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furnace toxic

Stefanie Kasurinen, Pasi I Jalava, Mikko S Happo, Olli Sippula, Oskari Uski, Hanna Koponen, Jürgen Orasche, Ralf Zimmermann, Jorma Jokiniemi, Maija-Riitta Hirvonen
According to the World Health Organization particulate emissions from the combustion of solid fuels caused more than 110,000 premature deaths worldwide in 2010. Log wood combustion is the most prevalent form of residential biomass heating in developed countries, but it is unknown how the type of wood logs used in furnaces influences the chemical composition of the particulate emissions and their toxicological potential. We burned logs of birch, beech and spruce, which are used commonly as firewood in Central and Northern Europe in a modern masonry heater, and compared them to the particulate emissions from an automated pellet boiler fired with softwood pellets...
September 28, 2016: Environmental Toxicology
Lucie Dohnalova, Pavel Bucek, Petr Vobornik, Vlastimil Dohnal
Nickel is a metal that can be present in products containing hardened edible oils, possibly as leftover catalyst from the vegetable oil hardening process. Nickel may cause toxic effects including the promotion of cancer and contact allergy. In this work, nickel content was determined in hydrogenated vegetable fats and confectionery products, made with these fats, available on the Czech market using newly developed method combining microwave digestion and graphite furnace AAS. While concentrations of 0.086±0...
February 15, 2017: Food Chemistry
Feng Dong, Eugenia Valsami-Jones, Jan-Ulrich Kreft
It is unclear whether the antimicrobial activities of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are exclusively mediated by the release of silver ions (Ag(+)) or, instead, are due to combined nanoparticle and silver ion effects. Therefore, it is essential to quantify dissolved Ag in nanosilver suspensions for investigations of nanoparticle toxicity. We developed a method to measure dissolved Ag in Ag(+)/AgNPs mixtures by combining aggregation of AgNPs with centrifugation. We also describe the reproducible synthesis of stable, uncoated AgNPs...
2016: Journal of Nanoparticle Research: An Interdisciplinary Forum for Nanoscale Science and Technology
Dan Han, Yue Yang, Lin Zhang, Chao Wang, Yue Wang, Wen-Qiao Tan, Xue-Ying Hu, Yong-Hui Wu
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of Nickel (Ni) -smelting fumes on oncogenic proteins in vivo and in vitro. METHODS: Ni fallout beside a Ni smelting furnace in a factory was sampled to study its toxic effect. The effects of Ni-smelting fumes on the regulation of PI3K and ERK signaling pathways and the important downstream hypoxia inducible factor, HIF-1α, were studied both in NIH/3T3 cells and in the lung tissue of rats. NIH/3T3 cell transformation induced by Ni-smelting fumes was also observed...
September 30, 2016: Journal of Occupational Health
Uliana Vladimirovna Karpiuk, Khaldun Mohammad Al Azzam, Zead Helmi Mahmoud Abudayeh, Viktoria Kislichenko, Ahmad Naddaf, Irina Cholak, Oksana Yemelianova
PURPOSE: To determine the elements in Bryonia alba L. roots, collected from the Crimean Peninsula region in Ukraine. METHODS: Dry ashing was used as a flexible method and all elements were determined using atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) equipped with flame and graphite furnace. RESULTS: The average concentrations of the determined elements, expressed as mg/100 g dry weight of the sample, were as follow: 13.000 for Fe, 78.000 for Si, 88...
June 2016: Advanced Pharmaceutical Bulletin
Tim Mansfeldt, Patrick Höhener
Tracing the origin of iron-cyanide complexes in the environment is important because these compounds are potentially toxic. We determined the stable isotopic compositions of cyanide-carbon (CCN) and cyanide-nitrogen (NCN) in 127 contaminated solids and 11 samples of contaminated groundwater from coal carbonization sites, blast furnace operations, and commercial cyanide applications. Coal-carbonization-related cyanides had unique high mean δ(13)CCN values of -10.5 ± 3.5‰ for the solids and -16.1 ± 1.2‰ for the groundwater samples, while the values for blast furnace sludge (-26...
July 19, 2016: Environmental Science & Technology
Somsiri Decharat
Objectives. The main objective of this study was to assess the cadmium and lead exposure levels in subject workers that work in sanitary landfill areas in southern Thailand. The study evaluated the blood cadmium and lead levels in terms of their possible role in worker contamination and transfer of cadmium and lead to the body. Materials and Methods. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 114 subjects. Whole blood samples were collected to determine cadmium and lead levels by graphite furnaces atomic absorption spectrometer chromium analyzer...
