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dichloromethane poisoning

Kai-Cheng Zhang, Yu-Dan Cao, Fang Yao, Li Zhang, An-Wei Ding
The embryos of model organism zebrafish were used to evaluate the acute toxicity of the extracts of Euphorbiae Pekinensis Radix and vinegar-processing Euphorbiae Pekinensis Radix, and the total terpene content of each extract was determined by using euphol as the reference standards. Twenty-four h normally developed zebrafish embryos were chosen, and 8 concentrations were adopted for each extract. Then the growth and death of zebrafish embryos were observed at 96 h after administration, and median lethal concentrations (LC50) of the different samples on zebrafish embryos were calculated...
June 2017: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
Francesco Pisapia, Manoëlla Sibat, Christine Herrenknecht, Korian Lhaute, Greta Gaiani, Pierre-Jean Ferron, Valérie Fessard, Santiago Fraga, Silvia M Nascimento, R Wayne Litaker, William C Holland, Catherine Roullier, Philipp Hess
Maitotoxins (MTXs) are among the most potent toxins known. These toxins are produced by epi-benthic dinoflagellates of the genera Gambierdiscus and Fukuyoa and may play a role in causing the symptoms associated with Ciguatera Fish Poisoning. A recent survey revealed that, of the species tested, the newly described species from the Canary Islands, G. excentricus, is one of the most maitotoxic. The goal of the present study was to characterize MTX-related compounds produced by this species. Initially, lysates of cells from two Canary Island G...
July 11, 2017: Marine Drugs
Francesco Pisapia, William C Holland, D Ransom Hardison, R Wayne Litaker, Santiago Fraga, Tomohiro Nishimura, Masao Adachi, Lam Nguyen-Ngoc, Véronique Séchet, Zouher Amzil, Christine Herrenknecht, Philipp Hess
Species in the epi-benthic dinoflagellate genus Gambierdiscus produce ciguatoxins (CTXs) and maitotoxins (MTXs), which are among the most potent marine toxins known. Consumption of fish contaminated with sufficient quantities of CTXs causes Ciguatera Fish Poisoning (CFP), the largest cause of non-bacterial food poisoning worldwide. Maitotoxins, which can be found in the digestive system of fish, could also contribute to CFP if such tissues are consumed. Recently, an increasing number of Gambierdiscus species have been identified; yet, little is known about the variation in toxicity among Gambierdiscus strains or species...
March 2017: Harmful Algae
David Pollak, Richard Goddard, Klaus-Richard Pörschke
Cesium bis(perfluoro-triphenylborane)amide, Cs[H2NB2(C6F5)6] (1), has been prepared by the reaction of sodium salt and CsF in dichloromethane and water. The compound is exceptional for a [H2NB2(C6F5)6](-) salt in that it contains a monatomic solute-free cation. Determination of the molecular structure revealed a novel C2 symmetrical conformation of the weakly coordinating [H2NB2(C6F5)6](-) anion, which gives rise to an unprecedented 16-coordinate (CN 16) Cs(+) cation in a likewise unprecedented tetracosahedral arrangement of F atoms...
August 3, 2016: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Shuang Cao, Haiqiang Wang, Feixiang Yu, Mengpa Shi, Shuang Chen, Xiaole Weng, Yue Liu, Zhongbiao Wu
TiO2 and Ce/TiO2 were synthesized and subsequently used for the catalytic combustion of DCM. TiO2 had abundant Lewis acid sites and was responsible for the adsorption and the rupture of C-Cl bonds. However, TiO2 tended to be inactivated because of chloride poisoning due to the adsorption and accumulation of Cl species over the surface. While, Ce/TiO2 obtained total oxidation of CH2Cl2 at 335°C and exhibited stable DCM removal activity on 100h long-time stability tests at 330°C without any catalyst deactivation...
February 1, 2016: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
Roberta Bonfiglioli, Lucio Carnevali, Matteo Di Lello, Francesco S Violante
Dichloromethane is a widely used organic solvent. Occupational exposure to dichloromethane is frequent and can result in both acute and chronic toxicity, affecting mostly the central nervous system, directly or through its metabolite, carbon monoxide. The effects of dichloromethane on the peripheral nervous system are debated. Here we report the case of a 37-year-old woman who was accidentally exposed to dichloromethane. In the days following the incident she experienced bilateral hypoacusis. Hearing loss regressed after 25 days treatment with hyperbaric oxygen...
