance (gF ) derives a canopy conductance (gW ) from measured transpiration by inverting the coupled transpiration model to yield gW  = m - n ln(D) where m and n are fitting parameters. In contrast, this paper demonstrates that the relation between coupled gW and D is gW  = AP/D + B, where P is the barometric pressure, A is the radiative term, and B is the convective term coefficient of the Penman-Monteith equation...
March 12, 2018: International Journal of Biometeorology
Michael Peterson, Scott Rudlosky, Wiebke Deierling
This study documents the composition, morphology, and motion of extreme optical lightning flashes observed by the Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS). The furthest separation of LIS events (groups) in any flash is 135 km (89 km), the flash with the largest footprint had an illuminated area of 10,604 km2 , and the most dendritic flash has 234 visible branches. The longest-duration convective LIS flash lasted 28 s and is overgrouped and not physical. The longest-duration convective-to-stratiform propagating flash lasted 7...
December 27, 2017: Journal of Geophysical Research. Atmospheres: JGR
Daniel C Anderson, Julie M Nicely, Glenn M Wolfe, Thomas F Hanisco, Ross J Salawitch, Timothy P Canty, Russell R Dickerson, Eric C Apel, Sunil Baidar, Thomas J Bannan, Nicola J Blake, Dexian Chen, Barbara Dix, Rafael P Fernandez, Samuel R Hall, Rebecca S Hornbrook, L Gregory Huey, Beatrice Josse, Patrick Jöckel, Douglas E Kinnison, Theodore K Koenig, Michael LeBreton, Virginie Marécal, Olaf Morgenstern, Luke D Oman, Laura L Pan, Carl Percival, David Plummer, Laura E Revell, Eugene Rozanov, Alfonso Saiz-Lopez, Andrea Stenke, Kengo Sudo, Simone Tilmes, Kirk Ullmann, Rainer Volkamer, Andrew J Weinheimer, Guang Zeng
Formaldehyde (HCHO) directly affects the atmospheric oxidative capacity through its effects on HOx . In remote marine environments, such as the Tropical Western Pacific (TWP), it is particularly important to understand the processes controlling the abundance of HCHO because model output from these regions is used to correct satellite retrievals of HCHO. Here, we have used observations from the CONTRAST field campaign, conducted during January and February 2014, to evaluate our understanding of the processes controlling the distribution of HCHO in the TWP as well as its representation in chemical transport/climate models...
October 27, 2017: Journal of Geophysical Research. Atmospheres: JGR
Luana Fernandes, José A Pereira, Jorge A Saraiva, Susana Casal, Elsa Ramalhosa
BACKGROUND: Borage is an edible flower with a very limited shelf-life (approx. 1 day). After harvest, flowers dry and shrink rapidly and become darker. Extending the shelf life of borage will make it more appealing for commercialization and it will enable borage growers to expand their market. The aim of the present work is to evaluate the effect of three post-harvest technologies. METHODS: Freeze-drying, hot air convective drying and alginate edible coating were applied to borage petals, and the visual appearance, water activity (aw) and weight loss was evaluated...
January 2018: Acta Scientiarum Polonorum. Technologia Alimentaria
Bernard Canaud, Jörg Vienken, Stephen Ash, Richard A Ward
Hemodiafiltration combines diffusive and convective solute removal in a single therapy by ultrafiltering 20% or more of the blood volume processed using a high-flux hemodialyzer and maintaining fluid balance by infusing sterile nonpyrogenic replacement fluid directly into the patient's blood. In online hemodiafiltration, the large volumes of replacement fluid required are obtained by online filtration of standard dialysate through a series of bacteria- and endotoxin-retaining filters. Currently available systems for online hemodiafiltration are on the basis of conventional dialysis machines with added features to safely prepare and infuse replacement fluid and closely control fluid balance...
March 6, 2018: Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: CJASN
Sarifuddin, Prashanta Kumar Mandal
Angioplasty with drug-coated balloons (DCBs) using excipients as drug carriers is emerging as a potentially viable strategy demonstrating clinical efficacy and proposing additional compliance for the treatment of obstructive vascular diseases. An attempt is made to develop an improved computational model where attention has been paid to the effect of interstitial flow, that is, plasma convection and internalization of bound drug. The present model is capable of capturing the phenomena of the transport of free drug and its retention, and also the internalization of drug in the process of endocytosis to atherosclerotic vessel of heterogeneous tissue composition comprising of healthy tissue, as well as regions of fibrous cap, fibro-fatty, calcified and necrotic core lesions...