2016: Scientifica
Alireza Ostadrahimi, Laleh Payahoo, Mohammad Hossein Somi, Yaser Khajebishak
Cadmium (Cd) is a widespread toxic heavy metal and has long biological half-life. It has potential carcinogenic effects on multiple organ systems of human. However, no studies have evaluated the adverse effects of cadmium on incidence of cancer in gastrointestinal tract. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between urine cadmium (U-Cd) levels and risk of gastrointestinal cancer. This descriptive study was accomplished on 111 GI cancer patients as cases and 111 healthy people as control subjects from January to October in Tabriz, northwest Iran, during 2013...
June 6, 2016: Biological Trace Element Research
Wael I Mortada, Kareem A Nabieh, Ahmed F Donia, Amani M Ismail, Ibrahim M M Kenawy
Deficiency of essential trace elements (such as Cu or Zn) and accumulation of potentially toxic trace elements (as Cd or Pb) are both known to have adverse effects in hemodialysis (HD) patients. Up to our knowledge, no studies about the permeability of low and high flux polysulfone membranes on metal ions during hemodialysis are available. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to address this issue. Forty one hemodialysis patients (19 were using high flux polysulfone membrane while the remaining were using low flux one) participated in the study...
July 2016: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology
Juvana M Andrade, Elio H Baba, Ricardo A Machado-de-Avila, Carlos Chavez-Olortegui, Cynthia P Demicheli, Frédéric Frézard, Rubens L Monte-Neto, Silvane M F Murta
Antimony (Sb) resistance in leishmaniasis chemotherapy has become one of the major challenges to the control of this spreading worldwide public health problem. Since the plasma membrane pore-forming protein aquaglyceroporin 1 (AQP1) is the major route of Sb uptake in Leishmania, functional studies are relevant to characterize drug transport pathways in the parasite. We generated AQP1-overexpressing Leishmania guyanensis and L. braziliensis mutants and investigated their susceptibility to the trivalent form of Sb (Sb(III)) in the presence of silver and nitrate salts...
August 2016: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Bibo Wang, Haibo Sheng, Yongqian Shi, Lei Song, Yan Zhang, Yuan Hu, Weizhao Hu
A uniform zinc hydroxystannate (ZnHS) microcube was synthesized to reduce toxicity and fire hazards of thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) composites using ammonium polyphosphate as a flame retardant agent. The structure, morphology and thermal properties of ZnHS were characterized by X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy and thermogravimetric analysis, respectively. Smoke suppression properties and synergistic flame retardant effect of ZnHS on flame retardant TPU composites were intensively investigated by smoke density test, cone calorimeter test, and thermalgravimetric analysis...
August 15, 2016: Journal of Hazardous Materials
V V Khaparde, A D Bhanarkar, Deepanjan Majumdar, C V Chalapati Rao
Fugitive emissions of PM10 (particles <10μm in diameter) and associated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were monitored in the vicinity of coking unit, sintering unit, blast furnace and steel manufacturing unit in an integrated iron and steel plant situated in India. Concentrations of PM10, PM10-bound total PAHs, benzo (a) pyrene, carcinogenic PAHs and combustion PAHs were found to be highest around the sintering unit. Concentrations of 3-ring and 4-ring PAHs were recorded to be highest in the coking unit whereas 5-and 6-ring PAHs were found to be highest in other units...
August 15, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
Tomasz Olszowski, Irena Baranowska-Bosiacka, Ewa Rębacz-Maron, Izabela Gutowska, Dominika Jamioł, Adam Prokopowicz, Marta Goschorska, Dariusz Chlubek
The aim of this study was to determine cadmium concentration in mothers' blood, milk, and newborns' blood from Szczecin (Poland) as a result of environmental cadmium exposure and evaluate the correlation (1) between cadmium levels in analyzed matrices, (2) between cadmium and fatty acids in those matrices, and (3) between cadmium and some selected personal variables, such as anthropometric characteristics, mothers' smoking status, and fruit and fish consumption by mothers. The concentration of cadmium in whole blood and milk of mothers and in the umbilical cord blood of newborns was determined by atomic absorption spectrometry with graphite furnace atomization and Zeeman correction...