February 2014: American Journal of Industrial Medicine
Mehran Fadaeinasab, A Hamid A Hadi, Yalda Kia, Alireza Basiri, Vikneswaran Murugaiyah
Plants of the Apocynaceae family have been traditionally used in the treatment of age-related brain disorders. Rauvolfia reflexa, a member of the family, has been used as an antidote for poisons and to treat malaria. The dichloromethane, ethanol and methanol extracts from the leaves of Rauvolfia reflexa showed potential acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) inhibitory activities, with IC50 values in the 8.49 to 52.23 g/mL range. Further cholinesterase inhibitory-guided isolation of these extracts afforded four bioactive compounds, namely: (E)-3-(3,4,5-trimethoxyphenyl)acrylic acid (1), (E)-methyl 3-(4-hydroxy-3,5-dimethoxyphenyl) acrylate (2), 17-methoxycarbonyl-14-heptadecaenyl-4-hydroxy-3-methoxycinnamate (3) and 1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-1-oxo-β-carboline (4)...
2013: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Ioannis Papoutsis, Panagiota Nikolaou, Chara Spiliopoulou, Constantinos Pistos, Maria Stefanidou, Sotirios Athanaselis
Atropine is used in the daily clinical practice for the treatment of poisonings caused by anticholinesterase pesticides, due to its sympathomimetic action. The investigation of the cause of the adverse effects that appear during atropine administration showed the necessity for the development and validation of a simple, rapid, sensitive, and specific method for the determination of atropine levels in serum samples. The developed method includes liquid-liquid extraction with ethyl acetate: dichloromethane (3:1, v/v) and derivatization using N,O-bis(trimethylsilyl)-trifluoracetamide (BSTFA) with 1% trimethylchlorsilane (TMCS) in acetonitrile environment...
March 2012: Drug Testing and Analysis
Isabel Sospedra, Carla Soler, Jordi Mañes, José Miguel Soriano
Staphylococcal enterotoxin A (SEA) is an exotoxin excreted mainly by Staphylococcus aureus and nowadays is the most prevalent compound in staphylococcal food poisoning worldwide. SEA is highly heat-resistant, and usual cooking times and temperatures are unlikely to completely inactivate it. A procedure for extraction of this toxin based on protein precipitation with a mixture of dichloromethane and acidified water was used before SDS-PAGE separation of soluble proteins. Finally, bands of interest were excised from the gel and in-gel enzymatic digestion was done...
May 2011: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
Saeideh Momtaz, Namrita Lall, Ahmed Hussein, Seyed Nasser Ostad, Mohammad Abdollahi
The present study was undertaken to explore the possible biochemical activities of Hyaenanche globosa Lamb. and its compounds. Two different extracts (ethanol and dichloromethane) of four different parts (leaves, root, stem, and fruits) of H. globosa were evaluated for their possible antibacterial, antityrosinase, and anticancer (cytotoxicity) properties. Two pure compounds were isolated using column chromatographic techniques. Active extracts and pure compounds were investigated for their antioxidant effect on cultured 'Hela cells'...
January 2010: Pharmacognosy Magazine
Carlos García, Matías Pruzzo, Nelson Rodríguez-Unda, Cristóbal Contreras, Néstor Lagos
This paper shows the detection of Diarrhetic Shellfish Poison (DSP) phycotoxins, using HPLC-FLD with pre-column derivatization procedure and HPLC-MS methods, in the analysis of shellfish extracts tested positive with the official DSP mouse bioassay. The shellfish samples were collected in Chiloe Island, Southern of Chile. The amount of Dinophysistoxin-3 (DTX-3) measured in the shellfish extracts were in average above the international safe limits for DSP content in the shellfish extracts analyzed. As internal control of detection and recovery, DTX-1 analytical standard was spiked into dichloromethane-clean shellfish extracts in order to calculate de extraction recovery of DTX-1...
June 2010: Journal of Toxicological Sciences
K D Alam, M S Ali, S Parvin, S Mahjabeen, M A Akbar, R Ahamed
The aim of the present study was to evaluate the in vitro antimicrobial activity of pet-ether, dichloromethane and methanol fractions of Swertia chirata (Family: Gentianaceae) ethanolic extract. Disc diffusion technique and food poison method were used for antibacterial and antifungal activity, respectively. Dichloromethane fraction from both leaf and stem showed significant antimicrobial activities against some Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and mild to moderate activity against some fungi. A large zone of inhibition was observed (19 mm) against Staphylococcus aureus...
October 1, 2009: Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences: PJBS
Hajime Hori, Toru Ishidao, Sumiyo Ishimatsu
OBJECTIVES: Thermal reconditioning characteristics of organic vapors from a respirator cartridge were studied by introducing humid air into a cartridge that had adsorbed organic vapors in order to develop a thermal reconditioning method. METHODS: Five different organic vapors (methanol, 2-propanol, acetone, dichloromethane and methyl acetate), most of which have relatively weak adsorption affinity to charcoal, were used in this study. Adsorption was carried out at a temperature of 25 degrees C...
