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HCN poisoning

Susan M DeLeon, Jason D Downey, Diane M Hildenberger, Melissa O Rhoomes, Lamont Booker, Gary A Rockwood, Kelly A Basi
CONTEXT: Cyanide (CN) is a metabolic poison, halting ATP synthesis by inhibiting complex IV of the electron transport chain. If exposed at high enough concentrations, humans and most animals can die within minutes. Because time is a crucial factor in survival of CN poisoning, a rapidly bioavailable, nontoxic, easy to administer CN medical countermeasure could improve morbidity/mortality in a mass CN exposure scenario. The most likely route of exposure to CN is via inhalation. OBJECTIVE: This study examined the efficacy of a new formulation for dimethyl trisulfide (DMTS), a countermeasure which has shown promise as a treatment for CN poisoning, using both inhalation and injection models of CN exposure...
September 19, 2017: Clinical Toxicology
Adrian Brückner, Günther Raspotnig, Katja Wehner, Reinhard Meusinger, Roy A Norton, Michael Heethoff
Cyanogenesis denotes a chemical defensive strategy where hydrogen cyanide (HCN, hydrocyanic or prussic acid) is produced, stored, and released toward an attacking enemy. The high toxicity and volatility of HCN requires both chemical stabilization for storage and prevention of accidental self-poisoning. The few known cyanogenic animals are exclusively mandibulate arthropods (certain myriapods and insects) that store HCN as cyanogenic glycosides, lipids, or cyanohydrins. Here, we show that cyanogenesis has also evolved in the speciose Chelicerata...
March 28, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Seema Gautam, Abir De Sarkar
A systematic investigation of the selective catalytic conversion of poisonous HCN gas through hydracyanation of C2H2 activated on Au clusters, presented here for the first time, is of paramount importance from both scientific and technological perspectives. Hydracyanation of activated acetylene on an Au-cluster based catalyst leads to vinyl isocyanide (H2C[double bond, length as m-dash]CHNC) formation, a versatile chemical intermediate. Using density functional theory, bond activation of acetylene and selective catalytic hydracyanation of activated acetylene on small gold clusters Aun (n = 3-10) have been studied through a detailed analysis of the geometric and electronic structures...
May 18, 2016: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Shuiqing Zheng, Xiaoliang Yuan, Wei Wang, Chen Liang, Fangqi Cao, Runsheng Zhang
Cyanohydrins, also be called cyanoalcohols, are important industrial precursors to carboxylic acids and some amino acids. Acetone cyanohydrin (ACH) and formaldehyde cyanohydrin (glycolonitrile, FCH), which are the typical examples of cyanohydrins, are classified as extremely hazardous substances. As the cyanohydrins can readily decompose, and it is hard to find cyanohydrins in gastric contents and heart blood, the determination study in biological samples can be divided into two parts: the first is the determination of HCN by using a Prussian blue reaction and the HS-GC-MSD after derivatization by chloramine-T...
June 2016: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
Jacek Kluska, Dariusz Kardaś, Łukasz Heda, Mateusz Szumowski, Jarosław Szuszkiewicz
This study examines the thermal and chemical effects of the pyrolysis of turkey feathers. Research of feathers pyrolysis is important because of their increasing production and difficulties of their utilization. The experiments were carried out by means of thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and two pyrolytic reactors. The experimental investigation indicated that the feather material liquefies at temperatures between 210 and 240°C. This liquefaction together with the agglomeration of various dispersed and porous elements of the feathers into larger droplets leads to the volume reduction...
March 2016: Waste Management
Akinde F Kadjo, Purnendu K Dasgupta, Gerry R Boss
Cyanide poisoning from Inhaled HCN is all too common in victims of smoke inhalation in fires. While the toxic effects arise primarily from its inhibitory effects on cytochrome c oxidase, the majority of the cyanide binds to methemoglobin (metHb) in the blood. It can be considered as the detoxification mechanism: one of the antidotes used earlier was nitrite which primarily works by converting hemoglobin to metHb (normally present to the extent of ~1% of the total hemoglobin). Vitamin B12 (hydroxocobalamin) and related analogs have long been known to have high affinity for cyanide and has been used as antidotes - the binding of cyanide to many compounds in this general family also results in a significant change in color that can be used for analytical purposes...