April 4, 2016: Biological Trace Element Research
Pijus K Samanta, Abhijit Saha, Tapanendu Kamilya
BACKGROUND: Metal oxide nanostructures are being investigated widely due to their strong optical absorption, efficient photoluminescence, abundant of availability and structural stability which lead them as a possible substitute of Si based solar cells and many optoelectronic and sensor devices. Due to their non-toxic nature they are supposed to be promising materials for drug delivery and medical research. Among several metal oxides, cupric oxide (CuO) is being investigated nowadays due to their high transparency and visible luminescence...
2016: Recent Patents on Nanotechnology
Shivendu Ranjan, Nandita Dasgupta, Bhavapriya Rajendran, Ganesh S Avadhani, Chidambaram Ramalingam, Ashutosh Kumar
Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TNPs) are widely used in the pharmaceutical and cosmetics industries. It is used for protection against UV exposure due to its light-scattering properties and high refractive index. Though TNPs are increasingly used, the synthesis of TNPs is tedious and time consuming; therefore, in the present study, microwave-assisted hybrid chemical approach was used for TNP synthesis. In the present study, we demonstrated that TNPs can be synthesized only in 2.5 h; however, the commonly used chemical approach using muffle furnace takes 5 h...
June 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Érica Ferreira Batista, Amanda dos Santos Augusto, Edenir Rodrigues Pereira-Filho
A method was developed for determining the concentrations of Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Ni and Pb in lipstick samples intended to be used by adults and children using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP OES) and graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GF AAS) after treatment with dilute HNO3 and hot block. The combination of fractional factorial design and Desirability function was used to evaluate the ICP OES operational parameters and the regression models using Central Composite and Doehlert designs were calculated to stablish the best working condition for all analytes...
April 1, 2016: Talanta
Anthony L Morrison, Zofia Swierczek, Brian L Gulson
The Imperial Smelting Furnace (ISF) for producing lead and zinc simultaneously has operated on four continents and in eleven countries from the 1950's. One of the process changes that the ISF introduced was the production of a finely granulated slag waste. Although this slag contained significant amounts of residual lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn), because of its glassy nature it was considered environmentally benign. From the Cockle Creek smelter near Boolaroo at the northern end of Lake Macquarie, NSW, Australia, it is estimated that around 2...
March 2016: Environmental Pollution
Philipp Stuhlpfarrer, Stefan Luidold, Helmut Antrekowitsch
The increasing consumption of electric and electronic equipment has led to a rise in toxic waste. To recover the metal fraction, a separation of the organic components is necessary because harmful substances such as chlorine, fluorine and bromine cause ecological damage, for example in the form of dioxins and furans at temperature above 400°C. Hence, an alternative, environmentally friendly approach was investigated exploiting that a mixture of caustic soda and potassium hydroxide in eutectic composition melts below 200°C, enabling a fast cracking of the long hydrocarbon chains...
April 15, 2016: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Na Zhang, Hongxu Li, Yazhao Zhao, Xiaoming Liu
Calcium silicate slag is an alkali leaching waste generated during the process of extracting Al2O3 from high-alumina fly ash. In this research, a cementitious material composed of calcium silicate slag was developed, and its mechanical and physical properties, hydration characteristics and environmental friendly performance were investigated. The results show that an optimal design for the cementitious material composed of calcium silicate slag was determined by the specimen CFSC7 containing 30% calcium silicate slag, 5% high-alumina fly ash, 24% blast furnace slag, 35% clinker and 6% FGD gypsum...
April 5, 2016: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Hong Yang, Hengdong Zhang, Qianqian Zhou, Wei Gong, Baoli Zhu, Wenchao Li, Yang Zhou
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the lead exposure, its effects, and the relationships between biomarkers of susceptibility in the workers with low-level occupational lead exposure, and to explore its sensitivity and practical value to evaluate the health hazard. METHODS: The concentrations of lead fume and lead dust in workplaces of a lead acid storage battery enterprise in Jiangsu Province, China, were measured by occupational health monitoring method. The blood samples of 233 workers with occupational lead exposure and 76 non-occupational lead exposure were collected to measure the blood lead (Pb-B) level using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS), the zinc Protoporphyrin (ZPP) level with blood fluorescence assay, and the delta-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) concentration by a spectrophotometer, and to determine the gene polymorphism of ALAD with TaqMan real-time polymerase chain reaction...
June 2015: Chinese Journal of Industrial Hygiene and Occupational Diseases
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