March 5, 2018: Cardiovascular Engineering and Technology
Zhongjie Huang, Leonidas Siozos-Rousoulis, Tim De Troyer, Ghader Ghorbaniasl
This paper presents a time-domain method for noise prediction of supersonic rotating sources in a moving medium. The proposed approach can be interpreted as an extensive time-domain solution for the convected permeable Ffowcs Williams and Hawkings equation, which is capable of avoiding the Doppler singularity. The solution requires special treatment for construction of the emission surface. The derived formula can explicitly and efficiently account for subsonic uniform constant flow effects on radiated noise...
February 2018: Proceedings. Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
Caroline J Muller, David M Romps
Idealized simulations of tropical moist convection have revealed that clouds can spontaneously clump together in a process called self-aggregation. This results in a state where a moist cloudy region with intense deep convection is surrounded by extremely dry subsiding air devoid of deep convection. Because of the idealized settings of the simulations where it was discovered, the relevance of self-aggregation to the real world is still debated. Here, we show that self-aggregation feedbacks play a leading-order role in the spontaneous genesis of tropical cyclones in cloud-resolving simulations...
March 5, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
William K M Lau, Cheng Yuan, Zhanqing Li
Using NASA MERRA2 daily data, we investigated the origin, maintenance and variability of the Asian Tropopause Aerosol Layer (ATAL) in relation to variations of the Asia Monsoon Anticyclone (AMA) during the summer of 2008. During May-June, abundant quantities of carbon monoxide (CO), carbonaceous aerosols (CA) and dusts are found in the mid- and upper troposphere over India and China, arising from enhanced biomass burning emissions, as well as westerly transport from the Middle East deserts. During July-August, large quantities of dusts transported from the deserts are trapped and accumulate over the southern and eastern foothills of the Tibetan Plateau...
March 2, 2018: Scientific Reports
Mariela C Bustos, Diego Rocha-Parra, Ines Rueda Sampedro, Sonia de Pascual-Teresa, Alberto E León
The aim of the present research was to study the effect of convective drying on color, bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity of berry fruits and to chemically characterize the polyphenolic composition of raspberry, boysenberry, redcurrants and blackcurrants fruit. Drying berries at 65 ºC provoked the best conservations of color, particularly for boysenberry and blackcurrant. Drying at 65 °C was also the condition that showed higher level of polyphenols, while drying at 50 ºC or 130 ºC showed above % degradation of them due to the long time or high temperature drying...
March 2, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Ángel F Adames, Daehyun Kim, Adam H Sobel, Anthony Del Genio, Jingbo Wu
The processes that lead to changes in the propagation and maintenance of the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) as a response to increasing CO2 are examined by analyzing moist static energy budget of the MJO in a series of NASA GISS model simulations. It is found changes in MJO propagation is dominated by several key processes. Horizontal moisture advection, a key process for MJO propagation, is found to enhance predominantly due to an increase in the mean horizontal moisture gradients. The terms that determine the strength of the advecting wind anomalies, the MJO horizontal scale and the dry static stability, are found to exhibit opposing trends that largely cancel out...
December 2017: Journal of Advances in Modeling Earth Systems
Monia Jebri, José Tarrazó, José Bon, Hélène Desmorieux, Mehrez Romdhane
The current study deals with an innovation in the hot air convective drying process consisting of the application of two consecutive drying steps. Temperatures ranging between 60 and 80 ℃ for times between 200 and 600 s were applied for the first stage, and from 40 to 80 ℃ for the second stage. Salvia officinalis, an aromatic, medicinal Mediterranean plant with remarkable antioxidant properties, was selected for this study. A management of the process regarding the antioxidant capacity of S. officinalis extracts and energy consumption was carried out: (i) artificial neural networks were applied to model the evolution of the antioxidant capacity and moisture content of the product in the drying process; (ii) a genetic algorithm and a multiobjective genetic algorithm were selected to optimize the drying process, considering the antioxidant capacity and/or the energy consumption in the objective function...