2010: Journal of Occupational Health
Pascal Kintz, Julie Evans, Marion Villain, Vincent Cirimele
Methadone is not licensed for use in children though it can be employed for the management of neonatal opiate withdrawal syndrome. During the last 2 years, our laboratory has been asked to test for methadone and EDDP, its major metabolite, in hair from children that were admitted to hospital unconscious and where methadone had already been identified in a body fluid (4 cases) or where the children were deceased and evidence of methadone overdosage having already been established (2 cases). In all of these cases, segmental analysis revealed approximately the same amount of drug along the hair lock...
March 20, 2010: Forensic Science International
S M Rodrigues, P Vale, M J Botelho, S S Gomes
During the last few years the occurrence of a high percentage of esters of diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP) toxins has been observed in shellfish from the Portuguese coast. Most of the commercial bivalves contain DSP toxins in ester forms, either acyl derivatives of okadaic acid (OA) or of dinophysistoxin-2 (DTX-2). The stability of these toxins in shellfish tissues and in raw methanol extracts was investigated in two different naturally contaminated species, mussel and carpet shell, over a 4-week period...
February 2009: Food Additives & Contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment
Xue Hai Ju, Ying Shi, Na Liu, Rui Chen Guo, Ben Jie Wang, Xi Cui
2,3-Dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) is an orally effective chelating agent for the treatment of heavy metal poisoning. The increasing therapeutic use of DMSA has stimulated the need for sensitive and selective methods for its determination in biological samples, as well as study on pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution. According to the previously reported method, an improved method was established for the determination of DMSA in mice blood and tissues, in which oxidized DMSA was reduced by the disulfide-reducing agent, dithiothreitol (DTT), and DMSA was converted to a highly fluorescent and stable derivative by reaction with monobromobimane (mBBr) in alkaline solution...
June 1, 2009: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
Tania Portolés, María Ibáñez, Juan V Sancho, Francisco J López, Félix Hernández
The combined use of gas chromatography (GC) and ultrahigh-pressure liquid chromatography (UHPLC), both coupled to time-of-flight mass spectrometry (TOF MS), has been explored in this work for the investigation of several cases of honeybee poisoning. The procedure applied involves a previous extraction with acetone followed by liquid-liquid extraction with dichloromethane. Both techniques, GC-TOF MS and UHPLC-(Q)TOF MS, have been applied to discover the presence of compounds that might be responsible of honeybee deaths...
May 27, 2009: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
A C Adebajo, E O Iwalewa, E M Obuotor, G F Ibikunle, N O Omisore, C O Adewunmi, O O Obaparusi, M Klaes, G E Adetogun, T J Schmidt, E J Verspohl
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Clausena lansium (Fool's Curry Leaf) is used for various ethnomedical conditions in some countries, including bronchitis, malaria, viral hepatitis, acute and chronic gastro-intestinal inflammation, and as a spicy substitute of the popular Curry leaf tree (Murraya koenigii). AIM OF THE STUDY: This study was to evaluate the ethnomedical uses of the stem bark in inflammatory conditions, hepatotoxicity and to determine the anti-diabetic and anti-trichomonal properties of the plant...
February 25, 2009: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Hoon Kim
Chloroform and dichloromethane are halogenated hydrocarbons that have been used as a potent anesthetic agent or a general industrial solvent. Short-term exposure to chloroform anesthesia and long-term exposure to chloroform and dichloromethane in workplaces can produce adverse health effects, such as hepatitis, cardiac arrhythmia, and carbon monoxide intoxication. Most of the related reports, however, involve the inhalation of such substances by humans. Limited reports are available regarding the adverse clinical effects of these substances in the case of a person's immediate ingestion of them...
November 2008: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
Atsushi Kobayashi, Akira Ando, Nobuko Tagami, Masahiko Kitagawa, Emi Kawai, Masako Akioka, Eiko Arai, Toshio Nakatani, Satoshi Nakano, Yoshie Matsui, Miyo Matsumura
PURPOSE: In this paper, we report a case of severe optic neuropathy caused by dichloromethane inhalation. CASE: A 65-year-old man fell unconsciousness while cleaning a dichloromethane tank containing a small amount of dichloromethane (purity greater than 99%) and was transported to the emergency department of our hospital, after which he was treated with hyperbaric oxygen therapy. After 1 month, narrowing of the visual field in both eyes was noted and the patient was referred to our department for additional examinations...
December 2008: Journal of Ocular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
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