2015: Analytical Methods: Advancing Methods and Applications
Ines Schreiver, Christoph Hutzler, Peter Laux, Hans-Peter Berlien, Andreas Luch
Since laser treatment of tattoos is the favored method for the removing of no longer wanted permanent skin paintings, analytical, biokinetics and toxicological data on the fragmentation pattern of commonly used pigments are urgently required for health safety reasons. Applying dynamic headspace-gas chromatography with mass spectrometric detection (DHS-GC/MS) and comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography coupled to time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GCxGC-ToF-MS), we identified 1,2-benzene dicarbonitrile, benzonitrile, benzene, and the poisonous gas hydrogen cyanide (HCN) as main fragmentation products emerging dose-dependently upon ruby laser irradiation of the popular blue pigment copper phthalocyanine in suspension...
2015: Scientific Reports
R E Zdor
The ability of bacteria to influence organisms that they associate with via metabolite production is one of the hallmarks of microbial interactions. One metabolite of interest is the metabolic poison cyanide. Production of this metabolite is an unique characteristic of certain bacteria that inhabit a wide array of habitats ranging from the human body to the rhizosphere. This review focuses on four targets of cyanogenic bacteria: the human lung, plant pathogens, plants and invertebrates. For a number of cyanogenic bacteria, the contribution of cyanide to the interaction has been rigorously tested using mutants altered in cyanide production...
February 2015: Journal of Applied Microbiology
Kristin Stamyr, Anna-Karin Mörk, Gunnar Johanson
Hydrogen cyanide (HCN) is a potent and fast-acting toxin increasingly recognized as an important cause of death in fire victims. Prompt diagnosis and treatment of cyanide poisoning are essential to avoid fatalities. Unfortunately, there are at present few rapid diagnostic methods. A noninvasive methodology would be to use HCN in exhaled air as a marker for systemic exposure. To explore this possibility, we developed a preliminary physiologically based pharmacokinetic model. The model suggests that breath HCN levels following inhalation exposure at near-lethal and lethal conditions are 0...
August 2015: Archives of Toxicology
Nicky Wybouw, Wannes Dermauw, Luc Tirry, Christian Stevens, Miodrag Grbić, René Feyereisen, Thomas Van Leeuwen
Cyanogenic glucosides are among the most widespread defense chemicals of plants. Upon plant tissue disruption, these glucosides are hydrolyzed to a reactive hydroxynitrile that releases toxic hydrogen cyanide (HCN). Yet many mite and lepidopteran species can thrive on plants defended by cyanogenic glucosides. The nature of the enzyme known to detoxify HCN to β-cyanoalanine in arthropods has remained enigmatic. Here we identify this enzyme by transcriptome analysis and functional expression. Phylogenetic analysis showed that the gene is a member of the cysteine synthase family horizontally transferred from bacteria to phytophagous mites and Lepidoptera...
2014: ELife
Randy Jackson, Robert P Oda, Raj K Bhandari, Sari B Mahon, Matthew Brenner, Gary A Rockwood, Brian A Logue
Although commonly known as a highly toxic chemical, cyanide is also an essential reagent for many industrial processes in areas such as mining, electroplating, and synthetic fiber production. The "heavy" use of cyanide in these industries, along with its necessary transportation, increases the possibility of human exposure. Because the onset of cyanide toxicity is fast, a rapid, sensitive, and accurate method for the diagnosis of cyanide exposure is necessary. Therefore, a field sensor for the diagnosis of cyanide exposure was developed based on the reaction of naphthalene dialdehyde, taurine, and cyanide, yielding a fluorescent β-isoindole...
February 4, 2014: Analytical Chemistry
Hye-Jeon Cho, Byung-Kyung Do, Soon-Mi Shim, Hoonjeong Kwon, Dong-Ha Lee, Ahn-Hee Nah, Youn-Ju Choi, Sook-Yeon Lee
Cyanogenic glycosides are HCN-producing phytotoxins; HCN is a powerful and a rapidly acting poison. It is not difficult to find plants containing these compounds in the food supply and/or in medicinal herb collections. The objective of this study was to investigate the distribution of total cyanide in nine genera (Dolichos, Ginkgo, Hordeum, Linum, Phaseolus, Prunus, Phyllostachys, Phytolacca, and Portulaca) of edible plants and the effect of the processing on cyanide concentration. Total cyanide content was measured by ion chromatography following acid hydrolysis and distillation...
June 2013: Toxicological Research
Yanfeng Zhang, Anna S Gardberg, Thomas E Edwards, Banumathi Sankaran, Howard Robinson, Susan M Varnum, Garry W Buchko
Botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT), the causative agent of the deadly neuroparalytic disease botulism, is the most poisonous protein known for humans. Produced by different strains of the anaerobic bacterium Clostridium botulinum, BoNT effects cellular intoxication via a multistep mechanism executed by the three modules of the activated protein. Endocytosis, the first step of cellular intoxication, is triggered by the ~50 kDa, heavy-chain receptor-binding domain (HCR) that is specific for a ganglioside and a protein receptor on neuronal cell surfaces...