January 1, 2018: Food Science and Technology International, Ciencia y Tecnología de Los Alimentos Internacional
Milan Červenka, Michal Bednařík
Within this work, acoustic streaming in an air-filled cylindrical resonator with walls supporting a temperature gradient is studied by means of numerical simulations. A set of equations based on successive approximations is derived from the Navier-Stokes equations. The equations take into account the acoustic-streaming-driven convective heat transport; as time-averaged secondary-field quantities are directly calculated, the equations are much easier to integrate than the original fluid-dynamics equations. The model equations are implemented and integrated employing commercial software COMSOL Multiphysics...
February 2018: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
Samadhan A Pawar, Raman I Sujith, Benjamin Emerson, Tim Lieuwen
The hydrodynamic stability of a reacting wake depends primarily on the density ratio [i.e., ratio of unburnt gas density (ρu ) to burnt gas density (ρb )] of the flow across the wake. The variation of the density ratio from high to low value, keeping ρu /ρb >1, transitions dynamical characteristics of the reacting wake from a linearly globally stable (or convectively unstable) to a globally unstable mode. In this paper, we propose a framework to analyze the effect of harmonic forcing on the deterministic and synchronization characteristics of reacting wakes...
February 2018: Chaos
Marina Cano-Lamadrid, Krzysztof Lech, Ángel Calín-Sánchez, Ema Carina Rosas-Burgos, Adam Figiel, Aneta Wojdyło, Malwina Wasilewska, Ángel A Carbonell-Barrachina
During the industrial manufacturing of pomegranate juice, large amounts of pomace are produced. The aim of this work was to find the effective method to dry pomegranate pomace to open new commercial applications for this co-product. The effects of three drying methods: (i) convective drying (CD) at 50, 60, and 70 °C; (ii) vacuum microwave drying (VMD) at 240, 360, and 480 W, and (iii) a combined method (CPD-VMFD); convective pre-drying (60 °C) followed by vacuum microwave finish drying (360 W), on drying kinetics and quality of PomP (pomegranate pomace obtained after preparing pomegranate juice by squeezing only arils) were evaluated...
March 2018: Journal of Food Science and Technology
Yun Su, Jie Yang, Guowen Song, Rui Li, Chunhui Xiang, Jun Li
This paper aims to develop a numerical model to predict heat stress of firefighter under low-level thermal radiation. The model integrated a modified multi-layer clothing model with a human thermoregulation model. We took the coupled radiative and conductive heat transfer in the clothing, the size-dependent heat transfer in the air gaps, and the controlling active and controlled passive thermal regulation in human body into consideration. The predicted core temperature and mean skin temperature from the model showed a good agreement with the experimental results...
February 26, 2018: Scientific Reports
Wei Yu, Zheng Duan, Guang Zhang, Changhong Liu, Shoushan Fan
Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and other related CNT-based materials with high thermal conductivity can be used as promising heat dissipation materials. Meanwhile, the miniaturization and high functionality of portable electronics, such as laptops and mobile phones, are achieved at the cost of overheating the high power-density components. The heat removal for hot spots occurring in a relatively narrow space requires simple and effective cooling methods. Here, an auxiliary passive cooling approach by the aid of a flat plate (aluminum-magnesium alloy) is investigated to accommodate heat dissipation in a narrow space...
February 26, 2018: Nano Letters
Dhaval R Kalaria, Mayank Singhal, Vandana Patravale, Virginia Merino, Yogeshvar N Kalia
Effective treatment of Parkinson's disease (PD) involves administration of therapeutic agents with complementary mechanisms of action in order to replenish, sustain or substitute endogenous dopamine. The objective of this study was to investigate anodal co-iontophoresis of pramipexole (PRAM; dopamine agonist) and rasagiline (RAS; MAO-B inhibitor) in vitro and in vivo. Passive permeation of PRAM and RAS (20 mM each) across porcine skin after 6 h was 15.7±1.9 and 16.0±2.9 µg/cm2 , respectively. Co-iontophoresis at 0...
February 22, 2018: European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics
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