July 2013: Biochimie
Yong Tian, Purnendu K Dasgupta, Sari B Mahon, Jian Ma, Matthew Brenner, Jian-Hua Wang, Gerry R Boss
Deaths due to smoke inhalation in fires are often due to poisoning by HCN. Rapid administration of antidotes can result in complete resuscitation of the patient but judicious dosing requires the knowledge of the level of cyanide exposure. Rapid sensitive means for blood cyanide quantitation are needed. Hydroxocyanocobinamide (OH(CN)Cbi) reacts with cyanide rapidly; this is accompanied by a large spectral change. The disposable device consists of a pair of nested petri dish bottoms and a single top that fits the outer bottom dish...
March 20, 2013: Analytica Chimica Acta
Jinho Kim, Hyun Jin Kim, Sukbok Chang
Aromatic nitriles are prepared efficiently through transition-metal-mediated cyanation of aryl (pseudo)halides with metallic cyano-group sources, such as CuCN, KCN, NaCN, Zn(CN)(2), TMSCN, or K(4) [Fe(CN)(6)]. However, this approach often suffers from drawbacks, such as the formation of stoichiometric amounts of metal waste, the poisoning of the metal catalysts, or the generation of toxic HCN gas. As a result, a range of "nonmetallic" organic cyano-group sources have been explored for the cyanation of aryl halides and arene C-H bonds...
November 26, 2012: Angewandte Chemie
R Magnusson, S Nyholm, C Åstot
A 32-year-old man attempted to poison his ex-girlfriend with hydrogen cyanide by hiding the pesticide Uragan D2 in her car. During the police investigation, chemical analysis of the air inside the car was performed. Hydrogen cyanide was detected through on-site air analysis using a portable Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy gas analyzer and colorimetric gas detection tubes. Furthermore, impinger air-sampling was performed for off-site sample preparation and analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS)...
October 10, 2012: Forensic Science International
Roslyn M Gleadow, Morten E Møldrup, Natalie H O'Donnell, Peter N Stuart
BACKGROUND: Cyanogenic glucosides are common bioactive products that break down to release toxic hydrogen cyanide (HCN) when combined with specific β-glucosidases. In forage sorghum, high concentrations of the cyanogenic glucoside dhurrin lead to reduced productivity and sometimes death of grazing animals, especially in times of drought, when the dhurrin content of stunted crops is often higher. The aim of this study was to develop harvesting protocols suitable for sampling in remote areas...
August 30, 2012: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Kristin Stamyr, Gunilla Thelander, Lena Ernstgård, Johan Ahlner, Gunnar Johanson
Between 60 and 80% of all deaths related to fire are attributed to toxic fumes. Carbon monoxide (CO) is commonly thought to be the major cause. However, hydrogen cyanide (HCN) is also formed. Still, the exact contribution of HCN to fire-related fatalities is unknown. The aim of the study was to investigate the impact of HCN in relation to CO as a cause of death in fire victims. Data on carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) and blood cyanide from deceased fire victims in the period 1992-2009 were collected from two Swedish nationwide forensic databases (ToxBase and RättsBase)...
February 2012: Inhalation Toxicology
Teresa Grabowska, Joanna Nowicka, Joanna Kulikowska, Stanisława Kabiesz-Neniczka
On account of endogenous hydrogen cyanide (HCN) production in the deceased, it is not easy to assess exposure to HCN in people who died in fire involving closed rooms (flats, garages, cellars, etc). In the paper, the authors present the results of blood determinations of hydrogen cyanide in fatalities of explosions and fires occurring in coal-mines, as well as fires in closed rooms. It has been demonstrated that the time of exposure to a high temperature and the temperature itself hamper autolysis processes that lead to production of endogenous HCN in fire fatalities...
January 2011: Archiwum Medycyny Sa̧dowej i Kryminologii
Pensiriwan Sang-A-Gad, Suriya Guharat, Winai Wananukul
CONTEXT: Bamboo shoots contain cyanogenic glycosides named taxiphyllin. Cyanide poisoning from cyanogenic glycosides commonly occurs following ingestion. However, toxicity caused by inhalation of hydrogen cyanide gas (HCN) produced from pickled shoots has never been reported. OBJECTIVE: To describe cyanide poisoning in eight victims who were exposed to HCN produced in a well containing pickling bamboo shoots. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Due to a series of botched rescue attempts, a total of eight patients entered into a 27 m(3) well containing pickled bamboo shoots and immediately lost consciousness...
November 2011: Clinical Toxicology
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